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Palm Beach County is a county in the state of Florida that is directly north of Broward County. According to a 2018 census report, the county had a population of 1,485,941, making it the third-most populous county in the state of Florida and the 25th-most populous county in the United States.[1] The largest city and county seat is West Palm Beach.[2] Named after one of its oldest settlements, Palm Beach, the county was established in 1909, after being split from Dade County. The county's modern-day boundaries were established in 1963.

Palm Beach County
West Palm Beach, looking northeast
West Palm Beach, looking northeast
Flag of Palm Beach County
Flag
Official seal of Palm Beach County
Seal
Map of Florida highlighting Palm Beach County
Location within the U.S. state of Florida
Map of the United States highlighting Florida
Florida's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 26°43′N 80°03′W / 26.71°N 80.05°W / 26.71; -80.05
Country United States
State Florida
FoundedApril 30, 1909
Named forPalm Beach
SeatWest Palm Beach
Largest cityWest Palm Beach
Area
 • Total2,383 sq mi (6,170 km2)
 • Land1,970 sq mi (5,100 km2)
 • Water413 sq mi (1,070 km2)  17.3%%
Population
 • Estimate 
(2018)
1,485,941
 • Density747/sq mi (288/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districts18th, 20th, 21st, 22nd
Websitewww.co.palm-beach.fl.us

Palm Beach County is one of the three counties in South Florida that make up the Miami metropolitan area, which was home to an estimated 6,198,782 people in 2018.[3]

The area had been increasing in population since the late 19th century, with the incorporation of West Palm Beach in 1894 and after Henry Flagler extended the Florida East Coast Railway and built the Royal Poinciana Hotel, The Breakers, and Whitehall. In 1928, the Okeechobee hurricane struck Palm Beach County and caused thousands of deaths. More recently, the county acquired national attention during the 2000 presidential election, when a controversial recount occurred.

As of 2004, Palm Beach County is Florida's wealthiest county, with a per capita personal income of $44,518.[4] It leads the state in agricultural productivity; agriculture is Palm Beach County's second-largest industry, after real estate development.[5]

Palm Beach County’s revenue from property taxes, sales taxes and tourist development taxes reached record levels in Fiscal Year (FY) 2018, according to the Clerk & Comptroller, Palm Beach County’s annual financial report, Checks & Balances: Your Guide to County Finances.  

The County collected $1.1 billion in property tax revenue in FY 2018, an increase of 6 percent over the previous year. Sales tax collections rose to $175.8 million, marking the eighth consecutive year of growth. Revenue from Tourist Development Tax receipts was $53.8 million, up from $48.5 million in FY 2017. Meanwhile, Local Option Gas Taxes paid by motorists for gasoline decreased for the first time in five years, partially due to higher gasoline prices, which reduced the number of miles driven, according to the Clerk & Comptroller’s Checks & Balances report.[6]

HistoryEdit

Around 10,200 years ago, Native Americans began migrating into Florida. An estimated 20,000 Native Americans lived in South Florida when the Spanish arrived. Their population diminished significantly by the 18th century, due to warfare, enslavement, and diseases from Europe.[7] In 1513, Juan Ponce de León, who led a European expedition to Florida earlier that year, became the first non-Native American to reach Palm Beach County, after landing in the modern-day Jupiter area.[8] Among the first non-Native American residents were African Americans, many of whom were former slaves or immediate descendants of former slaves. Runaway African slaves started coming to what was then Spanish Florida in the late 17th century and they found refuge among the Seminoles. During the Seminole Wars, these African-American slaves fought with the Seminoles against White settlers and bounty hunters.[9][10] Portions of the Second Seminole War occurred in Palm Beach County, including the Battle of Jupiter Inlet in 1838.[11]

 
The Royal Poinciana Hotel in 1900

The oldest surviving structure, the Jupiter Lighthouse, was built in 1860, after receiving authorization to the land from President Franklin Pierce in 1854.[12] During the American Civil War, Florida was a member of the Confederate States of America. Two Confederate adherents removed the lighting mechanism from the lighthouse.[13] One of the men who removed the light, Augustus O. Lang, was also the first White settler in Palm Beach County. He built a palmetto shack along the eastern shore of Lake Worth in 1863 after abandoning the cause of the Confederacy.[14] After the Civil War ended, the Jupiter Lighthouse was relit in 1866.[13] Thirteen years later, a National Weather Service office was established at the lighthouse complex. However, the office was moved to Miami in 1911 after that city's population began to rapidly grow.[15]

In October 1873, a hurricane caused a shipwreck between Biscayne Bay and the New River. The crew survived but nearly died due to starvation because of the desolation of the area. In response, five Houses of Refuge were built along the east coast of Florida from the Fort Pierce Inlet southward to Biscayne Bay. Orange Grove House of Refuge No. 3 was built near Delray Beach in 1876.[16]

Henry Flagler, who was instrumental in the county's development in the late 19th century and early 20th century, first visited in 1892. He subsequently purchased land on both sides of Lake Worth. Other investors followed suit, causing a small boom and bringing in existing businesses and resulting in the establishment of many new businesses. The Royal Poinciana Hotel, constructed by Flagler to accommodate wealthy tourists, opened for business in February 1894. About a month later, the Florida East Coast Railway, owned by Flagler, reached West Palm Beach. On November 5, 1894, Palm Beach County's oldest city, West Palm Beach, was incorporated. In 1896, another hotel built by Flagler was opened, the Palm Beach Inn, later renamed The Breakers.[17] He also constructed his own winter home beginning in 1900; his wife and he moved in on February 6, 1902. Flagler died there on May 20, 1913, after falling down a flight of marble stairs.

The Florida Legislature voted to establish Palm Beach County in 1909, carving it out of what was then the northern portion of Dade County and initially including all of Lake Okeechobee. The southernmost part of Palm Beach County was separated to create the northern portion of Broward County in 1915, the northwestern portion became part of Okeechobee County in 1917, and southern Martin County was created from northernmost Palm Beach County in 1925.[18] The boundaries remained the same until 1963, when about three-quarters of Lake Okeechobee was removed from Palm Beach County and divided among Glades, Hendry, Martin, and Okeechobee Counties. This was the final change to the county's boundaries.[18]

 
A montage of images of impact by the Okeechobee hurricane

Early on September 17, 1928, the Okeechobee hurricane made landfall near West Palm Beach as a category-4 storm and crossed Lake Okeechobee shortly thereafter.[19] Coastal cities were devastated, especially West Palm Beach, where more than 1,711 homes were destroyed.[20] Further inland, wind-driven storm surge in Lake Okeechobee inundated adjacent communities, particularly Belle Glade, Pahokee, and South Bay. Hundreds of square miles were flooded, including some areas with up to 20 feet (6.1 m) of water. Numerous houses were swept away and damaged after crashing into other obstacles.[21] At least 2,500 deaths occurred, many of whom were black migrant farmers. Damage in South Florida totaled roughly $25 million. In response to the storm, the Herbert Hoover Dike was constructed to prevent a similar disaster.[22] As a result of this hurricane and the 1926 Miami hurricane, Palm Beach County, along with the rest of South Florida, began suffering economic turmoil and pushed the region into the Great Depression, even before the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Housing prices dropped dramatically in the county, as well as in the rest of the country.[23]

The Palm Beach International Airport, then known as Morrison's Field, opened in 1936. After the United States entered World War II, it was converted to an Air Force Base in 1942.[24] During the war, thousands of servicemen arrived in Palm Beach County for training and supporting the war effort.[25] Following the conclusion of World War II, a number of veterans returned to the area for work, vacation, or retirement.[25] The base was closed and became a commercial airport again in 1962.[24] Migration to the county by workers, tourists, and retirees continued into the 21st century.[26]

August 28, 1949, a category-4 hurricane struck West Palm Beach with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h), causing considerable damage.[27]

The area's first television station, WIRK-TV Channel 21, began broadcasting on September 13, 1953. It went off the air less than three years later. However, NBC affiliate WPTV-TV and CBS affiliate WPEC first aired in 1954 and 1955, respectively – both of which are still in existence today.[28]

Richard Paul Pavlick nearly attempted to assassinate then President-elect John F. Kennedy while the family vacationed in Palm Beach in December 1960. On December 11, Pavlick forwent his attempt because Kennedy was with his wife, Jacqueline, and their two children.[29] Four days later, Pavlick's car, which had sticks of dynamite inside, was surrounded by police and he was arrested.[30] Charges against Pavolick were dropped on December 2, 1963, 10 days after Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.[29] Additionally, a secret blast shelter was built on Peanut Island during his presidency because escalating Cold War tensions.[31]

Hurricane David struck near West Palm Beach late on September 3, 1979, with sustained winds of 100 mph (155 km/h). The storm's winds shattered windows in stores near the coast and caused property damage. A few roofs were torn off, and numerous buildings were flooded from over 6 in (150 mm) of rainfall. Damage in the county reached $30 million, most of which was incurred to agriculture.

 
The "butterfly ballot" used during the 2000 election in Palm Beach County

The county became the center of controversy during the 2000 presidential election. Allegedly, the "butterfly ballot", designed by Palm Beach County Supervisor of Elections Theresa LePore, led to an unexpectedly large number of votes for Reform Party candidate Pat Buchanan, rather than for Democrat Al Gore. Due to the aforementioned "butterfly ballot" and the closeness of the statewide results between Gore and Texas Governor George W. Bush, manual recounts were conducted. On December 8, the Florida Supreme Court voted 4-3 to mandate manual recounts in all counties with disputed results. However, the Supreme Court of the United States overturned the decision in Bush v. Gore on December 12, allowing Florida Secretary of the State Katherine Harris to award the 25 electoral votes to Bush, as Harris's tally prior to the state-ordered recounts placed him ahead of Gore by 537 popular votes. In turn, this gave Bush victory in the national election.

Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, a Federal Bureau of Investigation investigation revealed that 12 of the 19 hijackers trained or resided in Palm Beach County during the months prior to the attacks.[32][33] Later that month, during the anthrax attacks, a letter containing spores of this substance was mailed to the American Media, Inc. building in Boca Raton. Three people were exposed to the anthrax, including Robert Stevens, a photo editor who later died after an infection induced by exposure.[32]

 
Satellite imagery of Hurricane Frances making landfall in Martin County

Several tropical cyclones impacted Palm Beach County in 2004 and 2005, especially hurricanes Frances, Jeanne, and Wilma. On September 5, 2004, Frances made landfall in Martin County as a category-2 hurricane. With wind gusts in Palm Beach County peaking at 91 mph (146 km/h), the storm inflicted structural damage on about 15,000 houses and 2,400 businesses. Six deaths occurred in the county. Jeanne struck near the same location as a category-3 hurricane on September 26, 2004. The storm also brought strong winds, with an official wind gust of 94 mph (151 km/h). About 4,160 homes were damaged and 60 were destroyed. Jeanne left about $260 million in damage in the county. On October 24, 2005, Hurricane Wilma struck Collier County as a category-3 hurricane. The storm moved northeastward, directly crossing Palm Beach County. Several locations reported hurricane-force winds, including a wind gust of 117 mph (188 km/h) in Belle Glade.[34] Over 90% of Florida Power & Light customers lost electricity. Two deaths occurred in Palm Beach County.[35] The storm inflicted some degree of impact to more than 55,000 homes and 3,600 businesses. Palm Beach County suffered about $2.9 billion in damages.[36]

In August 2008, Tropical Storm Fay brought generally minor flooding, with 7 to 9 in (180 to 230 mm) of rain over the county's eastern portions. Fay also spawned an EF-2 tornado in Wellington.[37] About four years later, in August 2012, the outer bands of Hurricane Isaac dropped at least 15.86 in (403 mm) of rain near Lion Country Safari. The consequent flooding left neighborhoods in The Acreage, Loxahatchee, Loxahatchee Groves, Royal Palm Beach, and Wellington stranded for up to several days.[38] As Hurricane Irma approached in September 2017, mandatory or voluntary evacuations were ordered for more than 290,000 residents of Palm Beach County.[39] Although the storm passed well west of the county, much of the area experienced hurricane-force wind gusts, with a peak gust of 91 mph (146 km/h) in West Palm Beach.[40] Impact was generally limited to widespread power outages and damaged trees and vegetation, though isolated property damage was reported. The storm left about $300 million in damage in the county,[40] as well as five fatalities.[41]

EtymologyEdit

The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is not native to Florida (nor anywhere else in the United States). Its presence in what is today Palm Beach County is due to the shipwreck of the Spanish ship Providencia in 1878, near today's Mar-a-Lago. It was traveling from Havana to Cádiz, Spain with a cargo of coconuts.[42] The shipwreck was within walking distance of the shore—the Florida State Archives conserves a picture[43]—and a deliberate grounding so as to obtain an insurance payout has been proposed.[44] The coconuts were salvaged, too many to be eaten, and thousands were planted.[45][46][47] A lush grove of palm trees soon grew on what was later named Palm Beach.[48]

GeographyEdit

 
View of Lake Okeechobee from Pahokee
Palm Beach, FL[49]
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
2.4
 
 
75
55
 
 
2.4
 
 
77
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3.8
 
 
79
59
 
 
2.5
 
 
83
62
 
 
4
 
 
88
67
 
 
8
 
 
90
72
 
 
6.7
 
 
91
73
 
 
7.4
 
 
91
73
 
 
7.4
 
 
90
72
 
 
4.3
 
 
86
69
 
 
3.2
 
 
81
62
 
 
2.2
 
 
76
57
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,383 square miles (6,170 km2), of which 1,970 square miles (5,100 km2) are land and 413 square miles (1,070 km2) (17.3%) are covered by water.[50] It is the second-largest county in Florida by land area and third-largest by total area. Much of the water is the Atlantic Ocean and Lake Okeechobee. The county has an estimated 526,000 acres (213,000 ha) of farmland.

The eastern third of Palm Beach County is highly urbanized, while the central and western portions of the county are suburban or rural.[51] Palm Beach County is one of three counties in the Miami metropolitan area.[52] However, the county's western communities along Lake Okeechobee, such as Belle Glade, South Bay, and Pahokee, have also been considered part of the rural Florida Heartland.[53]

The Atlantic coastline of Palm Beach County is about 47 mi (76 km) in length.[51] It consists mainly of barrier islands and peninsulas, including Jupiter Island, Singer Island, and Palm Beach Island. These islands are separated from the mainland by the Intracoastal Waterway, with much of the waterway locally known as the Lake Worth Lagoon. The main barrier landmasses are split by four inlets: the Jupiter Inlet, the Lake Worth Inlet, the South Lake Worth Inlet, and the Boca Raton Inlet. Two of the four inlets are natural, but significantly altered – the Jupiter and Boca Raton inlets – while the Lake Worth and South Lake Worth inlets are man-made, with the former dug in the 1890s and the latter created between 1926 and 1927.[54] Several other islands exist within the Intracoastal Waterway, including Hypoluxo Island, Munyon Island, and Peanut Island.[55]

Adjacent countiesEdit

Palm Beach County borders Martin County to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Broward County to the south, Hendry County to the west, and extends into Lake Okeechobee in the northwest, where it borders Okeechobee County and Glades County at one point in the center of the lake.

Natural areasEdit

In addition, the county has many coral reef patches along its coastline and has made efforts to preserve them.[citation needed]

DemographicsEdit

Census Pop.
19105,577
192018,654234.5%
193051,781177.6%
194079,98954.5%
1950114,68843.4%
1960228,10698.9%
1970348,75352.9%
1980576,86365.4%
1990863,51849.7%
20001,131,18431.0%
20101,320,13416.7%
Est. 20181,485,941[1]12.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[56]
1790-1960[57] 1900-1990[58]
1990-2000[59] 2010-2015[60]

2010 CensusEdit

U.S. Census Bureau 2010 ethnic/race demographics:[61][62]

In 2010, 4.5% of the population considered themselves to be of only "American" ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity).[61]

As of 2010, Haitians made up the largest population of immigrants, with Cuban exiled refugees second, Mexicans third, followed by Colombians fourth, then Jamaicans, Guatemalans, Canadians, Hondurans, ninth being Peruvians, and Brazilians being the 10th-highest group of expatriates. British, Germans, and Polish, which had held spots in Palm Beach County's top-10 immigrant list of 2000, dropped off the 2010 list, which now no longer has any European countries in its top 10.[65]

Of 664,594 households, 24.35% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.28% were married couples living together, 11.68% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.40% were not families. Around 30.11% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.70% (4.02% male and 10.68% female) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.97.[62][66]

The age distribution was 20.4% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 21.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.3 males.[66]

In 2010, 22.3% of the county's population was foreign born, with 43.7% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 71.3% were born in Latin America, 13.6% were born in Europe, 9.2% born in Asia, 4.0% in North America, 1.8% born in Africa, and 0.1% were born in Oceania.[61]

LanguagesEdit

As of 2010, 73.13% of all residents spoke English as a primary language, while 15.69% spoke Spanish, 4.03% French Creole (mainly Haitian Creole), 1.06% French, 0.94% Portuguese, and 0.54% of the population spoke Italian. [67]

EconomyEdit

Companies headquartered in Palm Beach County include Office Depot, The ADT Corporation, TBC Corporation, G4S Secure Solutions, BIOMET 3i, Campus Management Corp., Cross Match Technologies, NextEra Energy, The GEO Group, Globalsat Group, Bluegreen Vacations and Florida Crystals.

Although not headquartered in Palm Beach County there is a significant number of aerospace focused facilities operating in the northern part of the county. Aerospace companies with facilities located within the county include United Technologies, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Sikorsky Aircraft, General Dynamics, Belcan Engineering Group and Lockheed Martin. Many of these companies rank among the top 100 employers for the county.[68] The largest employer in Palm Beach County is The School District of Palm Beach County, with 27,168 employees, including more than 12,800 teachers.[69]

A number of shopping malls exist throughout Palm Beach County, including the Palm Beach Outlets, CityPlace, Boynton Beach Mall, The Gardens Mall, Town Center at Boca Raton, The Mall at Wellington Green and Mizner Park.[70] Formerly, the Palm Beach and Cross County Malls operated in the county, though they closed in 1997 and 2010, respectively.

In undeveloped (central and western) Palm Beach County there is significant agricultural production, especially nurseries, truck crops (vegetables), and sugar cane.[71] Palm Beach County has been called the "Winter Vegetable Capital" of the nation.[72]

Previously W. R. Grace and Company had its headquarters in unincorporated Palm Beach County, near Boca Raton.[73] Prior to its closing, the Boca Raton headquarters had about 130 employees. On January 27, 2011 it announced it was closing the Boca headquarters and moving its administrative staff out of state along with some employees.[73][74]

Previously, American Media, publisher of the National Enquirer, was headquartered in the Boca Raton. It still maintains an office there, but moved the National Enquirer to New York in 2014.[75]

Personal incomeEdit

For 2010, the median income for a household in the county was $53,242, and for a family was $64,445. Males had a median income of $44,324 versus $37,337 for females. The per capita income for the county was $33,610. About 8.6% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.5% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those aged 65 or over.[76]

TourismEdit

Tourists can visit these attractions and annual events:[77]

GovernmentEdit

The Florida Department of Corrections operates the Glades Correctional Institution in an unincorporated area in Palm Beach County near Belle Glade.[81]

County governmentEdit

The county is governed by a board of commissioners, consisting of seven commissioners, who are all elected from single-member districts. One of the commissioners is elected mayor and one of them is elected vice mayor.[citation needed] Commissioners serve staggered terms, and commissioners from Districts 1, 3, 5, and 7 are elected during presidential election years, while the commissioners from Districts 2, 4, and 6 are elected in gubernatorial election years.

Elected county officers include a clerk of courts and comptroller, sheriff, property appraiser, tax collector, and supervisor of elections. State officers serving the Florida judicial district include the state attorney and public defender. All positions are 4-year terms, requiring direct election by voters in presidential election years.

Five former county commissioners have been accused or found guilty of corruption from 2006 to 2009. A grand jury recommended a strong inspector general. This position was approved by county voters in 2010. A county judge found that the mandate covered municipal government in 2015.[82]

Palm Beach County Officials
Position Incumbent
District 1 Commissioner Hal R. Valeche
District 2 Commissioner Gregg Weiss
District 3 Commissioner Vice Mayor Dave Kerner
District 4 Commissioner Robert S. Weinroth
District 5 Commissioner Mary Lou Berger
District 6 Commissioner Melissa McKinlay
District 7 Commissioner Mayor Mack Bernard
Clerk and Comptroller Sharon R. Bock
Sheriff Ric Bradshaw
Property Appraiser Dorothy Jacks
Tax Collector Anne M. Gannon
Supervisor of Elections Wendy Link
State Attorney Dave Aronberg
Public Defender Carey Haughwout

ElectionsEdit

Presidential elections results
Palm Beach County vote
by party in presidential elections
[83]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 40.9% 272,402 56.2% 374,673 2.9% 19,137
2012 41.1% 247,398 58.1% 349,651 0.7% 4,390
2008 38.2% 226,037 61.1% 361,271 0.7% 4,128
2004 39.1% 212,688 60.4% 328,687 0.6% 3,247
2000 35.3% 152,964 62.3% 269,754 2.4% 10,504
1996 33.7% 133,811 58.1% 230,687 8.3% 32,856
1992 34.6% 140,350 46.4% 187,869 19.0% 77,032
1988 55.5% 181,495 44.1% 144,199 0.5% 1,523
1984 61.7% 186,811 38.3% 116,091 0.0% 29
1980 56.8% 143,639 36.4% 91,991 6.8% 17,300
1976 49.5% 98,236 48.7% 96,705 1.9% 3,716
1972 72.4% 108,670 27.2% 40,825 0.5% 708
1968 53.2% 62,191 28.1% 32,837 18.7% 21,894
1964 53.1% 49,614 46.9% 43,836
1960 60.3% 45,337 39.7% 29,871
1956 71.4% 35,746 28.6% 14,321
1952 67.6% 28,595 32.4% 13,723
1948 45.6% 10,996 39.0% 9,408 15.4% 3,711
1944 40.8% 7,628 59.3% 11,093
1940 38.3% 7,371 61.7% 11,884
1936 31.7% 4,478 68.3% 9,635
1932 34.1% 4,006 65.9% 7,734
1928 64.2% 5,298 32.2% 2,652 3.6% 298
1924 46.1% 1,726 41.3% 1,543 12.6% 472
1920 48.7% 1,892 38.3% 1,488 13.0% 506
1916 22.2% 311 51.7% 725 26.2% 367
1912 4.3% 31 63.2% 458 32.6% 236

Voter registrationEdit

As of February 28, 2019, the county had a strong Democratic plurality, with large independent and Republican minorities, respectively.[84]

Name Number of voters %
Democratic 396,425 42.05
Republican 266,481 28.27
Independent 269,870 28.63
Other 9,924 1.05
Total 942,700

Political historyEdit

Since 1992, Palm Beach County has supported a Democrat for the presidency. Prior to 1992, the county had been carried by a Republican every four years since 1948. Palm Beach County was the center of a nationwide media storm in 2000 when it appeared to have impacted the presidential election that year between eventual winner George W. Bush and Al Gore. A major source of controversy was the butterfly ballot used in Palm Beach County, a confusing ballot design that may have caused many voters to mistakenly vote for Reform Party candidate Pat Buchanan instead of Al Gore. Buchanan had an unexpectedly strong showing in the county.[85] In the end, Gore carried the county, but Bush captured the state of Florida by 537 votes after the recount was effectively halted by the Supreme Court of the United States in Bush v. Gore.

In the 2004 presidential election, President Bush garnered more votes in the state, but trailed Democrat John Kerry by 60.35%-39.05%. During the United States Senate election, Betty Castor (D) carried Palm Beach County against Republican Mel Martinez by a slightly wider margin of 22.26%.[86] In 2006, incumbent Senator Bill Nelson (D) trounced Katherine Harris (R), receiving about 72.54% of the vote. Then-Republican Charlie Crist was defeated in the county by Jim Davis (D) by 59.71%-38.28%.[87] In the 2008 presidential election, Barack Obama increased the Democratic victory margin from four years earlier and took about 61.08% of the vote against John McCain (R) in the county.[88]

In the 2010 gubernatorial election, Alex Sink (D) won Palm Beach County by a margin of 18.67% against Rick Scott (R). That same year, then-independent United States Senate candidate and former Governor Crist carried Palm Beach County by just under 3,000 votes, or a margin of only 0.74%.[89] President Obama, who was re-elected in 2012, won by a smaller margin in the county, with Mitt Romney managing to receive 41.18% of the vote. During the Class I United States Senate seat election in Florida, incumbent Democrat Bill Nelson garnered 55.2% of the vote against challenger Connie Mack IV in Palm Beach County.[90] Former Governor Crist, who became a Democrat, garnered 58.8% of the vote against Governor Scott in the 2014 gubernatorial election.[91]

Federal representationEdit

In the United States House of Representatives, Palm Beach County is represented by three Democrats and one Republican: Brian Mast of the 18th district, Alcee Hastings of the 20th district, Ted Deutch of the 21st district, and Lois Frankel of the 22nd district.[91]

TransportationEdit

RoadwaysEdit

An advocacy group has criticized Palm Beach County's roadways for being dangerous for non-motorized users.[92] Local municipalities are working to increase safety, but county and state authorities have been hesitant to modify designs.[93][94]

ExpresswaysEdit

I-95 and Florida's Turnpike are controlled-access expressways that serve Palm Beach county. Southern Boulevard (signed SR 80/US 98), which runs east–west through central Palm Beach County, is a partial freeway from Interstate 95 in West Palm Beach to US 441/SR 7 in Wellington and Royal Palm Beach. In the late 1980s, there were plans to construct two additional expressways in Palm Beach County. One was to be an 11.5 miles (18.5 km) toll freeway from Royal Palm Beach to downtown West Palm Beach. It would have run between Belvedere Road and Okeechobee Boulevard; necessitating the destruction of several homes and churches along its path. The other proposed route was a northern extension of the Sawgrass Expressway which was to be called "University Parkway". The University Parkway would have snaked around suburban developments west of Boca Raton, Delray Beach, and Boynton Beach; its path bordering the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge.[95][96] Ultimately, both expressways were canceled due to opposition from county residents.[97][98][99]

Major highwaysEdit

RailroadsEdit

The national intercity train system, Amtrak, offers the Silver Meteor and the Silver Star in West Palm Beach and Delray Beach.

AirportsEdit

 
Palm Beach County Park Lantana Airport

Public transitEdit

  • PalmTran provides bus service throughout Palm Beach county.

SeaportEdit

The Port of Palm Beach is located in Riviera Beach, where Celebration Cruise Line operates 2-day cruises to the Bahamas.

TrailsEdit

The Lake Okeechobee Scenic Trail, a segment of the Florida National Scenic Trail, passes through the county.

EducationEdit

Primary and secondary schoolsEdit

All of Palm Beach County is served by the School District of Palm Beach County.[100] As of 2006, it was the 4th largest school district in Florida and the 11th largest school district in the United States. As of August 2006, the district operated 164 schools, including 25 high schools, and, as of July 22, 2006 had an additional 33 charter schools, with seven more scheduled to open in August 2006.[101] Newsweek listed three Palm Beach County high schools in the top 50 schools in the list 1200 Top U.S. Schools - Atlantic Community High School, Suncoast High School and the Alexander Dreyfoos School of the Arts, all public magnet schools.[102] Private schools in the county include American Heritage School, Cardinal Newman High School, Jupiter Christian School, The King's Academy, The Benjamin School, Oxbridge Academy, Palm Beach Day Academy, Pope John Paul II High School, St Andrew's School and Weinbaum Yeshiva High School.

Colleges and universitiesEdit

Public librariesEdit

Palm Beach County is served by the Palm Beach County Library System was established in 1967 through a Special Act of the Florida Legislature, and operates as a department of county government. It is currently made up of 17 library branches, as well as a bookmobile which travels to more than 40 stops each month. As Palm Beach County continues to see population growth, the library system will also need to plan for continued expansion.[104] Presently, the county plans to build a new 30,000-square-foot branch in the Canyon Town Center, located in western Boynton Beach. This new branch is projected to be completed in 2021. The system’s Main Library is located on Summit Boulevard in an unincorporated section of West Palm Beach, the county seat. It is the largest provider of library services in the county, serving an area that is comparable to the size of the state of Delaware, with holdings of over 1.9 million items.[105] ounty c

Unlike many county library systems, including neighboring Broward and Miami-Dade counties, many of the county’s 39 municipalities continue to operate their own libraries. The county library systems works together in a cooperative system model which allows interoperation between the county system and the 13 city libraries which include:[106]

The oldest library in Palm Beach County is the Mandel Public Library of West Palm Beach, formerly known as the West Palm Beach Public Library. It began as a Free Reading Room in the city’s first church, the Union Congregational Church, in 1895 when the Reverend Asbury Caldwell began collecting books for a reading club he hoped would keep construction workers out of the city’s many drinking establishments located along First Street, or “Thirst Street” as it was known.[107] The reading club floundered when Caldwell left West Palm Beach, but in 1899 the West Palm Beach Public Library got its official start, housed in a two-story former Palm Beach Yacht Club building donated by Commodore Charles John Clarke, a Palm Beach yachtsman, with the collection of books from the Reading Room and a $100 donation from Henry Flagler. A permanent building was constructed in 1924 in Flagler Park along the Intracoastal Waterway. Two additional buildings have also housed the library – one at 100 Clematis Street, a state-of-art building complete with a 250-seat auditorium that opened to much fanfare in 1964.The second, located at 411 Clematis Street, is a four-story building in the West Palm Beach City Center complex, which houses both city hall and the library, is two and one-half times the size of the previous building. In 2012 the West Palm Beach Public Library Foundation received a five-million-dollar grant from the Mandel Foundation and its name was formally changed to the Mandel Public Library of West Palm Beach.[108]

SportsEdit

The St. Louis Cardinals and the Miami Marlins conduct their spring training at Roger Dean Stadium in Jupiter. Two teams in the Class A-Advanced Florida State League also play their home games at Roger Dean Stadium: the Jupiter Hammerheads, an affiliate of the Miami Marlins, and the Palm Beach Cardinals, an affiliate of the St. Louis Cardinals.

The Ballpark of the Palm Beaches, opened in February 2017 in West Palm Beach, accommodates both the Washington Nationals and the Houston Astros for spring training.

Prior to the construction of Roger Dean Stadium, the Montreal Expos and Atlanta Braves held their spring training at Municipal Stadium in West Palm Beach. The West Palm Beach Expos, a Single-A affiliate of the Montreal Expos, also played their games there.

Also popular are the Florida Atlantic Owls, an NCAA Division I school that participates in Conference USA. The FAU football team plays at FAU Stadium, and averaged 17,941 fans during the 2017 season.[109] The FAU basketball team plays at FAU Arena, and averaged 1,346 fans during the 2013–14 season.[110]

The Palm Beach Imperials are an American Basketball Association 2006 expansion franchise.

MediaEdit

CommunitiesEdit

 
Map of incorporated cities
 
Southeastern Palm Beach County (from Boca Raton to Boynton Beach, including Town Center Mall), seen from the International Space Station

The largest city and county seat is West Palm Beach, with an estimated population over 105,000. Additionally, the approximate urban population is 250,000 when including adjacent unincorporated neighborhoods. Boca Raton, is the southernmost and second-largest, bordering Broward and having a population approaching 90,000. Boynton Beach (between Boca and West Palm), is the third-largest city, with a population nearing 70,000 residents.[111]

The county has 39 municipalities in total.[112] The municipalities are numbered corresponding to the attached image, except for the newest municipality, Westlake. Municipality populations are based on the 2010 Census.[113]

# Incorporated Community Designation Date incorporated Population
24 Atlantis City 1959 2,005
2 Belle Glade City April 9, 1928 17,467
37 Boca Raton City May 26, 1925 84,392
30 Boynton Beach City 1920 68,217
33 Briny Breezes Town March 19, 1963 601
18 Cloud Lake Town 1947 135
35 Delray Beach City October 9, 1911 60,522
17 Glen Ridge Town 1948 219
32 Golf Village 1957 252
23 Greenacres City May 24, 1926 37,573
34 Gulf Stream Town 1925 786
16 Haverhill Town 1950 1,873
36 Highland Beach Town 1949 3,539
29 Hypoluxo Town 1955 2,588
7 Juno Beach Town June 4, 1953 3,176
6 Jupiter Town February 9, 1925 55,156
5 Jupiter Inlet Colony Town 1959 400
20 Lake Clarke Shores Town 1957 3,376
10 Lake Park Town 1923 8,155
25 Lake Worth City June 14, 1913 34,910
27 Lantana Town July 20, 1921 10,423
38 Loxahatchee Groves Town November 1, 2006 3,180
28 Manalapan Town 1931 406
13 Mangonia Park Town 1947 1,888
9 North Palm Beach Village August 13, 1956 12,015
31 Ocean Ridge Town 1931 1,786
1 Pahokee City 1922 5,649
14 Palm Beach Town April 17, 1911 8,348
8 Palm Beach Gardens City June 20, 1959 48,452
12 Palm Beach Shores Town 1951 1,142
19 Palm Springs Village July 4, 1957 18,928
11 Riviera Beach City September 29, 1922 32,488
21 Royal Palm Beach Village June 18, 1959 34,140
3 South Bay City 1941 4,876
26 South Palm Beach Town 1955 1,171
4 Tequesta Village 1957 5,629
22 Wellington Village December 31, 1995 56,508
39 Westlake City 2017 5
15 West Palm Beach City November 5, 1894 99,919

Golfview was an incorporated town in Palm Beach County from 1936 until 1997.

Census-designated placesEdit

Former census-designated placesEdit

Several unincorporated parts of Palm Beach County were listed as census-designated places for the 2000 census, but were not listed for the 2010 census:

Other unincorporated areaEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit