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Hungary is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) of the Carpathian Basin, it is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. Hungary has a population of 9.6 million, mostly ethnic Hungarians and a significant Romani minority. Hungarian is the official language, and Budapest is the country's capital and largest city.

Prior to the foundation of the Hungarian state, various peoples settled in the territory of present-day Hungary, most notably the Celts, Romans, Huns, Germanic peoples, Avars and Slavs. The Principality of Hungary was established in the late 9th century by Álmos and his son Árpád through the conquest of the Carpathian Basin. King Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. The medieval Kingdom of Hungary was a European power, reaching its height in the 14th-15th century. After a long period of Ottoman wars, Hungary's forces were defeated at the Battle of Mohács and its capital was captured in 1541, opening roughly a 150 years long period when the country was divided into three parts: Royal Hungary loyal to the Habsburgs, Ottoman Hungary and the largely independent Principality of Transylvania. The reunited Hungary came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, fighting a war of independence in 1703–1711, and a war of independence in 1848–1849 until a compromise allowed the formation of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1867, a major power into the early 20th century. Austria-Hungary collapsed after World War I, and the subsequent Treaty of Trianon in 1920 established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its historical territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of its ethnic Hungarians.

In the interwar period, after initial turmoil, Miklós Horthy ascended as a determining politician, representing the monarchy as regent in place of the Habsburgs. Hungary joined the Axis powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. As a result, the Hungarian People's Republic was established as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Following the failed 1956 revolution, Hungary became a comparatively freer, though still repressed, member of the Eastern Bloc. In 1989, concurrently with the Revolutions of 1989, Hungary peacefully transitioned into a democratic parliamentary republic, joining the European Union in 2004 and being part of the Schengen Area since 2007.

Hungary is a high-income economy with universal health care and tuition-free secondary education. Hungary has a long history of significant contributions to arts, music, literature, sports, science and technology. It is a popular tourist destination in Europe, drawing 24.5 million international tourists in 2019. It is a member of numerous international organisations, including the Council of Europe, NATO, United Nations, World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, World Bank, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and the Visegrád Group. (Full article...)

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The Hungarian flag (1949–1956) with the communist coat of arms cut out was a revolutionary symbol

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 (23 October – 4 November 1956; Hungarian: 1956-os forradalom), also known as the Hungarian Uprising, was an attempted countrywide revolution against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic (1949–1989) and the policies caused by the government's subordination to the Soviet Union (USSR). The uprising lasted 12 days before being crushed by Soviet tanks and troops on 4 November 1956. Thousands were killed and wounded and nearly a quarter of a million Hungarians fled the country.

The Hungarian Revolution began on 23 October 1956 in Budapest when university students appealed to the civil populace to join them at the Hungarian Parliament Building to protest against the USSR's geopolitical domination of Hungary through the Stalinist government of Mátyás Rákosi. A delegation of students entered the building of Magyar Rádió to broadcast their sixteen demands for political and economic reforms to civil society, but were detained by security guards. When the student protestors outside the radio building demanded the release of their delegation, policemen from the ÁVH (State Protection Authority) shot and killed several of them. (Full article...)

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Szeged (/ˈsɛɡɛd/ SEG-ed, Hungarian: [ˈsɛɡɛd] ; see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád-Csanád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most distinguished universities in Hungary.

The Szeged Open Air (Theatre) Festival (first held in 1931) is one of the main attractions, held every summer and celebrated as the Day of the City on 21 May. (Full article...)

People

  • Musicians

Béla BartókJános BihariErnő DohnányiBéni EgressyFerenc ErkelZoltán KocsisZoltán KodályFranz Liszt - Eugene Ormandy - George Szell - András Schiff

  • Painters

Gyula BenczúrTivadar Csontváry KosztkaBéla CzóbelÁrpád FesztyKároly LotzViktor MadarászMihály MunkácsyJózsef Rippl-RónaiPál Szinyei MerseIstván SzőnyiVictor Vasarely

  • Photographers

BrassaïCornell CapaRobert CapaLucien HervéAndré KertészLászló Moholy-NagyMartin Munkácsi

  • Scientists

Béla H. BánáthyZoltán BayGeorg von BékésyFarkas BolyaiJános BolyaiKároly BundJózsef EötvösLoránd EötvösDennis GaborJohn Charles HarsanyiGeorge de HevesyAlexander Csoma de KőrösLászló LovászJohn von NeumannGeorge Andrew OlahErnő RubikHans SelyeIgnaz SemmelweisCharles SimonyiJános SzentágothaiAlbert Szent-GyörgyiLeó SzilárdEdward TellerEugene Wigner

  • Writers and poets

Endre AdyJános AranyJózsef EötvösGyörgy FaludyBéla HamvasMór JókaiAttila JózsefFerenc KazinczyImre KertészJános KodolányiFerenc KölcseyImre MadáchSándor MáraiFerenc MolnárSándor PetőfiMiklós RadnótiMagda SzabóAntal SzerbMiklós VámosMihály Vörösmarty

  • Statesmen, Politicians and Military

Gyula AndrássyLajos BatthyányGabriel BethlenStephen BocskayMatthias CorvinusFerenc DeákMiklós HorthyLajos KossuthFerenc NagyImre NagyBertalan SzemereIstván SzéchenyiMiklós WesselényiVilmos Nagy of Nagybaczon

  • Sportspeople

József BozsikKrisztina EgerszegiZoltán GeraDezső GyarmatiÁgnes KeletiPéter LékóCsaba MérőTibor NyilasiLászló PappJudit PolgárZsuzsa PolgárFerenc Puskás

  • Film & Stage

Nimród AntalMichael CurtizJohn GarfieldMiklós JancsóSir Alexander KordaPeter LorreBéla LugosiEmeric PressburgerMiklós RózsaAndy G. VajnaGábor Zsazsa

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Hungarian conquest (of the Carpathian Basin) – painting by Mihály Munkácsy

The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, also known as the Hungarian conquest or the Hungarian land-taking (Hungarian: honfoglalás, lit.'taking/conquest of the homeland'), was a series of historical events ending with the settlement of the Hungarians in Central Europe in the late 9th and early 10th century. Before the arrival of the Hungarians, three early medieval powers, the First Bulgarian Empire, East Francia, and Moravia, had fought each other for control of the Carpathian Basin. They occasionally hired Hungarian horsemen as soldiers. Therefore, the Hungarians who dwelt on the Pontic-Caspian Steppe east of the Carpathian Mountains were familiar with what would become their homeland when their conquest started.

The Hungarian conquest started in the context of a "late or 'small' migration of peoples". The Hungarians took possession of the Carpathian Basin in a pre-planned manner, with a long move-in between 862–895. Other theories assert that the Hungarians crossed the Carpathian Mountains following a joint attack by the Pechenegs and Bulgarians in 894 or 895. They first took control over the lowlands east of the river Danube and attacked and occupied Pannonia (the region to the west of the river) in 900. They exploited internal conflicts in Moravia and annihilated this state sometime between 902 and 906. (Full article...)

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