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|The intervention in the Kievan succession crisis by Duke Boleslaus the Brave of Poland in 1015–1019 was an episode in the struggle between Svyatopolk Vladimirovich the Accursed and his brother, Yaroslav the Wise, for the rulership of Kiev and Kievan Rus'. It occurred when Boleslaus, Svyatopolk's father-in-law, intervened on the latter's behalf. The intervention was initially successful as Boleslaus defeated Yaroslav's armies and temporarily secured the throne for Svyatopolk. Svyatopolk, however, was unable to retain his position after Boleslaus withdrew from Kiev and was defeated by Yaroslav in the following year. Chronicles of the expedition include legendary accounts as well as factual history and have been subject to varied interpretations.
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Sosnowiec is a city located in the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union, although, historically and culturally, it is part of the Dąbrowskie Basin (Zagłębie Dąbrowskie). Thanks to rich natural resources and a strategic location on the border of Russian, German and Austro-Hungarian empires, the village of Sosnowiec grew rapidly during the 19th century and was granted a town charter in 1902. Another period of vigorous development occurred in the 1970s, when Edward Gierek, a native of Sosnowiec, served as first secretary of the communist Polish United Workers' Party. On the city's centennial in 2002, the city center (pictured) was thoroughly rebuilt and modernized. Some coal mines and steel mills continue to operate in Sosnowiec as trade and service sectors are expanding.
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