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Republic of Poland (1918–1939)Edit

Chief of StateEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Józef Piłsudski
(1867–1935)
14 November 1918 11 December 1922 Independent Provisional Chief of State until 1918.

President of the RepublicEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Gabriel Narutowicz
(1865–1922)
11 December 1922 16 December 1922
(Died in office)
Independent
supported by
Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie"
Assassinated.
  Maciej Rataj
(1884–1940)
Acting President
16 December 1922 22 December 1922 Polish People's Party "Piast" Marshal of the Sejm.
  Stanisław Wojciechowski
(1869–1953)
22 December 1922 14 May 1926
(Deposed)
Polish People's Party "Piast" Deposed in the May Coup by Marshal Piłsudski.
  Maciej Rataj
(1884–1940)
Acting President
14 May 1926 4 June 1926 Polish People's Party "Piast" Marshal of the Sejm.
  Ignacy Mościcki
(1867–1946)
4 June 1926 30 September 1939 Sanation Mościcki's government was exiled to Romania after Poland's defeat in World War II after 17 September.

Government of the Republic of Poland in Exile (1939–1990)Edit

After the German conquest of Poland, a Polish government-in-exile was formed under the protection of France and Britain. The President of the Republic and the government-in-exile were recognized by the United Kingdom and, later, by the United States until 6 July 1945, when the Western Allies accepted the Communist-led government backed by Stalin. Despite having lost recognition by other governments, the government-in-exile continued in London until the election of Lech Wałęsa as President of the Republic of Poland in December 1990 - when it handed over its formal powers and the insignia of the Polish Second Republic to President-elect Walesa in a ceremony at the Warsaw Royal Castle on 22 December 1990.

The sole internationally recognized President of the exiled government was Władysław Raczkiewicz, who took office after Ignacy Mościcki's resignation in September 1939.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Władysław Raczkiewicz
(1885–1947)
30 September 1939 6 June 1947
(Died in office)
Independent Raczkiewicz's government lost recognition by the Western allies on 6 July 1945.
  August Zaleski
(1883–1972)
9 June 1947 7 April 1972
(Died in office)
Independent From 1954 onwards, opposed by the Rada Trzech (Council of Three).
  Stanisław Ostrowski
(1892–1982)
9 April 1972 24 March 1979 Independent
  Edward Raczyński
(1891–1993)
8 April 1979 8 April 1986 Independent
  Kazimierz Sabbat
(1913–1989)
8 April 1986 19 July 1989
(Died in office)
Independent
  Ryszard Kaczorowski
(1919–2010)
19 July 1989 22 December 1990 Independent Kaczorowski resigned on 22 December 1990, upon the election of Lech Wałęsa as President of the Republic of Poland.

People's Republic of Poland (1944–1989)Edit

President of the Presidium of the Popular CouncilEdit

The People's Republic of Poland was founded under Soviet protection on 31 December 1944 and recognized by the United States and the United Kingdom since 6 July 1945.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Bolesław Bierut
(1892–1956)
31 December 1944 5 February 1947 Polish Workers' Party

President of the RepublicEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Bolesław Bierut
(1892–1956)
5 February 1947 20 November 1952 Polish Workers' Party /
Polish United Workers' Party
From December 1948, also Secretary General of the Polish United Workers' Party.

Chairman of the Council of StateEdit

In 1952, the July Constitution abolished the office of president and made the Council of State the collective head of state, chairmen of which are listed below. Real power rested with the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR), its Central Committee and its secretary general/first secretary.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Aleksander Zawadzki
(1899–1964)
20 November 1952 7 August 1964
(Died in office)
Polish United Workers' Party Died in office (cancer).
In accordance with the constitution, the vice presidents of the Council of State, Edward Ochab, Stanisław Kulczyński, Oskar R. Lange and Bolesław Podedworny, became collegially acting heads of state.
  Edward Ochab
(1906–1989)
12 August 1964 10 April 1968 Polish United Workers' Party
  Marian Spychalski
(1906–1980)
10 April 1968 23 December 1970 Polish United Workers' Party
  Józef Cyrankiewicz
(1911–1989)
23 December 1970 28 March 1972 Polish United Workers' Party
  Henryk Jabłoński
(1909–2003)
28 March 1972 6 November 1985 Polish United Workers' Party
  Wojciech Jaruzelski
(1923–2014)
6 November 1985 19 July 1989 Polish United Workers' Party Also, the First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party.

President of the RepublicEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Wojciech Jaruzelski
(1923–2014)
19 July 1989 22 December 1990
(Resigned)
Polish United Workers' Party
(to 30 January 1990)
Following the Polish Round Table Agreement between Polish United Workers' Party and Solidarity, the Council of State was abolished. Its chairman was elected President of the People's Republic by the Parliament.
Independent

First Secretaries of the Polish United Workers' PartyEdit

From 1954 the head of the party was also the Chairman of the Central Committee:

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Entered office Left office Position
Bolesław Bierut
(1892–1956)
  December 22, 1948 March 12, 1956
(Died in office)
Secretary General
Edward Ochab
(1906–1989)
  March 20, 1956 October 21, 1956 First Secretary
Władysław Gomułka
(1905–1982)
  October 21, 1956 December 20, 1970
Edward Gierek
(1913–2001)
  December 20, 1970 September 6, 1980
Stanisław Kania
(born 1927)
  September 6, 1980 October 18, 1981
Wojciech Jaruzelski
(1923–2014)
  October 18, 1981 July 29, 1989
Mieczysław Rakowski
(1926–2008)
  July 29, 1989 January 29, 1990

Republic of Poland (1989–present)Edit

President of the RepublicEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
Previous office
1   Wojciech Jaruzelski
(1923–2014)
19 July 1989 22 December 1990
(Resigned)
Polish United Workers' Party
(to 30 January 1990)
Following the Polish Round Table Agreement between Polish United Workers' Party and Solidarity, the Council of State was abolished. Its chairman was elected President of the People's Republic by the Parliament.
(1) Independent
2   Lech Wałęsa
(born 1943)
22 December 1990 22 December 1995 Solidarity Citizens' Committee Elected 1990, the first President elected by popular vote.
3   Aleksander Kwaśniewski
(born 1954)
23 December 1995 23 December 2000 Social Democracy Member of the Sejm (1991–95); elected 1995.
(3) 23 December 2000 23 December 2005 Independent Re-elected 2000, the first President of Third Republic elected twice.
4   Lech Kaczyński
(1949–2010)
23 December 2005 10 April 2010
(Died in office)
Law and Justice Member of the Sejm (1991–93 and 2001–05); elected 2005. Died in an airplane crash, which also claimed the life of the last President of the Government-in-Exile, Ryszard Kaczorowski.
-   Bronisław Komorowski
(born 1952)
Acting President
10 April 2010 8 July 2010 Civic Platform Marshal of the Sejm. Resigned as Acting President in order to run as a candidate in the 2010 Presidential election.
-   Bogdan Borusewicz
(born 1949)
Acting President
8 July 2010 Civic Platform Marshal of the Senate.
-   Grzegorz Schetyna
(born 1963)
Acting President
8 July 2010 6 August 2010 Civic Platform Marshal of the Sejm. Served as Acting President until the 2010 Presidential election.
5   Bronisław Komorowski
(born 1952)
6 August 2010 6 August 2015 Civic Platform Member of the Sejm (1991–2010), Marshal of the Sejm (2007–10); acting (2010); elected 2010.
6   Andrzej Duda
(born 1972)
6 August 2015 Incumbent Law and Justice Member of the Sejm (2011–14), Member of the European Parliament (2014–15); elected 2015.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit