Bolesław Bierut ([bɔˈlɛswaf ˈbjɛrut] ( listen); 18 April 1892 – 12 March 1956) was a Polish Communist leader, NKVD agent, and a hard-line Stalinist who became President of Poland after the defeat of the Nazi forces in World War II.
|11th President of Poland|
President of the Republic of Poland
5 February 1947 – 21 November 1952
|Prime Minister||Józef Cyrankiewicz|
as President of the Popular Council
Aleksander Zawadzki (as Chairman of the Council of State)
Wojciech Jaruzelski (After office was restored)
|President of the Popular Council|
31 December 1944 – 4 February 1947
|Prime Minister||Edward Osóbka-Morawski|
as President in Exile
|Succeeded by||Himself as President of Poland|
|Secretary General of the Central Committee of the PUWP|
22 December 1948 – 12 March 1956
as Secretary of PWP
as First Secretary
|47th Prime Minister of Poland|
3rd Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Poland
21 November 1952 – 18 March 1954
|Preceded by||Józef Cyrankiewicz|
|Succeeded by||Józef Cyrankiewicz|
18 April 1892|
Rury, Lublin Governorate, Congress Poland
12 March 1956 (aged 63)|
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Communist Party of Poland|
Polish Workers' Party
Polish United Workers' Party
|Spouse(s)||Wanda Górska (1903–1983)|
Bierut was born in Rury, now a part of Lublin, to Wojciech Bierut, a village teacher, and his wife Maria (née Biernacka). He began his studies in 1899/1900 at the public school in Lublin. The school focused majorly on religiousness & patriotism of the students. At the same time he was closely related to the church, and his parents planned to send him to the seminary. In 1905 he was removed from the school for participating in Anti-Russian language protests.In 1918 he took courses at the Warsaw School of Economics. From 1924–30, he was in Moscow for training at the school of the Communist International.
In 1930–31, he was sent by the Comintern to Austria, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. In 1933, he became an agent of Soviet military intelligence, the GRU, and was subsequently sentenced in Poland to 10 years in prison for "anti-state activities" (incarcerated between 1933–1938). The pro-Soviet Communist Party of Poland was dissolved by Joseph Stalin in 1938. Bierut avoided being caught in the Great Purge, which led to the execution of many leaders of the Communist Party of Poland in the USSR. After an amnesty from the Polish government in 1938, Bierut settled in Warsaw and worked as a bookkeeper in a cooperative.
After the outbreak of World War II, Bierut left Warsaw and via Lublin went to eastern Poland, which was soon occupied by the Red Army. Bierut spent part of the war in the Soviet Union, but was sent to Poland to join the leadership of the new Polish Workers' Party (PPR) in 1943. He headed the State National Council (Krajowa Rada Narodowa), a communist quasi-parliament established by Władysław Gomułka and the PPR, from 1944 to 1947. With Gomułka and others, Bierut played a leading role in the establishment of communist Poland.
From 1947 to 1952, he served as President and then (after the abolition of the Presidency with the creation of the People's Republic of Poland) Prime Minister. He was also the first Secretary General of the ruling Polish United Workers Party from 1948 to 1956.
Bierut died under mysterious circumstances in Moscow on 12 March 1956 during a visit to the Soviet Union, shortly after attending the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during which Nikita Khrushchev delivered his "Secret Speech", criticizing Stalin's cult of personality. His death gave rise to speculation about poisoning or suicide. 
Speculations about identityEdit
Polish historian Paweł Wieczorkiewicz posited that Bierut might have had a Soviet double (an NKVD agent) posing as Bierut from 1943 onwards with his full knowledge. Wieczorkiewicz referred to an account by Piotr Jaroszewicz made soon before his death, and published by Bohdan Roliński. The Polish President's double was supposedly shot dead by an unidentified assassin – likely another agent wearing an NKVD uniform and killed at the scene – at the Hotel Francuski in Kraków, Poland in 1947. The real "Bierut" showed up half an hour later and calmed the security according to a statement made by one of them. The assassination attempt was kept secret by the authorities. Wieczorkiewicz himself referred to this theory as an urban legend.
- Błażyński, Zbigniew (2003). Mówi Józef Światło. Za kulisami bezpieki i partii, 1940-1955. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo LTW. pp. 20–21, 27. ISBN 83-88736-34-5.
- Bolesław Bierut, Polish statesman.
- Jerzy Eisler, Siedmiu wspaniałych. Poczet pierwszych sekretarzy KC PZPR [The Magnificent Seven: first secretaries of the PZPR], Wydawnictwo Czerwone i Czarne, Warszawa 2014, ISBN 978-83-7700-042-7, pp. 48–82
- Narodowej, Instytut Pamięci. "Instytut Pamięci Narodowej". Instytut Pamięci Narodowej (in Polish). Retrieved 2018-04-27.
- "Wieczorkiewicz: Mimo wszystko Stalin nas szanował." Interview with prof. Paweł Wieczorkiewicz by Robert Mazurek, Dziennik.pl, 5 November 2007. (in Polish)
- Newspaper clippings about Bolesław Bierut in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
(President of the Polish Republic in Exile)
| Chairman of the State National Council
31 December 1944–4 February 1947
Himself as President
Himself as Chairman
| President of Poland
5 February 1947–21 November 1952
(Chairman of the Council of State)
| Prime Minister of Poland
20 November 1952–18 March 1954
|Party political offices|
(as general secretary of the Polish Workers' Party)
| General Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party
22 December 1948–12 March 1956