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List of heads of state of Poland

Poland in the Early Middle AgesEdit

See: Poland in the Early Middle Ages

Legendary rulersEdit

Most of these rulers appear for the first time in chronicles from the 13th century

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Lech I6th century6th century6th centuryLegendary founder of the Polish nationLechites (Tribe) 
Krakus I
  • Krak
8th century8th century8th centuryLegendary founder of KrakówLechites (Tribe) 
Krakus II
  • Krak II
8th century8th century8th centuryAccording to the legend, he ruled in KrakówLechites (Tribe) 
Lech II8th century8th century8th centuryAccording to the legend, he ruled in KrakówLechites (Tribe) 
Wanda
  • Wąda
8th century8th century8th centuryLegendary daughter of KrakusLechites (Tribe) 
Leszko I
  • Leszek I
  • Duke
7th / 8th centuries7th / 8th centuries7th[1] / 8th centuriesA legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and PolansGoplans and Polans (Tribes) 
Leszko II
  • Leszek II
  • Duke
8th century8th century8th centuryA legendary duke of PolansPopielids 
Leszko III
  • Leszek III
  • Duke
8th century8th century8th centuryA legendary duke of PolansPopielids 
Popiel I
  • Duke
8th century8th century8th centuryA legendary duke of PolansPopielids 
Popiel II
  • Duke
9th century9th century9th centuryA legendary ruler dethroned by Piast. He appears (without the number) in the oldest Polish chronicle, Gesta principum Polonorum from the early XII centuryPopielids 
Piast the Wheelwright
  • Polish: Piast Kołodziej
    Latin: Past Ckosisconis, Pazt filius Chosisconisu
  • Duke
9th century9th century9th centuryA legendary founder of the Piast dynasty
Son of Chościsko, father of Siemowit. He appears in the oldest Polish chronicle, Gesta principum Polonorum from the early XII century
Piast 

Semi-legendary dukes of the Polans in Greater PolandEdit

Several historians tend to believe that three legendary rulers of early Poland before Mieszko I might actually be historical persons. They appear in the oldest Polish chronicle, Gesta principum Polonorum from the early 12th century.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Siemowit
  • Ziemowit
  • Duke
9th century9th century9th centurySon of Piast the Wheelwright and RzepichaPiast 
Lestek
  • Leszek, Lestko
  • Duke
9th / 10th centuries9th / 10th centuries9th / 10th centuriesSon of SiemowitPiast 
Siemomysł
  • Ziemomysł
  • Duke
10th century10th century10th centurySon of LestekPiast 

Historic monarchs of Poland 966–1569Edit

Piast dukes and kingsEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Mieszko I of Poland
  • Duke
ca. 940 – 25 May 992ca. 960992Son of Siemomysł
First Christian Polish monarch
Misico, dux Wandalorum
Piast 
Bolesław I the Brave
  • Bolesław I the Great
    Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry (Wielki)
  • King
967 – 17 June 1025Duke: 992
King: 18 April 1025
Duke: 18 April 1025
King: 17 June 1025
Son of Mieszko I and Dobrawa of Bohemia
First to be crowned king
Regnum Sclavorum, Gothorum sive Polonorum
Piast 
Mieszko II Lambert
ca. 990 – 10/11 May 103410251031Son of Bolesław I and Emnilda of LusatiaPiast 
Bezprym
  • Duke
ca. 986–103210311032Son of Bolesław I and Judith of HungaryPiast 
Otto Bolesławowic
  • Duke
1000–103310321032Son of Bolesław I and EmnildaPiast 
Dytryk
  • Theoderick
  • Duke
after 992 – after 103210321032 /1033Grandson of Mieszko I and Oda of HaldenslebenPiast 
Mieszko II Lambert
  • Duke
ca. 990 – 10/11 May 103410321034RestoredPiast 
Bolesław the Forgotten
  • Polish: Bolesław Zapomniany
  • Duke
before 1016 – 1038 or 103910341038 /1039Semi-legendary, existence disputedPiast 
Casimir I the Restorer
  • Polish: Kazimierz I Odnowiciel
  • Duke
(1016-06-25)25 June 1016 – 28 November 1058(1058-11-28) (aged 42)10391058Son of Mieszko II and Richeza of LotharingiaPiast 
Bolesław II the Generous
ca. 1041 or 1042 – 2 or 3 April 1081 or 1082Duke: 1058
King: 1076
Duke: 1076
King: 1079
Son of Kazimierz I and Maria Dobroniega of KievPiast 
Władysław I Herman
  • Duke
ca. 1044 – 4 June 110210791102Son of Kazimierz I and Maria DobroniegaPiast 
Zbigniew
  • Zbygniew
  • Duke
ca. 1073 – 8 July 111311021107Son of Władysław I and Przecława of Prawdzic coat of arms (disputed)
First jointly with Władysław I 1098-1102
Piast 
Bolesław III Wrymouth
  • Polish: Bolesław III Krzywousty
  • Duke
(1086-08-20)20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138(1138-10-28) (aged 52)11071138Son of Władysław I and Judith of Bohemia
First jointly with Władysław 1098-1102
Introduced senioral principle
Piast 

Fragmentation of the Kingdom of Poland, 1138–1314Edit

Piast high dukesEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Władysław II the Exile
  • Polish: Władysław II Wygnaniec
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
1105 – 30 May 115911381146Son of Bolesław III and Zbyslava of Kiev
Also Duke of Silesia
Exiled by his brothers
Piast 
Bolesław IV the Curly
  • Polish: Bolesław Kędzierzawy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1125 – 5 January 117311461173Son of Bolesław III and Salomea of Berg
Also Duke of Masovia
Piast 
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211731177Son of Bolesław III and Salomea
Also Duke of Greater Poland
Piast 
Casimir II the Just
  • Polish: Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1138 – 5 May 119411771190Son of Bolesław III and Salomea
Also Duke of Wiślica and Sandomierz
Piast 
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211901190RestoredPiast 
Casimir II the Just
  • Polish: Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1138 – 5 May 119411901194RestoredPiast 
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122711941198Son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo
Also Duke of Sandomierz
Piast 
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211981199RestoredPiast 
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122711991199RestoredPiast 
Mieszko III the Old
  • Polish: Mieszko III Stary
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1127 – 13 March 120211991202RestoredPiast 
Władysław III Spindleshanks
  • Polish: Władysław III Laskonogi
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1161/66 – 3 November 123112021202Son of Mieszko III and Eudoxia of Kiev
Also Duke of Greater Poland
Piast 
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122712021210RestoredPiast 
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot
  • Polish: Mieszko I Plątonogi
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1130 – 16 May 121112101211Son of Władysław II and Agnes of Babenberg
Also Duke of Silesia
Piast 
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122712111225RestoredPiast 
Henryk I the Bearded
  • Polish: Henryk I Brodaty
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1165 – 19 March 123812251225Grandson of Władysław II, son of Bolesław I the Tall and Krystyna
Also Duke of Silesia
Piast 
Leszek I the White
  • Polish: Leszek Biały
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1186 – 24 November 122712251227Restored
Assassinated
Piast 
Władysław III Spindleshanks
  • Polish: Władysław III Laskonogi
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1161/66 – 3 November 123112271229RestoredPiast 
Konrad I of Masovia
  • Polish: Konrad I Mazowiecki
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 124712291232Son of Kazimierz II and Helen of Znojmo
Also Duke of Masovia
Piast 
Henryk I the Bearded
  • Polish: Henryk I Brodaty
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1165 – 19 March 123812321238RestoredPiast 
Henryk II the Pious
  • Polish: Henryk II Pobożny
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1196 – 9 April 124112381241Son of Henry I and Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Saint Hedwig of Silesia)
Slso Duke of Wroclaw and Greater Poland
Fell at Battle of Legnica
Piast 
Bolesław II the Horned
  • Bolesław II Rogatka
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1220–122512411241Son of Henry II and Anne of Bohemia
Also Duke of Silesia
Piast 
Konrad I of Masovia
  • Polish: Konrad I Mazowiecki
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 124712411243RestoredPiast 
Bolesław V the Chaste
  • Polish: Bolesław Wstydliwy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
21 June 1226 – 7 December 127912431279Son of Leszek the White and Grzymislawa of LuckPiast 
Leszek II the Black
  • Polish: Leszek Czarny
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1241 – 30 September 128812791288Paternal grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Maternal grandson of Henry II
Son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Constance of Wrocław
Piast 
Bolesław II of Masovia
  • Boleslaw II of Płock
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1251 – 20 April 131312881288Grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Duke of Masovia
Piast 
Henryk IV Probus
  • Polish: Henryk IV Prawy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1257/58 – 23 June 129012881289Paternal grandson of Henryk II
Maternal grandson of Konrad I
Son of Henry III the White and Judyta of Masovia
Duke of Lower Silesia
Piast 
Bolesław II of Masovia
  • Boleslaw II of Płock
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1251 – 20 April 131312891289RestoredPiast 
Władysław I the Elbow-high
  • Polish: Władysław I Łokietek
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
1261 – 2 March 133312891289Grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Son of Kazimierz I of Kujawia and Euphrosyne of Opole
Piast 
Henryk IV Probus
  • Polish: Henryk IV Prawy
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1257/58 – 23 June 129012891290RestoredPiast 

Reunification attempts in the Kingdom of Poland 1232–1305Edit

Piast kingsEdit
NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Przemysł II
  • Premyslas, Premislaus
  • King
(1257-10-14)14 October 1257 – 8 February 1296(1296-02-08) (aged 38)High Duke: 1290
King: 1295
High Duke: 1291
King: 1296
Grandson of Henryk II
Son of Przemysł I and Elisabeth of Wrocław
Also Duke of Poznań, Greater Poland and Pomerania
Piast 
Přemyslid kingsEdit
NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
(1271-09-27)27 September 1271 – 21 June 1305(1305-06-21) (aged 33)High Duke: 1291
King: 1300
High Duke: 1300
King: 1305
Son of Ottokar II of Bohemia and Kunigunda of Slavonia
Married Przemysł II's daughter Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
Also King of Bohemia
Přemyslid 
Wenceslaus III of Bohemia
(1289-10-06)6 October 1289 – 4 August 1306(1306-08-04) (aged 16)13051306Son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Habsburg
Uncrowned
Assassinated
Přemyslid 

Reunited Kingdom of Poland, 1314–1569Edit

Piast kingsEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Władysław I the Elbow-high
1261 – 2 March 133313201333Restored
Re-united the Kingdom of Poland
Piast 
Casimir III the Great
(1310-04-30)30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370(1370-11-05) (aged 60)13331370Son of Władysław I the Elbow-high and Jadwiga of Kalisz
Regarded as one of the greatest Polish monarchs
Piast 

Anjou kingsEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Louis I of Hungary
(1326-03-05)5 March 1326 – 10 September 1382(1382-09-10) (aged 56)13701382Son of Charles I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Poland
Nephew of Casimir III
Elected king and crowned on 17 November
Also King of Hungary
Anjou 
Jadwiga of Poland
1373/4 – 17 July 139916 October 138417 July 1399Daughter of Louis I and Elizabeth of Bosnia
Crowned king, 1384
Reigned jointly with her husband
Władysław II Jagiełło from 1386
Anjou 

Jagiellonian kingsEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Władysław II Jagiełło
ca. 1351/1362 – (1434-06-01)1 June 14344 March 13861 June 1434Son of Algirdas of Lithuania and Uliana of Tver
Grand Duke of Lithuania, 1377-1434
Reigned jointly with his wife Jadwiga till 1399
The longest-reigning King of Poland
Jagiellonian 
Władysław III of Poland
  • Władysław III of Varna, Władysław Warneńczyk
  • King
(1424-10-31)31 October 1424 – 10 November 1444(1444-11-10) (aged 20)25 July 143410 November 1444Son of Władysław II Jagiełło and Sophia of Halshany
Also king of Hungary, as Ulászló I
Fell at Battle of Varna, in Bulgaria, hence called "of Varna"
Jagiellonian 
Casimir IV Jagiellon
  • Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk
  • King
(1427-11-30)30 November 1427 - 7 June 1492(1492-06-07) (aged 64)25 June 14477 June 1492Son of Władysław II and Sophia of Halshany
Also Grand Duke of Lithuania, 1440–92
His successful reign ended in the final destruction of the Teutonic Knights
Jagiellonian 
John I Albert
  • Jan I Olbracht
  • King
(1459-12-27)27 December 1459 – 17 June 1501(1501-06-17) (aged 41)23 September 149216 June 1501Son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of AustriaJagiellonian 
Alexander I Jagiellon
  • Aleksander I Jagiellończyk
  • King
(1461-08-05)5 August 1461 – 19 August 1506(1506-08-19) (aged 45)12 December 150119 August 1506Son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
Also Grand Duke of Lithuania 1492-1506
Jagiellonian 
Sigismund I the Old
  • Zygmunt I Stary
  • King
(1467-01-01)1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548(1548-04-01) (aged 81)8 December 15061 April 1548Son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
Also Grand Duke of Lithuania
Forced Prussian Homage in 1525
Annexed Duchy of Masovia in 1526
Entered alliance with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Jagiellonian 
Sigismund II Augustus
  • Zygmunt II August
  • King
(1520-08-01)1 August 1520 – 7 July 1572(1572-07-07) (aged 51)1 April 15487 July 1572Son of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
Also Grand Duke of Lithuania
Replaced the personal union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) in 1569
Jagiellonian 

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1569–1795Edit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Henry de Valois
  • Henryk Walezy
  • King
(1551-09-19)19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589(1589-08-02) (aged 37)21 February 157412 May 1575Son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici
Abandoned the Polish throne three months after his coronation in order to become King of France
Valois 
Anna
  • Anna Jagiellonka
  • King[4]
(1523-10-18)18 October 1523 – 9 September 1596(1596-09-09) (aged 72)15 December 157512 December 1586Daughter of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
Reigned together with her husband Stephen Báthory
Jagiellonian 
Stephen Báthory
  • Stefan Batory
  • King
(1533-09-27)27 September 1533 – 12 December 1586(1586-12-12) (aged 53)15 December 157512 December 1586Son of Stephen VIII Báthory and Catherine Telegdi
Prince of Transylvania
Reigned together with his wife Anna
Báthory 
Sigismund III
  • Zygmunt III Waza
  • King
20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632(1632-04-30) (aged 65)18 September 158719 April 1632Grandson of Sigismund I
Son of John III of Sweden and Catherine Jagiellon
Also King of Sweden 1592-1599, titular King 1599–1632
During his reign Polish troops captured Moscow
Moved capital from Kraków to Warsaw
Vasa 
Władysław IV
  • Władysław IV Waza
  • King
9 June 1595 – 20 May 1648(1648-05-20) (aged 52)8 November 163220 May 1648Son of Sigismund III and Anne of Austria
Titular Tsar of Russia 1610–1634, titular King of Sweden 1632–1648
Vasa 
John II Casimir
  • Jan II Kazimierz
  • King
(1609-03-22)22 March 1609 – 16 December 1672(1672-12-16) (aged 63)20 November 164816 September 1668Son of Sigismund III and Constance of Austria
Titular King of Sweden 1648-1660
Abdicated
Vasa 
Michael I
  • Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
  • King
(1640-05-31)May 31, 1640 – November 10, 1673(1673-11-10) (aged 33)19 June 166910 November 1673Son of a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, and Gryzelda Konstancja ZamoyskaWiśniowiecki 
John III
  • Jan III Sobieski
  • King
(1629-08-17)17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696(1696-06-17) (aged 66)21 May 167417 June 1696Son of Jakub Sobieski and Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz
Most famous for his brilliant victory over the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683
Sobieski 
Augustus II the Strong
  • August II Mocny
  • King
(1670-05-12)12 May 1670 – 1 February 1733(1733-02-01) (aged 62)15 September 169716 February 1704 (deposed)
24 September 1706 (abdicates)
Son of John George III and Anna Sophie of Denmark
Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I, 1694–1733
Wettin 
Stanisław I
  • Stanisław I Leszczyński
  • King
(1677-10-20)20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766(1766-02-23) (aged 88)4 October 17058 August 1709Son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska
Yielded to Augustus II
Leszczyński 
Augustus II the Strong
  • August II Mocny
  • King
(1670-05-12)12 May 1670 – 1 February 1733(1733-02-01) (aged 62)8 August 17091 February 1733RestoredWettin 
Stanisław I
  • Stanisław I Leszczyński
  • King
(1677-10-20)20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766(1766-02-23) (aged 88)12 September 173330 June 1734
(deposed)
27 January 1736
(abdicates)
Restored
Defeated in War of the Polish Succession
Became Duke of Lorraine until his death
Leszczyński 
Augustus III
  • August III Sas
  • King
17 October 1696 – 5 October 1763(1763-10-05) (aged 66)17 January 1734
(in opposition)
30 June 1734
(effectively)
5 October 1763Son of Augustus II and Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-BayreuthWettin 
Stanisław II Augustus
  • Stanisław August Poniatowski
  • King
(1732-01-17)17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798(1798-02-12) (aged 66)25 November 17647 January 1795Son of Stanisław Poniatowski and Konstancja Czartoryska
Forced to abdicate when the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (A Hereditary monarchy since May 3, 1791) ceased to exist
Poniatowski 

Duchy of Warsaw, 1807–1815Edit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Frederick Augustus I
  • Fryderyk August I
  • Duke
(1750-12-23)23 December 1750 – (1827-05-05)5 May 1827 (aged 76)9 June 180722 May 1815Son of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony and Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria
Duke of Warsaw
Designated as a king of Poland by General Confederation of the Kingdom of Poland, 1812.
Wettin 

Republic of Poland (1918–1939)Edit

Chief of StateEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Józef Piłsudski
(1867–1935)
14 November 1918 11 December 1922 Independent Provisional Chief of State until 1918.

President of the RepublicEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Gabriel Narutowicz
(1865–1922)
11 December 1922 16 December 1922
(Died in office)
Independent
supported by
Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie"
Assassinated.
  Maciej Rataj
(1884–1940)
Acting President
16 December 1922 22 December 1922 Polish People's Party "Piast" Marshal of the Sejm.
  Stanisław Wojciechowski
(1869–1953)
22 December 1922 14 May 1926
(Deposed)
Polish People's Party "Piast" Deposed in the May Coup by Marshal Piłsudski.
  Maciej Rataj
(1884–1940)
Acting President
14 May 1926 4 June 1926 Polish People's Party "Piast" Marshal of the Sejm.
  Ignacy Mościcki
(1867–1946)
4 June 1926 30 September 1939 Sanation Mościcki's government was exiled to Romania after Poland's defeat in World War II after 17 September.

Government of the Republic of Poland in Exile (1939–1990)Edit

After the German conquest of Poland, a Polish government-in-exile was formed under the protection of France and Britain. The President of the Republic and the government-in-exile were recognized by the United Kingdom and, later, by the United States until 6 July 1945, when the Western Allies accepted the Communist-led government backed by Stalin. Despite having lost recognition by other governments, the government-in-exile continued in London until the election of Lech Wałęsa as President of the Republic of Poland in December 1990 - when it handed over its formal powers and the insignia of the Polish Second Republic to President-elect Walesa in a ceremony at the Warsaw Royal Castle on 22 December 1990.

The sole internationally recognized President of the exiled government was Władysław Raczkiewicz, who took office after Ignacy Mościcki's resignation in September 1939.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Władysław Raczkiewicz
(1885–1947)
30 September 1939 6 June 1947
(Died in office)
Independent Raczkiewicz's government lost recognition by the Western allies on 6 July 1945.
  August Zaleski
(1883–1972)
9 June 1947 7 April 1972
(Died in office)
Independent From 1954 onwards, opposed by the Rada Trzech (Council of Three).
  Stanisław Ostrowski
(1892–1982)
9 April 1972 24 March 1979 Independent
  Edward Raczyński
(1891–1993)
8 April 1979 8 April 1986 Independent
  Kazimierz Sabbat
(1913–1989)
8 April 1986 19 July 1989
(Died in office)
Independent
  Ryszard Kaczorowski
(1919–2010)
19 July 1989 22 December 1990 Independent Kaczorowski resigned on 22 December 1990, upon the election of Lech Wałęsa as President of the Republic of Poland.

People's Republic of Poland (1944–1989)Edit

President of the Presidium of the Popular CouncilEdit

The People's Republic of Poland was founded under Soviet protection on 31 December 1944 and recognized by the United States and the United Kingdom since 6 July 1945.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Bolesław Bierut
(1892–1956)
31 December 1944 5 February 1947 Polish Workers' Party

President of the RepublicEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Bolesław Bierut
(1892–1956)
5 February 1947 20 November 1952 Polish Workers' Party /
Polish United Workers' Party
From December 1948, also Secretary General of the Polish United Workers' Party.

Chairman of the Council of StateEdit

In 1952, the July Constitution abolished the office of president and made the Council of State the collective head of state, chairmen of which are listed below. Real power rested with the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR), its Central Committee and its secretary general/first secretary.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
  Aleksander Zawadzki
(1899–1964)
20 November 1952 7 August 1964
(Died in office)
Polish United Workers' Party Died in office (cancer).
In accordance with the constitution, the vice presidents of the Council of State, Edward Ochab, Stanisław Kulczyński, Oskar R. Lange and Bolesław Podedworny, became collegially acting heads of state.
  Edward Ochab
(1906–1989)
12 August 1964 10 April 1968 Polish United Workers' Party
  Marian Spychalski
(1906–1980)
10 April 1968 23 December 1970 Polish United Workers' Party
  Józef Cyrankiewicz
(1911–1989)
23 December 1970 28 March 1972 Polish United Workers' Party
  Henryk Jabłoński
(1909–2003)
28 March 1972 6 November 1985 Polish United Workers' Party
  Wojciech Jaruzelski
(1923–2014)
6 November 1985 19 July 1989 Polish United Workers' Party Also, the First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party.

First Secretaries of the Polish United Workers' PartyEdit

From 1954 the head of the party was also the Chairman of the Central Committee:

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Entered office Left office Position
Władysław Gomułka
(1905–1982)
  November 23, 1943 September 3, 1948 First Secretary
Bolesław Bierut
(1892–1956)
  December 22, 1948 March 12, 1956
(Died in office)
Secretary General
Edward Ochab
(1906–1989)
  March 20, 1956 October 21, 1956 First Secretary
Władysław Gomułka
(1905–1982)
  October 21, 1956 December 20, 1970
Edward Gierek
(1913–2001)
  December 20, 1970 September 6, 1980
Stanisław Kania
(born 1927)
  September 6, 1980 October 18, 1981
Wojciech Jaruzelski
(1923–2014)
  October 18, 1981 July 29, 1989
Mieczysław Rakowski
(1926–2008)
  July 29, 1989 January 29, 1990

Republic of Poland (1989–present)Edit

President of the RepublicEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Political party Notes
Previous office
1   Wojciech Jaruzelski
(1923–2014)
19 July 1989 22 December 1990
(Resigned)
Polish United Workers' Party
(to 30 January 1990)
Following the Polish Round Table Agreement between Polish United Workers' Party and Solidarity, the Council of State was abolished. Its chairman was elected President of the People's Republic by the Parliament.
(1) Independent
2   Lech Wałęsa
(born 1943)
22 December 1990 22 December 1995 Solidarity Citizens' Committee Elected 1990, the first President elected by popular vote.
3   Aleksander Kwaśniewski
(born 1954)
23 December 1995 23 December 2000 Social Democracy Member of the Sejm (1991–95); elected 1995.
(3) 23 December 2000 23 December 2005 Independent Re-elected 2000, the first President of Third Republic elected twice.
4   Lech Kaczyński
(1949–2010)
23 December 2005 10 April 2010
(Died in office)
Law and Justice Member of the Sejm (1991–93 and 2001–05); elected 2005. Died in an airplane crash, which also claimed the life of the last President of the Government-in-Exile, Ryszard Kaczorowski.
-   Bronisław Komorowski
(born 1952)
Acting President
10 April 2010 8 July 2010 Civic Platform Marshal of the Sejm. Resigned as Acting President in order to run as a candidate in the 2010 Presidential election.
-   Bogdan Borusewicz
(born 1949)
Acting President
8 July 2010 Civic Platform Marshal of the Senate.
-   Grzegorz Schetyna
(born 1963)
Acting President
8 July 2010 6 August 2010 Civic Platform Marshal of the Sejm. Served as Acting President until the 2010 Presidential election.
5   Bronisław Komorowski
(born 1952)
6 August 2010 6 August 2015 Civic Platform Member of the Sejm (1991–2010), Marshal of the Sejm (2007–10); acting (2010); elected 2010.
6   Andrzej Duda
(born 1972)
6 August 2015 Incumbent Law and Justice Member of the Sejm (2011–14), Member of the European Parliament (2014–15); elected 2015.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ dated around 700 by Marcin Bielski
  2. ^ Uncrowned - also considered titular King of Poland
  3. ^ Jadwiga was crowned King of Poland — Hedvig Rex Poloniæ, not Hedvig Regina Poloniæ. Polish law had no provision for a female ruler (queen regnant), but did not specify that the monarch had to be male. The masculine gender of her title was also meant to emphasize that she was monarch in her own right, not a queen consort.
  4. ^ Anna was crowned King of Poland