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List of Russian monarchs

  (Redirected from Tsar of Russia)

This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia. It includes the titles Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir, Grand Prince of Moscow, Tsar of All Rus' (Russia), and Emperor of All Russia. The list begins with a semi-legendary Rurik, Prince of Novgorod, sometime in the mid 9th century (c. 862) and ends with the Emperor of All Russia Nicholas II who abdicated in 1917, and was executed with his family in 1918.

Monarchy of Russia
Lesser CoA of the empire of Russia.svg
Император Николай II.jpg
Last Monarch: Nicholas II
1 November 1894 – 15 March 1917
Details
StyleHis/Her Imperial Majesty
First monarchRurik (as Prince)
Last monarchNicholas II (as Emperor)
Formation862
Abolition15 March 1917
ResidenceWinter Palace, Moscow Kremlin
AppointerHereditary
Pretender(s)

The vast territory known today as Russia covers an area that has been known historically by various names, including Rus', Kievan Rus',[1][2] the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, and the sovereigns of these many nations and throughout their histories have used likewise as wide a range of titles in their positions as chief magistrates of a country. Some of the earliest titles include Kniaz and Velikiy Kniaz, which mean "Prince" and "Great Prince" respectively but are often rendered as "Duke" and "Grand Duke" in Western literature; then the title of Tsar, meaning "Caesar", which was disputed to be the equal of either a king or emperor; finally culminating in the title of Emperor. According to Article 59 of the 1906 Russian Constitution, the Russian Tsar held several dozen titles, each one representing a region which the monarch governed.

The Patriarchs of Moscow, who were the head of Russian Orthodox Church, also have acted as the leaders of Russia from time to time, usually in periods of political upheaval as during the Polish occupation and interregnum of 1610–13.

Princes of Rus', 862–1547Edit

Parts of the land that is today known as Russia was populated by various East Slavic peoples from before the 9th century. The first states to exert hegemony over the region were those of the Rus' people, a branch of Nordic Varangians who entered the region occupied by modern Russia sometime in the ninth century, and set up a series of states starting with the Rus' Khaganate circa 830. Little is known of the Rus' Khaganate beyond its existence, including the extent of its territory or any reliable list of its Khagans (rulers).

Princes of NovgorodEdit

Traditionally, Rus' statehood is traced to Rurik, a Rus' leader of Holmgard (later Novgorod, modern Veliky Novgorod), a different Rus' state.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Rurik I
  • Рюрик
c. 830 – 879862879Founder of Rurik DynastyRurikids 
Oleg of Novgorod
Oleg the Seer
  • Олег Вещий
855 – 912879882Relative of Rurik and regent of Rurik's son, Prince IgorRurikids 

Grand Princes of KievEdit

Rurik's successor Oleg moved his capital to Kiev (now Ukraine), founding the state of Kievan Rus'. Over the next several centuries, the most important titles were those of the Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Novgorod whose holder (often the same person) could claim hegemony.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Askold and Dir
  • Haskuldr and Dýri
    Аскольд и Дир
9th century842[3][4][note 1] or 862882Rus' chieftains and members of Rurik's armyAskold: Kyi 
Oleg of Novgorod
Oleg the Seer
  • Олег Вещий
855 – 912882Autumn 912Successor of Askold and Dir as a regent of Rurik's sonRurikids 
Igor I
Igor Rurikovich
  • Игорь Рюрикович
878 – 945913Autumn 945Son of RurikRurikids 
Olga of Kiev
Olga the Wise (Saint Olga)
  • Ольга Мудрая (Ольга Святая)
890 – 969945962Wife of Igor I and regent of Sviatoslav I- 
Sviatoslav I
Sviatoslav Igorevich
  • Святослав Игоревич
942 – 972Autumn 945March 972Son of Igor I and Olga of KievRurikids 
Yaropolk I
Yaropolk Svyatoslavich
  • Ярополк Святославич
950 – 980March 97211 June 980Son of Sviatoslav I and PredslavaRurikids 
Vladimir I
Vladimir Syatoslavich (Vladimir the Great)
  • Владимир Святославич (Владимир Великий)
958 – 101511 June 98015 July 1015Son of Sviatoslav I and Malusha
Younger brother of Yaropolk I
Rurikids 
Sviatopolk I
Sviatopolk Vladimirovich (Sviatopolk the Cursed)
  • (Святополк Владимирович) Святополк Окаянный
980 – 101915 July 1015Autumn 1016Son of Yaropolk I
During his reign, Kievan Rus' was conquered by Poland
Rurikids 
Yaroslav I
Yaroslav Vladimirovich (Yaroslav the Wise)
  • Ярослав Владимирович (Ярослав Мудрый)
978 – 1054Autumn 1016Summer 1018Son of Vladimir I and Rogneda of PolotskRurikids 
Sviatopolk I
Sviatopolk Vladimirovich (Sviatopolk the Cursed)
  • (Святополк Владимирович) Святополк Окаянный
980 – 101914 August 101827 July 1019RestoredRurikids 
Yaroslav I
Yaroslav Vladimirovich (Yaroslav the Wise)
  • Ярослав Владимирович (Ярослав Мудрый)
978 – 105427 July 101920 February 1054RestoredRurikids 
Iziaslav I
Iziaslav Yaroslavich
  • Изяслав Ярославич
1024 – 107820 February 105415 September 1068First son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikids 
Vseslav Briachislavich
Vseslav the Sorcerer
  • Всеслав Брячиславич (Всеслав Чародей)
1039 – 110115 September 106829 April 1069Great-grandson of Vladimir I
Usurped the Kievan Throne
Rurikids 
Iziaslav I
Iziaslav Yaroslavich
  • Изяслав Ярославич
1024 – 10782 May 106922 March 1073RestoredRurikids 
Sviatoslav II
Sviatoslav Yaroslavich
  • Святослав Ярославич
1027 – 107622 March 107327 December 1076Third son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikids 
Vsevolod I
Vsevolod Yaroslavich
  • Всеволод Ярославич
1030 – 10931 January 107715 July 1077Fourth son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikids 
Iziaslav I
Iziaslav Yaroslavich
  • Изяслав Ярославич
1024 – 107815 July 10773 October 1078RestoredRurikids 
Vsevolod I
Vsevolod Yaroslavich
  • Всеволод Ярославич
1030 – 10933 October 107813 April 1093RestoredRurikids 
Sviatopolk II
Sviatopolk Iziaslavich
  • Святополк Изяславич
1050 – 111324 April 109316 April 1113Son of Iziaslav IRurikids 
Vladimir II
Vladimir Vsevolodovich (Vladimir Monomakh)
  • Владимир Всеволодович (Мономах)
1053 – 112520 April 111319 May 1125Son of Vsevolod I and Anastasia of ByzantiumRurikids 
Mstislav I
Mstislav Volodimirovich (Mstislav the Great)
  • Мстислав Володимирович (Мстислав Великий)
1076 – 113220 May 112515 April 1132Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of WessexRurikids 
Yaropolk II
Yaropolk Vladimirovich
  • Ярополк Владимирович
1082 – 113917 April 113218 February 1139Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I
Rurikids 
Viacheslav I
Viacheslav Vladimirovich
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083

2 February 1154
22 February 11394 March 1139Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I and Yaropolk II
Rurikids 
Vsevolod II
Vsevolod Olgovich
  • Всеволод Ольгович
1084 – 11465 March 113930 July 1146Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikids 
Igor II
Igor Olgovich
  • Игорь Ольгович
1096

19 September 1146
1 August 114613 August 1146Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikids 
Iziaslav II
Iziaslav Mstislavich
  • Изяслав Мстиславич
1097 – 115413 August 114623 August 1149Son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of SwedenRurikids 
Yuri I
Yuri Vladimirovich (Yuri the Long Hands)
  • Юрий Владимирович (Юрий Долгорукий)
1099 – 115728 August 1149Summer 1150Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I, Yaropolk II and Viacheslav I
Rurikids 
Viacheslav I
Viacheslav Vladimirovich
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083

2 February 1154
Summer 1150Summer 1150RestoredRurikids 
Iziaslav II
Iziaslav Mstislavich
  • Изяслав Мстиславич
1097 – 1154Summer 1150Summer 1150RestoredRurikids 
Yuri I
Yuri Vladimirovich (Yuri the Long Hands)
  • Юрий Владимирович (Юрий Долгорукий)
1099 – 1157August 1150Winter 1151RestoredRurikids 
Iziaslav II
Iziaslav Mstislavich
  • Изяслав Мстиславич
1097 – 1154Winter 115113 November 1154RestoredRurikids 
Viacheslav I
Viacheslav Vladimirovich
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083

2 February 1154
Spring 11516 February 1154RestoredRurikids 
Rostislav I
Rostislav Mstislavich
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 – 11671154January 1155Son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden
Younger brother of Iziaslav II
Rurikids 
Iziaslav III
Iziaslav Davidovich
  • Изяслав Давидович
12th centuryJanuary 11551155Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikids 
Yuri I
Yuri Vladimirovich (Yuri the Long Hands)
  • Юрий Владимирович (Юрий Долгорукий)
1099 – 115720 March 115515 May 1157RestoredRurikids 
Iziaslav III
Iziaslav Davidovich
  • Изяслав Давидович
12th century19 May 1157December 1158RestoredRurikids 
Mstislav II
Mstislav Iziaslavich
  • Мстислав Изяславич
1125 – 117022 December 1158Spring 1159Son of Iziaslav IIRurikids 
Rostislav I
Rostislav Mstislavich
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 – 116712 April 11598 February 1161RestoredRurikids 
Iziaslav III
Iziaslav Davidovich
  • Изяслав Давидович
12th century12 February 11616 March 1161RestoredRurikids 
Rostislav I
Rostislav Mstislavich
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 – 1167March 116114 March 1167RestoredRurikids 
Vladimir III
Vladimir Mstislavich
  • Владимир Мстиславич
1132 – 1173Spring 1167Spring 1167Son of Mstislav I
Younger brother of Iziaslav II and Rostislav I
Rurikids 
Mstislav II
Mstislav Iziaslavich
  • Мстислав Изяславич
1125 – 117019 May 116712 March 1169RestoredRurikids 

Grand Princes of VladimirEdit

By the early 11th century the Rus' state had fragmented into a series of petty principalities which warred constantly with each other. In 1097, the Council of Liubech formalized the federal nature of the Rus' lands. By the 12th century, the Grand Duchy of Vladimir became the dominant principality, adding its name to those of Novgorod and Kiev, culminating with the rule of Alexander Nevsky. In 1169 Vladimir-Suzdal troops took Kiev. This act underlined the declining importance of that city.[according to whom?]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Andrey I
Andrey Yuryevich (Andrey the Pious)
  • Андрей Юрьевич (Андрей Боголюбский)
1110 – 117415 May 115729 June 1174Son of Yuri IRurikids 
Mikhail I
Mikhail Yuryevich
  • Михаил Юрьевич
12th century1174September 1174Son of Yuri I
Younger brother of Andrey I
Rurikids 
Yaropolk III
Yaropolk Rostislavich
  • Ярополк Ростиславич
12th century117415 June 1175Grandson of Yuri IRurikids 
Mikhail I
Mikhail Yuryevich
  • Михаил Юрьевич
12th century15 June 117520 June 1176RestoredRurikids 
Vsevolod III
Vsevolod Yuryevich (Vsevolod the Big Nest)
  • Всееволод Юрьевич (Всеволод Большое Гнездо)
1154 – 1212June 117615 April 1212Son of Yuri I and Helene
Younger brother of Andrey I and Mikhail I
Rurikids 
Yuri II
Yuri Vsevolodovich
  • Юрий Всеволодович
1189 – 1238121227 April 1216Son of Vselovod III and Maria ShvarnovnaRurikids 
Konstantin of Rostov
Konstantin Vsevolodovich
  • Константин Всеволодович
1186 – 1218Spring 12162 February 1218Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Elder brother of Yuri II
Rurikids 
Yuri II
Yuri Vsevolodovich
  • Юрий Всеволодович
1189 – 1238February 12184 March 1238RestoredRurikids 
Yaroslav II
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich
  • Ярослав Всеволодович
1191 – 1246123830 September 1246Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Younger brother of Yuri II and Konstantin of Rostov
Rurikids 
Sviatoslav III
Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich
  • Святослав Всеволодович
1196

3 February 1252
12461248Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Younger brother of Yuri II, Konstantin of Rostov and Yaroslav II
Rurikids 
Mikhail Yaroslavich
Mikhail Khorobrit
  • Михаил Ярославич (Михаил Хоробрит)
1229

15 January 1248
124815 January 1248Son of Yaroslav IIRurikids 
Sviatoslav III
Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich
  • Святослав Всеволодович
1196

3 February 1252
12481249RestoredRurikids 
Andrey II
Andrey Yaroslavich
  • Андрей Ярославич
1222 – 1264December 124924 July 1252Son of Yaroslav II
Elder brother of Mikhail Khorobrit
Rurikids 
Alexander Yaroslavich
Alexander Nevsky
  • Александр Ярославич (Александр Невский)
1221 – 1263125214 November 1263Son of Yaroslav II and Rostislava Mstislavna, daughter of Kievan Rus' Prince Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold
Elder brother of Mikhail Khorobrit and Andrey II
Rurikids 
Yaroslav III
Yaroslav Yaroslavich
  • Ярослав Ярославич
1230 – 127212641271Son of Yaroslav II and Fedosia Igorevna
Younger brother of Alexander Nevsky, Andrey II and Mikhail Khorobrit
Rurikids 
Vasily Yaroslavich
  • Василий Ярославич
1241 – 12761272January 1277Son of Yaroslav IIRurikids 
Dmitry Aleksandrovich
  • Дмитрий Александрович
1250 – 129412771281Son of Alexander NevskyRurikids 
Andrey III
Andrey Aleksandrovich
  • Андрей Александрович
1255 – 13041281December 1283Son of Alexander Nevsky
Younger brother of Dmitry of Pereslavl
Rurikids 
Dmitry Aleksandrovich
  • Дмитрий Александрович
1250 – 1294December 12831293RestoredRurikids 
Andrey III
Andrey Aleksandrovich
  • Андрей Александрович
1255 – 130412931304RestoredRurikids 
Mikhail Yaroslavich
Michael of Tver
  • Михаил Ярославич (Михаил Тверской)
1271 – 1318Autumn 130422 November 1318Son of Yaroslav III and Xenia of TarusaRurikids 
Yuri III
Yuri Danilovich
  • Юрий Данилович
1281 – 132513182 November 1322Grandson of Alexander NevskyRurikids 
Dmitry Mikhailovich
Dmitry the Fearsome Eyes
  • Дмитрий Михайлович (Дмитрий Грозные Очи)
1299 – 1326132215 September 1326Son of Michael of Tver and Anna of KashinRurikids 
Alexander Mikhaylovich
  • Александр Михайлович
1281 – 133913261327Son of Michael of Tver and Anna of Kashin
Elder brother of Dmitry
Rurikids 
Alexander Vasilyevich
  • Александр Васильевич
14th century13281331Grandson of Andrey IIRurikids 
Ivan I
Ivan Danilovich (Ivan Kalita)
  • Иван Данилович (Иван Калита)
1288 – 1340133231 March 1340Grandson of Alexander Nevsky
Son of Daniel of Moscow
Rurikids 

Grand Princes of MoscowEdit

After Alexander Nevsky, the region once again broke up into petty states, though the Grand Duchy of Moscow, founded by Alexander Nevsky's youngest son Daniel, began to consolidate control over the entire Rus' territory in the 15th century, starting the story of Russia. Following the Mongol conquests of the 13th century, all of the Russian principalities paid tribute to the Golden Horde, effectively operating as vassals of the Mongol state. The Russians began to exert independence from the Mongols, culminating with Ivan the Great of Moscow ceasing tribute to the Horde, effectively declaring his independence. His son Vasili III completed the task of uniting all of Russia by eliminating the last few independent states in the 1520s.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Daniel Aleksandrovich
  • Даниил Александрович
1261

4 March 1303
12834 March 1303Son of Alexander Nevsky and MariaRurikids 
Yuri Danilovich
  • Юрий Данилович
1281

21 November 1325
4 March 130321 November 1325Son of Daniel
Elder brother of Ivan I
Rurikids 
Ivan I
Ivan Danilovich (Ivan Kalita)
  • Иван Данилович (Иван Калита)
1288 – 134021 November 132531 March 1340He was a successor of Alexander of Suzdal as Grand Prince of Vladimir and a successor of Yury of Moscow as Grand Prince of MoscowRurikids 
Simeon Ivanovich
Simeon the Proud
  • Семён Иванович (Семён Гордый)
7 November 1316

27 April 1353
31 March 134027 April 1353Son of Ivan I and HelenaRurikids 
Ivan II
Ivan Ivanovich (Ivan the Red)
  • Иван Иванович (Иван Красный)
30 March 1326

13 November 1359
27 April 135313 November 1359Son of Ivan I and Helena
Younger brother of Simeon of Moscow
Rurikids 
Dmitry Ivanovich
Dmitry of the Don
  • Дмитрий Иванович (Дмитрий Донской)
12 October 1350

19 May 1389
13 November 135919 May 1389Son of Ivan II and Alexandra Vasilyevna VelyaminovaRurikids 
Vasily I
Vasily Dmitriyevich
  • Василий Дмитриевич
30 December 1371

27 February 1425
19 May 138927 February 1425Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia DmitriyevnaRurikids 
Vasily II
Vasily Vasilyevich (Vasily the Dark)
  • Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)
10 March 1415

27 March 1462
27 February 142530 March 1434Son of Vasily I and Sophia of LithuaniaRurikids 
Yuri Dmitriyevich
  • Юрий Дмитриевич
26 November 1374

5 June 1434
31 March 14345 June 1434Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia Dmitriyevna
Younger brother of Vasily I
Rurikids 
Vasily Yuryevich
Vasily the Squint
  • Василий Юрьевич (Василий Косой)
1421 – 14485 June 14341435Son of Yury of ZvenigorodRurikids 
Vasily II
Vasily Vasilyevich (Vasily the Dark)
  • Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)
10 March 1415

27 March 1462
14351446RestoredRurikids 
Dmitry Yuryevich
Dmitry Shemyaka
  • Дмитрий Юрьевич (Дмитрий Шемяка)
15th century144626 March 1447Son of Yury of ZvenigorodRurikids 
Vasily II
Vasily Vasilyevich (Vasily the Dark)
  • Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)
10 March 1415

27 March 1462
27 February 144727 March 1462RestoredRurikids 
Ivan III
Ivan Vasilyevich (Ivan the Great)
  • Иван Васильевич (Иван Великий)
22 January 1440

6 November 1505
5 April 14626 November 1505Son of Vasily II and Maria of BorovskRurikids 
Vasily III
Vasily Ivanovich
  • Василий Иванович
25 March 1479

13 December 1533
6 November 150513 December 1533Son of Ivan III and Sophia PaleologueRurikids 
Ivan IV
Ivan Vasilyevich (Ivan the Terrible)
  • Иван Васильевич (Иван Грозный)
25 August 1530

28 March 1584
13 December 153326 January 1547Son of Vasily III and Elena GlinskayaRurikids 

Tsars of Russia, 1547–1721Edit

Vasili's son Ivan the Terrible formalized the situation by assuming the title Tsar of All Rus' in 1547, when the state of Russia (apart from its constituent principalities) came into formal being.

Dates are listed in the Old Style, which continued to be used in Russia until the revolution.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Ivan IV
Ivan Vasilyevich (Ivan the Terrible)
  • Иван Васильевич (Иван Грозный)
25 August 1530

28 March 1584
26 January 154728 March 1584Son of Vasily III and Elena GlinskayaRurikids 
Simeon Bekbulatovich
  • Симеон Бекбулатович
16th/17th centuries15751576Muslim-born Khan of Qasim Khanate
Proclaimed Grand Prince of All Rus' in 1575 and abdicated within a year
Qasim 
Feodor I
Feodor Ivanovich
  • Фёдор Иванович
31 May 1557

17 January 1598
28 March 158417 January 1598Son of Ivan IV and Anastasia RomanovnaRurikids 

Following the death of the Feodor I, the son of Ivan the Terrible and the last of the Rurik dynasty, Russia fell into a succession crisis known as the Time of Troubles. As Feodor left no male heirs, the Russian Zemsky Sobor (feudal parliament) elected his brother-in-law Boris Godunov to be Tsar. Devastated by famine, rule under Boris descended into anarchy. A series of impostors, known as the False Dmitriys, each claimed to be Feodor's long deceased younger brother; however, only the first impostor ever legitimately held the title of Tsar. A distant Rurikid cousin, Vasili Shuyskiy, also took power for a time. During this period, foreign powers deeply involved themselves in Russian politics, under the leadership of the Vasa monarchs of Sweden and Poland-Lithuania, including Sigismund III Vasa and his son Władysław IV Vasa. As a child, Władysław was even chosen as Tsar by the Seven Boyars, though he was prevented by his father from formally taking the throne. The Time of Troubles is considered to have ended with the election of Michael Romanov to the throne, who established the Romanov dynasty that would rule Russia until the Russian Revolution of 1917.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Boris Godunov
  • Борис Годунов
c. 1551

13 April 1605
21 February 159813 April 1605Brother-in-law of Feodor I
Elected by Zemsky Sobor
Godunov 
Feodor II
Feodor Borisovich
  • Фёдор Борисович
1589

20 June 1605
13 April 160510 June 1605Son of Boris Godunov and Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya
Murdered
Godunov 
False Dmitriy I
Dmitriy Ivanovich
  • Дмитрий Иванович
c. 1581

17 May 1606
10 June 160517 May 1606Claiming to be son of Ivan IV, he was the only imposter to actually sit on the throne of a major power
Backed by Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Murdered.
Rurikids
(claimed)
 
Vasily IV
Vasily Ivanovich (Vasily Shuysky)
  • Василий Иванович (Василий Шуйский)
22 September 1552

12 September 1612
19 May 160617 July 1610
(deposed)
Ninth generation descendant of Andrei II in the male lineShuysky 
Władysław IV Vasa
  • Владислав IV Ваза
9 June 1595

20 May 1648
6 September 1610November 1612
(deposed)
14 June 1634
(resigned his claim)
King of Poland
Son of Sigismund III Vasa and Anne of Austria, Queen of Poland
Vasa 

The Time of Troubles came to a close with the election of Michael Romanov as Tsar in 1613. Michael officially reigned as Tsar, though his father, the Patriarch Philaret (died 1633) initially held the real power. However, Michael's descendants would rule Russia, first as Tsars and later as Emperors, until the Russian Revolution of 1917. Peter the Great (reigned 1682–1725), a grandson of Michael Romanov, reorganized the Russian state along more Western lines, establishing the Russian Empire in 1721.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Michael I
Michael Feodorovich
  • Михаил Фёдорович
12 July 1596

12 July 1645
26 July 161312 July 1645Founder of Romanov Dynasty
First cousin once removed of Feodor I
Romanov 
Alexis I
Alexis Mikhaylovich (Alexis the Quiet)
  • Алексей I Михайлович (Алексей Тишайший)
9 May 1629

29 January 1676
12 July 164529 January 1676Son of Michael I and Eudoxia StreshnevaRomanov 
Feodor III
Feodor Alekseyevich
  • Фёдор III Алексеевич
9 June 1661

7 May 1682
29 January 16767 May 1682Son of Alexis I and Maria Ilyinichna MiloslavskayaRomanov 
Sophia Alekseyevna
  • Софья Алексеевна
17 September 1657

3 July 1704
17 May 168227 August 1689Daughter of Alexis I and Maria Miloslavskaya
Elder sister of Feodor III
She ruled as a regent of Ivan V and Peter I
Romanov 
Ivan V
Ivan Alekseyevich
  • Иван Алексеевич
6 September 1666

8 February 1696
2 June 16828 February 1696Son of Alexis I and Maria Miloslavskaya
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna and Feodor III
He "ruled" jointly with Peter I, but in fact had no power.
Romanov 
Peter I
Peter Alekseyevich (Peter the Great)
  • Пётр I Алексеевич (Пётр Великий)
9 June 1672

8 February 1725
2 June 16822 November 1721Son of Alexis I and Natalya Naryshkina
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna, Feodor III and Ivan V
He ruled jointly with Ivan V
Regarded as one of the greatest Russian monarchs
Romanov 

Emperors of Russia, 1721–1917Edit

(Also Grand Princes of Finland from 1809 until 1917; and Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1917)

The Empire of Russia was declared by Peter the Great in 1721. Officially, Russia would be ruled by the Romanov dynasty until the Russian Revolution of 1917. However, direct male descendants of Michael Romanov came to an end in 1730 with the death of Peter II of Russia, grandson of Peter the Great. The throne passed to Anna, a niece of Peter the Great, and after the brief rule of her niece's infant son Ivan VI, the throne was seized by Elizabeth, a daughter of Peter the Great. Elizabeth would be the last of the direct Romanovs to rule Russia. Elizabeth declared her nephew, Peter, to be her heir. Peter (who would rule as Peter III) spoke little Russian, having been a German prince of the House of Holstein-Gottorp before arriving in Russia to assume the Imperial title. He and his German wife Sophia changed their name to Romanov upon inheriting the throne. Peter was ill-liked, and he was assassinated within six months of assuming the throne, in a coup orchestrated by his wife, who became Empress in her own right and ruled as Catherine the Great (both Peter and Catherine were descended from the House of Rurik). Following the confused successions of the descendants of Peter the Great, Catherine's son Paul I established clear succession laws which governed the rules of primogeniture over the Imperial throne until the fall of the Empire in 1917.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Peter I
Peter Alekseyevich (Peter the Great)
  • Пётр I Алексеевич (Пётр Великий)
9 June 1672

8 February 1725
2 November 17218 February 1725Son of Alexis I and Natalya Naryshkina
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna, Feodor III and Ivan V
He ruled jointly with Ivan V
Regarded as one of the greatest Russian monarchs
Romanov 
Catherine I
Yekaterina Alekseyevna
  • Екатерина I Алексеевна
15 April 1684

17 May 1727
8 February 172517 May 1727Wife of Peter ISkowroński 
Peter II
Peter Alekseyevich
  • Пётр II Алексеевич
23 October 1715

30 January 1730
18 May 172730 January 1730Grandson of Peter I via the murdered Tsesarevich Alexei
Last male of the direct Romanov line
Romanov 
Anna Ioannovna
  • Анна Иоанновна
7 February 1693

28 October 1740
13 February 173028 October 1740Daughter of Ivan VRomanov 
Anna Leopoldovna
  • Анна Леопольдовна
18 December 1718

19 March 1746
28 October 17406 December 1741Regent for her son Ivan VI
Deposed by Empress Elizabeth and Imprisoned
Mecklenburg-Schwerin 
Ivan VI
Ivan Antonovich
  • Иван VI Антонович
23 August 1740

16 July 1764
28 October 17406 December 1741Great-grandson of Ivan V
Deposed as a baby, imprisoned and later murdered
Brunswick-Bevern 
Elizabeth
Yelizaveta Petrovna
  • Елизавета Петровна
29 December 1709

5 January 1762
6 December 17415 January 1762Daughter of Peter I and Catherine IRomanov 
Peter III
Peter Feodorovich
  • Пётр III Фëдорович
21 February 1728

17 July 1762
9 January 17629 July 1762Grandson of Peter I
Nephew of Elizabeth
Murdered
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 
Catherine II
Yekaterina Alekseyevna (Catherine the Great)
  • Екатерина II Алексеевна (Екатерина Великая)
2 May 1729

17 November 1796
9 July 176217 November 1796Wife of Peter IIIAscania, with Rurikid descent 
Paul I
Pavel Petrovich
  • Павел I Петрович
1 October 1754

23 March 1801
17 November 179623 March 1801Son of Peter III and Catherine II
Assassinated
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 
Alexander I
Alexander Pavlovich (Alexander the Blessed)
  • Александр I Павлович (Александр Благословенный)
23 December 1777

1 December 1825
23 March 18011 December 1825Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
First Romanov King of Poland and Grand Prince of Finland
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 
Constantine Pavlovich
  • Константин Павлович
27 April 1779

27 June 1831
1 December 182526 December 1825Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Younger brother of Alexander I
Uncrowned (abdicated the throne)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 
Nicholas I
Nikolay Pavlovich
  • Николай I Павлович
6 July 1796

2 March 1855
26 December 18252 March 1855Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Younger brother of Alexander I and Constantine Pavlovich
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 
Alexander II
Alexander Nikolayevich (Alexander the Liberator)
  • Александр II Николаевич (Александр Освободитель)
29 April 1818

13 March 1881
2 March 185513 March 1881Son of Nicholas I and Alexandra Feodrovna
Nephew of Alexander I
Assassinated
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 
Alexander III
Alexander Aleksandrovich (Alexander the Peacemaker)
  • Александр III Александрович (Александр Миротворец)
10 March 1845

1 November 1894
13 March 18811 November 1894Son of Alexander II and Maria AlexandrovnaHolstein-Gottorp-Romanov 
Nicholas II
Nikolay Aleksandrovich (Nicholas the Bloody)
  • Николай II Александрович (Николай Кровавый)
18 May 1868

17 July 1918
1 November 189415 March 1917Son of Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna
Abdicated the throne during the February Revolution
Executed by Bolsheviks
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 

Nominal emperors after Nicholas IIEdit

Dates after 1918 are in the New Style.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Michael II
Michael Aleksandrovich
  • Михаил II Александрович
4 December 1878

13 June 1918
15 March 191716 March 1917Son of Alexander III
Abdicated after a nominal reign of only 18 hours,
ending dynastic rule in Russia[5]
He is not usually recognised as a tsar, as Russian law did not allow Nicholas II to disinherit his son[6]
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 
Nikolai Nikolaevich
  • Николай Николаевич
  • (nominal)
6 November 1856

5 January 1929
8 August 192225 October 1922Grandson of Nicholas I
Proclaimed Emperor of Russia by the Zemsky Sobor of the Provisional Priamurye Government
His nominal rule came to an end when the areas controlled by the Provisional Priamurye Government were overrun by the communists
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 
Kirill Vladimirovich
  • Кири́лл Влади́мирович Рома́нов
30 September 1876

12 October 1938
31 August 192412 October 1938Grandson of Alexander II
Claimed the title Emperor of All the Russias while in exile[7]
Recognised by a congress of legitimists delegates in Paris in 1926[8]
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 

Leaders after the RevolutionEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ According to the Tale of Bygone Years, the date is not clearly identified.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Russian history: Kievan Rus". Russiapedia. RT. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Glenn E. Curtis (1996). "Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods". Russia: A Country Study. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  3. ^ Suszko, Henryk (2003). Latopis hustyński. Opracowanie, przekład i komentarze. Slavica Wratislaviensia CXXIV. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. ISBN 83-229-2412-7.
  4. ^ Tolochko, Oleksiy (2010). The Hustyn' Chronicle. (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Texts) ISBN 978-1-932650-03-7.
  5. ^ Montefiore, Simon S. (2016) The Romanovs, 1613–1918 London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, pp. 619–621
  6. ^ "The Abdication of Nicholas II: 100 Years Later". The Russian Legitimist. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  7. ^ Almanach de Gotha (182nd ed.). Almanach de Gotha. 1998. p. 214.
  8. ^ Shain, Yossi The Frontier of Loyalty: Political Exiles in the Age of the Nation-State University of Michigan Press (2005) p.69.

External linksEdit