The nation of Russia has designed and used various flags throughout history. Listed in this article are flags — federal, administrative, military, etc. — used between the time of the Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721), Russian Empire (1721–1917) and today's Russian Federation (1991–present day). Also included are flags from the USSR (1922–1991), a country that existed as a federal union of 15 distinct national republics, including the Russian SFSR (1917–1991).

Flags of the Russian Federation edit

State flag edit

Flag Date Use Description
  1991–1993   State flag Flag of the Russian Federation from 12 December 1991 to 11 December 1993. Previously used by anti-GKChP protesters during the 1991 August Coup and then as flag of the Russian SFSR during the final days of the USSR. Still included in the State Heraldic Register.
  1993–present Proportion changed from 1:2 to 2:3. First, the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation "On the State Flag of the Russian Federation", adopted on December 11, 1993, then Constitutional law "On the State Flag of the Russian Federation" adopted on 25 December 2000.

Presidential flags edit

Standard Date Use Description
1994–present Presidential Standard Current Presidential Standard of the Russian Federation.
  1994–present Flag of the President as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces

Military flags edit

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, for a brief time, many Soviet era flags were still in use until new designs replaced them in the early 2000s. The new flags of the Russian Armed Forces are heavily inspired by the regimental banners and flags of the late Imperial Russian Army and Navy.

Flags of service branches edit

Flag Date Use Description
  2003–present Flag of the Ministry of Defence
  2004–present Flag of the Ground Forces
  2000–present Flag of the Navy In 1992, the ensign of the Imperial Russian Navy was revived and replaced the Soviet era Naval Flag, however the new design used a lighter shade of blue, rather than the traditional dark blue. On December 29, 2000, the flag was changed to its original historical appearance with dark blue.
  2015–present Flag of the Aerospace Forces
  2004–present Flag of the Airborne Forces A bicolour of horizontal stripes, blue and green defaced with the Russian Airborne Forces emblem.
  2004–present Flag of the Strategic Missile Forces

Flags of the Ground Forces edit

Flags of the arms of the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation

Flag Date Use Description
  2005– Flag of the Engineer Troops
  2005– Flag of the Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protection Troops
  2006– Flag of the Missile Troops and Artillery
  2007– Flag of the Air Defence Troops of the Ground Forces Not to be confused with the Air Defence Troops of the Aerospace Forces.
  2007– Flag of the Communication Troops
  2005– Flag of the Main Directorate of the General Staff
  2007– Flag of the Electronic Warfare Troops
  2007– Flag of the Railway Troops
  ?– Flag of the Special Operations Forces

Flags of the Aerospace Forces edit

The Aerospace Forces are a branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, it has three arms, the Russian Air Force, the Air Defense Forces, and the Russian Space Forces. The Air Defense Forces does not have a flag.

Flag Date Use Description
  2004– Flag of the Air Force
  2015– Flag of the Space Forces Light blue field with the Russian Space Forces emblem (Space Forces Circumflex).

Flags of the Rear of the Armed Forces edit

Flag Date Use Description
  2004–2009 Flag of the Rear of the Armed Forces
  2010– Flag of the Logistical Support of the Russian Armed Forces

Military district flags edit

Flag Date Use Description
  2016– Flag of Western Military District
  2016– Flag of Southern Military District
  2016– Flag of Central Military District
  2016– Flag of Eastern Military District

Banners of the Armed Forces edit

Each branch of the Armed Forces has a representative banner, one for the Ground Forces, the Aerospace Forces, the Navy, and one to represent the entire Armed Forces as a whole.

Obverse (Front) Reverse (Back) Date Use Description
    2000–2003 Banner of the Armed Forces The first banner of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation was introduced on 8 December 2000, later confirmed by Federation Council on 20 December and signed by Vladimir Putin on 29 December. It was a plain red field, it symbolized the traditional red color of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union.
    2003– The present banner of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation is introduced under a resolution by State Duma in June 2003. This banner consists of two double-headed eagles, on the obverse side is the coat of arms of the Russian Federation, and on the reverse side is the middle emblem of the armed forces of the Russian Federation. The banner follows the principles and format of historically older Russian military flags that were last used prior to the Russian Revolution in 1917. It also contains four stars in each corner of the banner to symbolize the heritage of the Soviet Armed Forces. The reverse side also contains two pieces of text written in old style Slavic typeface, the top side of the banner contains the inscription "Fatherland" ("Отечество") and on the bottom side the inscription reads "Duty [and] Honor" ("Долг Честь").[1]
    2002– Banner of the Ground Forces The banner of the Russian Ground Forces was introduced by decree No. 141 on February 4, 2002, by Vladimir Putin. It is similar to the above banner, but doesn't have stars and inscriptions, on the reverse side is the middle emblem of the Russian Ground Forces.
    2002– Banner of the Air Force/Aerospace Forces The banner of the Russian Air Forces was introduced by decree No. 141 on February 4, 2002, by Vladimir Putin.[2] It became the banner of the newly created Aerospace Forces branch, which saw the merger between the Russian Air Forces and the Air Defence Forces on August 1, 2015.
    2000– Banner of the Navy The ensign of the Russian Navy is used as the banner of the Russian Navy. On December 29, 2000, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a federal law making the naval ensign of the Russian navy the official banner of the Russian Navy.[3]

Victory Banner edit

The Victory Banner was a historical banner raised atop of the Reichstag building in Berlin, by the Red Army, on May 1, 1945. It signified the victory over Nazi Germany, and served as the main symbol of victory of the Soviet people. It was amended in Russian law in 1996, but with a new design to distance the new Russian state from any usage of Communist iconography. In 2007, following pressure from Red Army veterans, the original Victory Banner design replaced the 1996 variant, and has since then served its usage in virtually every single Victory Day parade held across Russia.

Banner Date Use Description
  1996–2007   Symbol of Victory Banner The Symbol of Victory Banner was an alternative to using the historic Victory Banner, which contained the hammer and sickle.
  2007–     Banner of Victory The Banner of Victory raised on the Reichstag in 1945. Replicas of the Victory Banner can be used alongside the national flag on Victory Day.

Command Standards edit

Standard Date Use Description
  2003– Standard of the Minister of Defence
  ?– Standard of the Chief of the General Staff
  ?– Standard of the Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces
  ?– Standard of the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy
  2015– Standard of the Commander-in-Chief of the Aerospace Forces
  ?– Standard of the Commander of the Air Force – Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Aerospace Forces
  ?– Standard of the Commander of the Strategic Missile Forces
  ?– Standard of the Commander of the Space Forces
  ?– Standard of the Commander of the Airborne Forces

Paramilitary flags edit

This section covers flags of the various government paramilitary organizations which are not part of the Russian military, but are structured similarly by ranking system, uniforms, and are equipped with both light and heavy arms

Flags of non-military security forces edit

Flag Date Use Description
  1992– Flag of the Ministry of Emergency Situations
  1992– Departmental flag of the Ministry of Emergency Situations
  2003– Flag of the Border Service of the Federal Security Service
  2005– Flag of the Federal Service of Military-Technical Cooperation
  2008– Ensign of the Coast Guard A blue and white Saltire on a light green background.
  2019– Ensign of the National Guard Naval Service Corps A blue and white Saltire on a chestnut background.
  1994– Flag of the Federal Customs Service A white Saltire on a dark green background.
  2001– Flag of the Courier Service
  2005– Flag of Federal Penitentiary Service
  ?– Flag of the Main Directorate of Special Programs of the President
  2008– Flag of the Office of the Prosecutor General
  ?– Flag of the Investigative Committee
  2006– Flag of Federal Service of Bailiffs
  ?– Flag of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
  ?–
  2007–2016 Flag of Federal Migration Service
  2000–2016 Flag of the Federal Service for Special Construction
  ?– Flag of the Main Directorate for Traffic Safety

Flags of special services edit

Flag Date Use Description
  2001–2003 Flag of Federal Agency of the Governmental Communication and the Information at the President
  2002– Flag of the Federal Protective Service
  2010– Flag of the Federal Security Service
  2008– Flag of Director of the Federal Security Service
  2009– Flag of Foreign Intelligence Service
  2015–2016 Flag of the Internal Troops
  2016– Flag of National Guard Forces Command
  2016– Flag of the National Guard

Pennants edit

Flag Date Use Description
  2011– Pennant of the Ministry of Health
2009– Pennant of the Federal Agency for Fishery
2009– Pennant of the Chief of the Federal Agency for Fishery

Historical flags of Russia edit

Civil ensign and national flag edit

Prior to the creation of the first official flag of Russia in 1858, several merchant flags were used to represent Russia, the most notable being the White, Blue, and Red tricolour devised by Tsar Peter the Great. The historical State Flags of Russia were signed by decree to officially represent the country as a whole. The Black, Yellow, and White tricolour became the first official flag of Russia in 1858, with previous flags being de facto unofficial flags of Russia.

Flag Date Use Description
  1668–1693 Civil ensign of the Tsardom of Russia Ensign of the Oryol ship.
  1696–1721 Peter the Great's tricolour was the merchant flag of the Russian Empire. However, the flags used by the Russian Army were regimental flags with the Double-Headed Eagle, the official Imperial symbol, in the centre. The Imperial Standard was the black Double-Headed Eagle displayed on a golden banner, which represented the Empire and the Emperor, the absolute ruler of Russia.[4] When the black-yellow-white flag was in use between 1858 and 1896, the white-blue-red flag was still used as a merchant ensign.[4]
1721–1896 Civil ensign of the Russian Empire
  1858–1896 State flag of the Russian Empire On 11 June 1858, by decree of Alexander II, the heraldic colors of the empire were approved for flags, banners and other items (draperies, rosettes, etc.). It became the first State flag of Russia in 1865. The white-blue-red flag was reintroduced in 1883 but the black-yellow-white remained in use until it was fully replaced in all circumstances in 1896.[5][6][7][8][9]
  1896–1917 On 28 April 1883, Alexander III amended the 1858 decree "on flags for decorating buildings on solemn occasions" to be replaced exclusively with the white-blue-red colours. This meant that the white-blue-red flag was now to be used on land in addition to at seas. It fully replaced the black-yellow-white flag when it became the only official National flag in time for the coronation of Nicholas II in 1896.
1917–1918 National flag of the Russian Republic The Russian Provisional Government and the Russian Republic kept using the same flag after the monarchy was overthrown in the February Revolution. During the Russian Civil War, it was also used by the Russian State in 1918–1920 and the White Guards overall until their defeat in 1923.
1918–1920 National flag of the Russian State
  1918–1937 State flag of the Russian SFSR The first flag of the RSFSR was established by decree on 13 April 1918. However the law never provided an official drawing or depiction. Instead, a simple red flag was commonly used. The description of the decree stated that the "flag of the Russian Republic is set on a red banner with the inscription: Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Russian: Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика)." The decree however did not specify the exact shade of red used on the flag, nor the exact placement and size of the inscription, the ratio of the flag itself and the colour and font of the words. There is no evidence to suggest such a flag was ever produced and used. Later that year, on 17 June 1918, a decree was established on the new state flag of the RSFSR. This time, the law provided an official image for the flag. The ratio of the flag was 1:2, located in the upper left corner, the letters "R.S.F.S.R" appeared in old Slavonic font and were surrounded by a golden border.
  1937–1954 Red banner with stylized "RSFSR" abbreviation in gold Cyrillic letters in the honour canton.
  1954–1991 The flag of the Soviet Union with a blue band at the hoist.
  1991–1993 Flag of the Russian SFSR from 1 November 1991 (de facto from 22 August 1991, after the August Coup) to 11 December 1993.

Flag of the Soviet Union edit

Flag Date Use Description
  1922–1923 State flag of the Soviet Union The first flag of the Soviet Union is a red flag with the state emblem in the center and fimbriated in white.
  1923–1924 The second flag of the Soviet Union with the golden fimbriated canton, adopted shortly after the end of the Russian Civil War.
  1924–1936 The third flag of the Soviet Union.
  1936–1955 The fourth flag of the Soviet Union, this design was prominently used during the Second World War.
  1955–1991 The fifth and final flag of the Soviet Union.

Personal flags edit

Monarch' flags edit

Standard Date Use Description
  c. 1462 Flag of the Grand Prince of Moscow Adopted under Ivan III the Great.
  1693–1703 Flag of the Tsar of Russia Adopted under the rule of Peter the Great.[10][11]
1703–1742 Imperial Standard
  1742–1799;
1801–1828
Russian Imperial Standard used at palaces.[10]
  1799–1801 Russian Imperial Standard introduced by Paul I. This flag is depicted on many documents of that era.[12]
  c. 1835 In the album of flags of 1835, an Imperial Standard used at palaces was reported.[10]
  1858–1917 Standard of the Emperor of Russia on land, adopted in 1858.[10][11]

Other Royal flags edit

Standard Date Use Description
  c. 1848 Standard of the Empress of Russia
  ?–1917
  ?–1917 Standard of the Tsesarevich of Russia
  ?–1917 Standard of the Empress Princes of Russia
  ?–1917 Standard of the Grand Duke of Russia
  ?–1917 Standard of the Grand Duchess of Russia
  ?–1917 Ensign of the Tsesarevich of Russia
  ?–1917 Ensign of the Grand Duke of Russia
  1862–1870 Flag of the Grand Duke of the Caucasus
  1870–1917

Flag of the Supreme Ruler edit

Standard Date Use Description
  1919–1920 Flag of the Supreme Ruler of the Russian State Used by Admiral Alexander Kolchak during the Russian Civil War.

Presidential standard edit

Standard Date Use Description
1991 Presidential standard of the Russian SFSR Unofficial standard of the president of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, used during the inauguration of Boris Yeltsin on 10 July 1991.[13][14] A law establishing the official standard for the President of Russia was not created until 1994, at the time of Yeltsin's first inauguration, an impromptu standard was created solely for the event, but without any official decree or design.

Banners edit

Banner Date Use Description
  c. 1385 Banner of the Novgorod Republic Banner used by the Novgorod Republic, depicting a white castle on a red field.
  1552 Banner of the Most Merciful Savior Banner used by Ivan IV during the Siege of Kazan.
  1610s Banner of Dmitry Pozharsky Battle banner of the Second Volunteer Army depicting appearance of Archangel Michael to Joshua.
  1696 Armorial Banner of Peter the Great The armorial banner of Peter the Great was created in 1696. Made from red taffeta with a white border, the banner depicted a golden eagle hovering over the sea. On the chest of the eagle in the circle is the Savior, next to the Holy Spirit and the holy apostles Peter and Paul. The banner was likely made for the second Azov campaign.

Historical pennants edit

Flag Date Use Description
  ?–1697 Masthead pennant of the Tsardom of Russia
  c. 1881 Pennant of the Ministry of Railways
  ?–1917 Pennant of the Emperor of Russia
  ?–1917 Pennant of the Empress of Russia
  ?–1917 Pennant of the Tsesarevich of Russia
  ?–1917 Pennant of the Tsesarevna of Russia
  ?–1917 Pennant of the Grand Duke of Russia
  ?–1917 Pennant of the Grand Duchess of Russia
  ?–1917 Pennant of the Admiral General of Royal blood
1919–1920 Pennant of the Supreme Ruler of the Russian State

Proposed flags edit

Flag Submitted Planned use Description
 
 
 
1914 National flag of the Russian Empire A tricolour of horizontal stripes, white, blue and red, with a yellow canton with the coat of arms. Introduced as a flag for private use on the outbreak of World War I on 8 September 1914 with introduction as a national flag planned for after the war, hence never officially adopted.[15]
  1948, 1949 State flag of the Russian SFSR A proposal for the state flag of the RSFSR was created by artist Alexey Kokorekin [ru]. It added white and blue horizontal stripes at the bottom, both two stripes took 16 of the flag's height.
  c. 1949 State flag of the Russian SFSR Another proposal with the traditional Russian tricolour at the bottom.
  c. 1950 State flag of the Russian SFSR Another proposal for the state flag of the RSFSR was created by Mikhail Rodionov. It consisted of a traditional tricolour flag and a hammer and a sickle in the middle of the flag. Because of his proposal, he was accused of anti-Sovietism in 1950, at the Leningrad affair case.[16]
 
 
1994; 1997 State flag of the Russian Federation Project flags of Russia after the dissolution of the USSR with communist symbols slightly modified, submitted multiple times in the State Duma by Communist and Agrarian deputies.[17][18][19]
  2007   Symbol of Victory Banner As described in a bill from 2007 vetoed by Vladimir Putin's presidential decree.[20] The flag was used on public display during celebrations of the Victory Day and other events related to past wars during the first decade of the 2000s, along with the state flag.
  2011 State flag of the Russian Federation On April 18, Vladimir Zhirinovsky with the LDPR party proposed to the State Duma the adoption of the Russian Imperial (Romanov's) flag as the official flag of Russia.[21]
  2022 State flag of the Russian Federation On April 19, the CPRF proposed to the State Duma the adoption of the Soviet flag as the official flag of Russia.[22]

Flags of Russian cities edit

Flag Date Use Description
  2003– Flag of Abakan Two red and blue horizontal stripes and a white background with the emblem to the hoist.
  1997– Flag of Astrakhan A crown above sword on a white background with a blue wave pattern at the bottom.
  1999– Flag of Belgorod Two horizontal stripes: top - blue and bottom - white. In the roof there is an image of the figures of the coat of arms of the city.
  1995– Flag of Barnaul The arms of the city of Barnaul on a blue background.
  2002– Flag of Chelyabinsk A camel in front of a wall on a green and yellow background.
  2002– Flag of Cherepovets A blue pall on a golden background.
  1996– Flag of Irkutsk
  2003– Flag of Ivanovo A woman using a spindle on an all blue background.
  2000– Flag of Izhevsk
  1996– Flag of Kaliningrad A coat of arms in front of a ship on an all blue background.
  2000– Flag of Kaluga
  2004– Flag of Kazan A dragon walking on a mostly white background with a thin green line at the bottom.
  2010– Flag of Kirov A hand holding a bow beneath a cross on an all yellow background.
  2006– Flag of Krasnodar
  1995– Flag of Krasnoyarsk
  2000– Flag of Kursk
  2004– Flag of Magnitogorsk A black triangle on a silver‐colored background.
  1995– Flag of Moscow Saint George with a lance riding on a silver horse stabbing a zilant on a dark red background.
  2006– Flag of Nizhny Novgorod A bright red deer on a white-colored background.
  2006– Flag of Nizhny Tagil The coat of arm of Nizhny Tagil on a Maroon Background.
  ?– Flag of Norilsk A polar bear holding a key on a vertically divided blue and red background.
  2018– Flag of Novokuznetsk
  2018– Flag of Novosibirsk
  2014– Flag of Omsk
  2012– Flag of Orenburg
  1998– Flag of Oryol
  2003– Flag of Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast
  ?– Flag of Perm A bear carrying a book beneath a cross on an all red background.
  2015– Flag of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
  2001– Flag of Petrozavodsk
  2010– Flag of Pskov
  1998– Flag of Rostov-on-Don
  2001– Flag of Ryazan A crown sitting above and to the left of a man holding a sword on an all yellow background.
  1992– Flag of Saint Petersburg An anchor and a hook crossing each other with a scepter in the intersection of the two, all on a red background.
  1998– Flag of Salekhard
  2015– Flag of Samara A coat of arms above the name of the city in front of a horizontally divided red white and blue background.
  1997– Flag of Saratov A coat of arms in front of a horizontally divided blue and white background.
  2006– Flag of Sergiyev Posad The walls of a city with two axes floating above it on a blue background.
  2006– Flag of Sochi
  2014– Flag of Stavropol
  2004– Flag of Suzdal A bird wearing a crown on a horizontally divided blue and red background.
  2005–[23] Flag of Tolyatti
  2019– Flag of Tomsk A rearing horse on a dark green background.
  2001– Flag of Tula
  1999– Flag of Tver
  2007– Flag of Ufa
  2005– Flag of Ulan-Ude
  2003– Flag of Ulyanovsk A vertical triband of blue, white, and blue, with a golden crown in the middle of the white stripe.
  2010– Flag of Veliky Novgorod
  1996– Flag of Vladimir A lion holding a cross and wearing a crown on an all red background.
  2016– Flag of Vladivostok A Coat of arms in front of a blue Saltire on a red background.
  1999– Flag of Volgograd The arms of the city of Volgograd on a red background.
  2003– Flag of Vologda God reaching out from the clouds holding a sword and cruciger on a red background.
  2008– Flag of Voronezh
  1996– Flag of Yakutsk
  1996– Flag of Yaroslavl The arms of the city of Yaroslavl on a blue background.
  2008– Flag of Yekaterinburg A furnace and well on a horizontally divided green, yellow and blue background.
  ?- Flag of Zlatoust A yellow pegasus above a yellow stripe.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Флаги России-VEXILLOGRAPHIA". www.vexillographia.ru.
  2. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 04.02.2002 № 141". sbornik-zakonov.ru.
  3. ^ "Федеральный закон о знамени ВСРФ, знамени ВМФ, знаменах иных видов ВСРФ и знаменах других войск". Российская газета.
  4. ^ a b "флаги Российской империи". www.vexillographia.ru.
  5. ^ Bonnell, Victoria E. Russia at the barricades: eyewitness accounts of the August 1991 coup. M.E. Sharpe, 1994, p92
  6. ^ Condee, Nancy. Soviet hieroglyphics: visual culture in late twentieth-century Russia. Indiana University Press, 1995, p49
  7. ^ Saunders, Nicholas J. Matters of conflict: material culture, memory and the First World War. Routledge, 2004, p129
  8. ^ National Museum of Science and Technology (Canada). Material history review. Canada Science and Technology Museum, 2000, p46
  9. ^ "Russia, 1914–1917". www.crwflags.com.
  10. ^ a b c d Russian Institute for Heraldry and Vexillology. "штандарты императорской семьи". www.vexillographia.ru. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  11. ^ a b "Tsar's personal flags". FOTW. CRWFLAGS. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  12. ^ "Manifesto of Emperor Paul I on the full coat of arms of the All-Russian Empire. Approved December 16, 1800". projects.rusarchives.ru. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  13. ^ "Как спасали Знамя РСФСР". rambler.ru. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  14. ^ "Первый президент России Борис Николаевич Ельцин принимает присягу (1991)". Ельцин Центр.
  15. ^ 1914 Iskri Journal №35
  16. ^ "Как бело-сине-красный флаг чуть было не стал флагом РСФСР в 1950-х годах". Дзен | Блогерская платформа. Retrieved 2022-05-30.
  17. ^ State Duma session transcript of 7 December 1994
  18. ^ "State Duma session transcript of 2 April 1997". transcript.duma.gov.ru. Retrieved 2020-07-09.
  19. ^ Bill 97700653-2 «On the State Flag of the Russian Federation», submitted by the CPRF deputy Oleg Shinkarev on 11 February 1997 stated that «the State Flag of the Russian Federation is a rectangular red colored sheet. In the left upper corner of it are golden hammer and sickle. Flag's ratio is 1:2» (article 1).
  20. ^ Vladimir Putin declined «On the Victory Banner» bill, says ITAR-TASS quoting the Kremlin's press office.
  21. ^ "Жириновский предложил вернуть России "имперский" флаг". lenta.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2011-04-18.
  22. ^ "КПРФ внесла в Госдуму законопроект, предлагающий установить флаг СССР флагом России". kprf.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-04-19.
  23. ^ "City Symbols / Togliatti / English Version". tgl.ru. Retrieved 2023-11-12.

External links edit