Barnaul (Russian: Барнау́л, IPA: [bərnɐˈul]) is the largest city and administrative centre of Altai Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Barnaulka and Ob Rivers in the West Siberian Plain. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 612,401,[8] making it the 21st largest city in Russia and the fourth largest in the Siberian Federal District.

Barnaul
Барнаул
Barnaul from the Ob River bridge
Barnaul from the Ob River bridge
Flag of Barnaul
Coat of arms of Barnaul
Anthem: None[2]
Location of Barnaul
Barnaul is located in Russia
Barnaul
Barnaul
Location of Barnaul
Barnaul is located in Altai Krai
Barnaul
Barnaul
Barnaul (Altai Krai)
Coordinates: 53°20′N 83°45′E / 53.333°N 83.750°E / 53.333; 83.750Coordinates: 53°20′N 83°45′E / 53.333°N 83.750°E / 53.333; 83.750
CountryRussia
Federal subjectAltai Krai[1]
Established1730[3]
City status since1771[4]
Government
 • BodyCity Duma[5]
 • Head[6]Vyacheslav Frank
Area
 • Total940 km2 (360 sq mi)
Elevation
180 m (590 ft)
Population
 • Total612,401
 • Estimate 
(2018)[9]
632,372 (+3.3%)
 • Rank21st in 2010
 • Density650/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toCity of krai significance of Barnaul[1]
 • Capital ofAltai Krai[10], City of krai significance of Barnaul[1]
 • Urban okrugBarnaul Urban Okrug[11]
 • Capital ofBarnaul Urban Okrug[11]
Time zoneUTC+7 (MSK+4 Edit this on Wikidata[12])
Postal code(s)[13]
656000, 656002–656004, 656006, 656008, 656010–656012, 656015, 656016, 656018, 656019, 656021, 656023–656025, 656031, 656033, 656035–656039, 656043–656045, 656048–656050, 656052–656060, 656062–656068, 656700, 656880, 656890, 656899, 656905, 656960, 656961, 656963–656966, 656998, 656999, 901024, 901213
Dialing code(s)+7 3852
OKTMO ID01701000001
City DayOne of the weekend days in August or September[3]
Websitebarnaul.org
Barnaul population
2010 Census612,401[8]
2002 Census600,749[14]
1989 Census601,811[15]
1979 Census533,263[16]

Located in the south of western Siberia on the left bank of the Ob River, Barnaul is a major transport, industrial, cultural, medical and educational hub of Siberia. Barnaul was founded by the wealthy Demidov family, who intended to develop the production of copper and silver, which continued after the factories were taken over by the Crown. Barnaul became a major centre of silver production in Russia. Barnaul was granted city status in 1771.

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Barnaul is the administrative centre of the krai.[10] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the work settlement of Yuzhny and twenty-four rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Barnaul – an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Barnaul is incorporated as Barnaul Urban Okrug.[11]

GeographyEdit

Barnaul is located in the forest steppe zone of the West Siberian Plain, on the left bank of the Ob River, at its confluence with the Barnaulka.

The border with Kazakhstan is 345 km (210 mi) to the south, which makes Barnaul the closest major city to the Altai Mountains. The city is also situated relatively close to the Russian border with Mongolia and the border with China.

HistoryEdit

Ancient historyEdit

The area around the city has been inhabited by modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans, for hundreds of thousands of years. They settled here to take advantage of the confluence of the rivers, used for transportation and fishing. In the late BC millennia, the locality was a centre of activity for Scythian and various Turkic peoples.[17]

Russian EmpireEdit

While 1730 is considered Barnaul's official establishment date, its first mention dates back to 1724.[3] It was granted city status in 1771.[4] Chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river, it was founded by the wealthy Demidov family.[4] The Demidovs wanted to develop the copper in the mountains, and soon found substantial deposits of silver as well. In 1747, the Demidovs' factories were taken over by the Crown. Barnaul became the centre of silver production of the Russian Empire.[18]

In 1914, Barnaul was the site of the largest conscription riot in Russia during World War I. There were more than 100 casualties from the fighting.[19]

Maria Stepanovna (née Zudilova) (1912–1996) was born and lived as a child in this city. She later became the mother of American actresses Natalie Wood (born Natalia Zakharenko) and Lana Wood (born Lana Gurdin).[20] Her father Stepan was killed in the 1918 street fighting between the Whites and Reds following the Revolution. Afterward her mother took Maria and her siblings as refugees to Harbin, China. Maria married a Russian there, and they had a daughter Olga together. Maria eventually immigrated with Olga to the United States, where she married another Russian immigrant, from Vladivostok, and had two daughters with him.[20]

World War IIEdit

Over half of the light ammunition used by the Soviet Union in World War II is estimated to have been manufactured in Barnaul.[21]

EconomyEdit

Barnaul is an important industrial centre of Western Siberia. There are more than 100 industrial enterprises in the city, employing approximately 120,000 people. Leading industries include diesel and carbon processing; as well as production of heavy machinery, tyres, furniture and footwear.[22]

TransportationEdit

Barnaul is located on the South Siberian, Turk–Sib and Omsk–Barnaul railway lines.[23] Barnaul has public transport of Bus, Trolley and Taxies. Barnaul International Airport is located 16 kilometres West of the city center. It is served by airlines such as Aeroflot, S7, Nordwind, Iraero and Ural Airlines. It has regular flights to Moscow, Novosibirsk, St. Petersburg and Surgut.

ClimateEdit

The humid continental climate of Barnaul (Köppen Dfb) is defined by its geographical position at the southern end of the Siberian steppe: it is subject to long winters, with an average of −15.5 °C (4.1 °F) in January, but also enjoys a short warm season in the summer with an average temperature of 19.9 °C (67.8 °F) in July. Temperatures can vary in the extreme, from below −45 °C (−49 °F) in the winter to above 35 °C (95 °F) in the summer.

The climate is relatively dry. The average precipitation in the area is 433 mm (17.0 in) per year, 75% of which occurs during the region's warmer season. This means snow packs can be quite moderate in spite of the cold temperatures.

Climate data for Barnaul (1991–2020, extremes 1838–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
7.4
(45.3)
16.4
(61.5)
32.3
(90.1)
37.4
(99.3)
36.6
(97.9)
37.9
(100.2)
38.3
(100.9)
34.0
(93.2)
27.4
(81.3)
15.3
(59.5)
6.3
(43.3)
38.3
(100.9)
Average high °C (°F) −11.4
(11.5)
−7.8
(18.0)
0.2
(32.4)
11.5
(52.7)
20.2
(68.4)
24.8
(76.6)
26.3
(79.3)
24.5
(76.1)
17.6
(63.7)
9.6
(49.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
−8.8
(16.2)
8.7
(47.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −16.2
(2.8)
−13.6
(7.5)
−5.7
(21.7)
5.0
(41.0)
12.9
(55.2)
18.2
(64.8)
19.9
(67.8)
17.6
(63.7)
11.0
(51.8)
4.0
(39.2)
−6.2
(20.8)
−13.1
(8.4)
2.8
(37.0)
Average low °C (°F) −20.7
(−5.3)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−10.9
(12.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
6.4
(43.5)
12.0
(53.6)
14.2
(57.6)
11.8
(53.2)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.2
(31.6)
−9.9
(14.2)
−17.6
(0.3)
−2.4
(27.7)
Record low °C (°F) −48.2
(−54.8)
−46.1
(−51.0)
−38.9
(−38.0)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−8.8
(16.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.9
(37.2)
0.0
(32.0)
−7.8
(18.0)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−42.8
(−45.0)
−43.9
(−47.0)
−48.2
(−54.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 23
(0.9)
18
(0.7)
19
(0.7)
28
(1.1)
41
(1.6)
54
(2.1)
72
(2.8)
45
(1.8)
36
(1.4)
35
(1.4)
40
(1.6)
32
(1.3)
443
(17.4)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 38
(15)
47
(19)
45
(18)
6
(2.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
8
(3.1)
23
(9.1)
47
(19)
Average rainy days 0.4 1 3 12 17 16 17 15 16 14 6 1 118
Average snowy days 22 20 16 9 2 0.1 0 0 1 10 18 24 122
Average relative humidity (%) 78 76 74 63 55 64 70 70 69 73 79 79 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77 112 178 218 272 315 320 265 199 109 75 64 2,204
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[24]
Source 2: NOAA (sun only, 1961–1990)[25]
 
Barnaul
 
A historical wooden house used to be as the Imperator Restaurant (former Russian Tea Restaurant), now is under reconstruction
 
View of central Barnaul in the summer of 2007
 
Modern apartment building, built in 2010
 
Park in Barnaul
 
The Ob River in Barnaul

Notable peopleEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Barnaul is twinned with:[27][28]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #28-ZS
  2. ^ According to Article 5 of the Charter of Barnaul, the official symbols of the city Archived 24 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine include only a flag and a coat of arms.
  3. ^ a b c Charter of Barnaul, Article 4
  4. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. pp. 36–38. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  5. ^ Charter of Barnaul, Article 37
  6. ^ Charter of Barnaul, Article 46
  7. ^ Official website of Barnaul. Geography Archived 2 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  8. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar; archive date: 26 July 2018; retrieved: 25 July 2018; archive URL: https://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar.
  10. ^ a b Charter of Altai Krai, Article 6
  11. ^ a b c Law #144-ZS
  12. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  13. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  15. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  16. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia] (XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 – via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  17. ^ Minns, Ellis Hovell (13 January 2011). Scythians and Greeks: A Survey of Ancient History and Archaeology on the North Coast of the Euxine from the Danube to the Caucasus. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-02487-7. Retrieved 1 January 2018 – via Google Books.
  18. ^ "Пятые Бородавкинские чтения". new.hist.asu.ru. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  19. ^ Sanborn, Josh. "The Mobilization of 1917 and the Question of the Russian Nation." Slavic Review, Vol. 59, No. 2: pp. 267-89.
  20. ^ a b Lambert, Gavin (2004). Natalie Wood: A Life, London: Faber and Faber, p.8. ISBN 978-0-571-22197-4
  21. ^ "Барнаульские патроны". Archived from the original on 15 January 2000.
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "Barnaul". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  24. ^ "Weather And Climate – Climate Barnaul" (in Russian). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  25. ^ "Climate Normals for Barnaul". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  26. ^ "Сергей Шубенков выиграл "золото" на Чемпионате мира по лёгкой атлетике в Пекине". Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  27. ^ "США, Испания и Китай: в каких еще странах у Барнаула есть города-побратимы?". tolknews.ru (in Russian). Tolk. 31 October 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  28. ^ "Град Шумен – Как да ни намерите". tourism-shumen.com (in Bulgarian). Tourism Shumen. Retrieved 14 July 2020.

SourcesEdit

  • Барнаульская городская Дума. Решение №789 от 20 июня 2008 г. «Устав городского округа — города Барнаула Алтайского края», в ред. Решения №766 от 31 марта 2017 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав городского округа — города Барнаула Алтайского края (в ред. Решения от 16.12.2016 №706)». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования (15 июля 2008 г.) (за исключением отдельных положений, вступивших в силу в иные сроки). Опубликован: "Вечерний Барнаул", №103, 15 июля 2008 г. (Barnaul City Duma. Decision #789 of June 20, 2008 Charter of the Urban Okrug—the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Decision #766 of March 31, 2017 On Amending the Charter of the Urban Okrug—the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai (rev. #706 of December 16, 2016). Effective as of the day of the official publication (July 15, 2008) (with the exception of clauses which take effect on different dates).).
  • Алтайское краевое Законодательное Собрание. №3-ЗС 5 июня 1995 г. «Устав (основной закон) Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №118-ЗС от 1 декабря 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав (Основной Закон) Алтайского края». Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №100, 14 июня 1995 г. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. #3-ZS June 5, 1995 Charter (Basic Law) of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #118-ZS of December 1, 2015 On Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Altai Krai. ).
  • Алтайский краевой Совет народных депутатов. Закон №28-ЗС от 1 марта 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №16-ЗС от 4 апреля 2017 г. «О присоединении станции Железнодорожная Казарма 572 км к посёлку Октябрьскому Октябрьского сельсовета Кулундинского района Алтайского края и внесении изменений в отдельные законы Алтайского края». Вступил в силу 8 марта 2008 г. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №67, 8 марта 2008 г. (Altai Krai Council of People's Deputies. Law #28-ZS of March 1, 2008 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #16-ZS of April 4, 2017 On Merging the Station of Zheleznodorozhnaya Kazarma 572 km into the Settlement of Oktyabrsky in Oktyabrsky Selsoviet of Kulundinsky District of Altai Krai and on Amending Various Laws of Altai Krai. Effective as of March 8, 2008.).
  • Алтайское краевое Законодательное Собрание. Закон №144-ЗС от 27 декабря 2008 г. «О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края», в ред. Закона №44-ЗС от 2 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Приложение 1 к Закону Алтайского края "О статусе и границах муниципального и административно-территориального образования город Барнаул Алтайского края"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Алтайская правда", №5–6, 15 января 2009 г. (Altai Krai Legislative Assembly. Law #144-ZS of December 27, 2008 On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai, as amended by the Law #44-ZS of July 2, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law of Altai Krai "On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal and the Administrative-Territorial Formation of the City of Barnaul of Altai Krai". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the day of the official publication.).

External linksEdit