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Ufa (Russian: Уфа́, tr. Ufá; IPA: [ʊˈfa]; Bashkir: Өфө, Öfö; Bashkir pronunciation: [ʏ̞ˈfʏ̞], About this sound pronunciation ) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,062,319,[9] making it the eleventh most populous city in Russia.

Ufa (in English)
Уфа (Russian)
Өфө (Bashkir)
-  City[1]  -
ӨФӨ-6.jpg
Views of Ufa
Map of Russia - Republic of Bashkortostan (2008-03).svg
Location of the Republic of Bashkortostan in Russia
Ufa is located in Bashkortostan
Ufa
Ufa
Location of Ufa in the Republic of Bashkortostan
Coordinates: 54°44′N 56°00′E / 54.733°N 56.000°E / 54.733; 56.000Coordinates: 54°44′N 56°00′E / 54.733°N 56.000°E / 54.733; 56.000
Coat of arms of Ufa.svg
Flag of Ufa.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Anthem none[2]
Administrative status (as of February 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Republic of Bashkortostan[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of republic significance of Ufa[1]
Capital of Republic of Bashkortostan[3]
Administrative center of city of republic significance of Ufa,[1] Ufimsky District[4]
Municipal status (as of December 2012)
Urban okrug Ufa Urban Okrug[5]
Administrative center of Ufa Urban Okrug,[5] Ufimsky Municipal District[5]
Head[7] Irek Yalalov[6]
Representative body City Council[7]
Statistics
Area 707.93 km2 (273.33 sq mi)[8]
Population (2010 Census) 1,062,319 inhabitants[9]
Rank in 2010 11th
Population (January 2016 est.) 1,121,429 inhabitants[10]
Density 1,501/km2 (3,890/sq mi)[11]
Time zone YEKT (UTC+05:00)[12]
Founded 1574[13]
City status since 1586[14]
Postal code(s)[15] 450000–450010, 450013–450015, 450017–450019, 450022, 450024, 450026–450030, 450032–450035, 450037–450040, 450043–450045, 450047, 450049–450059, 450061–450065, 450068, 450069, 450071, 450073–450081, 450083, 450091–450093, 450095–450101, 450103–450106, 450880, 450890, 450911–450948, 450951–450966, 450971–450979, 450981–450986, 450989–450999, 901139, 901229, 992200
Dialing code(s) +7 347[citation needed]
Official website
Ufa on Wikimedia Commons

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Gerardus Mercator's map of Europe with Pascherti (Bashkort) settlement presumably in the position of modern Ufa.[16] Map was compiled in 1554, twenty years before the official date of the foundation of Ufa.

Early history of the surrounding area of Ufa out in Paleolithic times.[17]

Presumably from the 5th to the 16th century on the site of Ufa there was a medieval city.[18] On the map of Pizzigano brothers (1367)[19] and on the Catalan Atlas (1375)[20] approximately on the Belaya River was designated a town Pascherti (Bashkort),[21] On the Gerardus Mercator's map (1554) also marked the settlement with the Pascherti name. French orientalist Henri Cordier associates the position of Pascherti with the current location of Ufa.[16]

Ibn Khaldun among the largest cities of the Golden Horde called the town Bashkort.[22]

Russian historian of the 18th century Peter Rychkov wrote that on the territory of Ufa before the arrival of the Russians there was a great city.[23]

The official of the Orenburg Governorate government Vasily Rebelensky wrote that Ufa was founded by the Bashkirs.[24]

 
Early color photograph of Ufa taken in 1910 by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky

By order of Ivan the Terrible on the site of modern Ufa was built a fortress in 1574,[25] and originally bore the name of the hill it stood on, Tura-Tau.[26] 1574 is now considered to be the official date of Ufa's foundation.[13] Town status was granted to it in 1586.[14]

Before becoming the seat of a separate Ufa Governorate in 1781, the city, along with the rest of the Bashkir lands, was under the jurisdiction of the Orenburg governors. And even though the 1796 reform reunited Orenburg and Ufa again, in 1802 the city of Ufa became a new center of the entire Orenburg Governorate that included large territories of modern-day Republic of Bashkortostan, Orenburg Oblast, and Chelyabinsk Oblast. During the 1800-1810s, Scottish Russian architect William Heste developed a general city plan for Ufa as a regional capital shaping the modern outline of its historical center.[citation needed]

The Belaya River Waterway (1870) and the Samara-Zlatoust Railroad (1890) connected the city to the European part of the Russian Empire and stimulated development of the city's light industry. As a result, in 1913 the population of Ufa grew to 100,000.[citation needed]

During World War II, following eastward Soviet retreat in 1941, a number of industrial enterprises of the western parts of the Soviet Union were evacuated to Ufa. The city also became the wartime seat of the Soviet Ukrainian government.[citation needed]

During 9—10 July 2015 Ufa hosted summits of the BRICS group and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.[27]

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Ufa is the capital of the republic[3] and, within the framework of the administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Ufimsky District,[4] even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-four rural localities, incorporated separately as the city of republic significance of Ufa, an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Ufa is incorporated as Ufa Urban Okrug.[5]

EconomyEdit

 
National Bank of Bashkortostan

According to Forbes, in 2013, Ufa was the best city in Russia for business among cities with population over one million.[28]

Many urban enterprises engaged in oil refining, chemistry, mechanical engineering reside in Ufa. Additionally, the economy of Ufa is composed of many fuel, energy and engineering complexes.

Ufa is home to about 200 large and medium industrial enterprises.[29]

Some important enterprises in Ufa include:

TransportationEdit

 
Ufa International Airport. The inscription "ӨФӨ" is "Ufa" in the Bashkir language.

Ufa is linked by railways to the rest of Russia, having a railway station on a historic branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Ufa is the only city connected to Moscow by more than one federal highway. The M7 motorway links the city to Kazan and Moscow and the M5 motorway links Ufa to Moscow and to the Asian part of Russia.

The Ufa International Airport has international flights to the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Greece, Egypt, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, as well as domestic flights to many Russian cities and towns, including Moscow.

The Ufa Metro is a planned and oft-delayed subway system, discussed since the late 1980s. On May 30, 1996, there was a ceremony marking the beginning of preparatory construction work, attended by then-President Boris Yeltsin.[32]

Public transportation in Ufa includes trams (since 1937) and trolleybuses (since 1962), as well as bus and marshrutka (routed cabs) lines.[citation needed]

DemographicsEdit

 
Monument to Salavat Yulaev. The national hero is also depicted on the coat of arms of Bashkortostan
Ufa population
2010 Census 1,062,319[9]
2002 Census 1,042,437[33]
1989 Census 1,082,052[34]
1979 Census 969,289[35]

Population of Ufa exceeded one million in 1980.[citation needed]

As of the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition of Ufa was:[citation needed]

Ethnicity Percentage
Russians 48.9%
Tatars 28.3%
Bashkirs 17.1%
Ukrainian 1.2%
others 4.5%

Geography and climateEdit

View of the Belaya River

Ufa is situated in eastern Europe near its land boundary with Asia, at the confluence of the Belaya (Agidel) and Ufa Rivers, on low hills forming the Ufa Plateau to the west of the southern Urals. The area of the city is 707.93 square kilometers (273.33 sq mi).[8] It stretches from north to south for 53.5 kilometers (33.2 mi) and from west to east for 29.8 kilometers (18.5 mi).[8]

Climate data for Ufa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
9.2
(48.6)
16.2
(61.2)
30.9
(87.6)
36.2
(97.2)
38.3
(100.9)
38.6
(101.5)
38.5
(101.3)
33.4
(92.1)
26.8
(80.2)
15.4
(59.7)
5.0
(41)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F) −8.2
(17.2)
−6.8
(19.8)
0.2
(32.4)
10.9
(51.6)
19.9
(67.8)
24.6
(76.3)
25.9
(78.6)
23.5
(74.3)
17.2
(63)
8.7
(47.7)
−1
(30)
−6.9
(19.6)
9.0
(48.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.4
(9.7)
−11.8
(10.8)
−5.1
(22.8)
5.2
(41.4)
13.2
(55.8)
18.1
(64.6)
19.7
(67.5)
17.2
(63)
11.3
(52.3)
4.5
(40.1)
−4.2
(24.4)
−10.7
(12.7)
3.8
(38.8)
Average low °C (°F) −17
(1)
−17
(1)
−10.4
(13.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
6.8
(44.2)
11.8
(53.2)
13.7
(56.7)
11.6
(52.9)
6.5
(43.7)
1.1
(34)
−7.5
(18.5)
−15
(5)
−1.3
(29.7)
Record low °C (°F) −48.5
(−55.3)
−43.5
(−46.3)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−29.7
(−21.5)
−9.7
(14.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
1.4
(34.5)
−0.6
(30.9)
−6.8
(19.8)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−35.1
(−31.2)
−45
(−49)
−48.5
(−55.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48
(1.89)
39
(1.54)
32
(1.26)
33
(1.3)
46
(1.81)
66
(2.6)
55
(2.17)
58
(2.28)
51
(2.01)
58
(2.28)
52
(2.05)
51
(2.01)
589
(23.19)
Average rainy days 3 3 6 12 16 16 15 16 18 18 11 4 138
Average snowy days 25 21 16 6 1 0 0 0 1 8 20 24 122
Average relative humidity (%) 83 80 77 69 61 68 71 74 76 79 83 83 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 59 96 155 216 280 288 289 252 166 82 50 40 1,973
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[36]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[37]

GovernanceEdit

 
House of Republic or Bashkir White House
Local government

The bodies of local self-government of Ufa are:

  • Council, a representative body. Formed of 35 deputies for 4 years.
  • Chairman of the Board – the head of the urban okrug. Term of 4 years.
  • Urban Okrug Administration. The structure of the administration approved by the Council on the proposal of the Head of the Administration.
  • Head of the Administration manages the administration on the principles of unity of command. He is appointed under a contract entered into by the results of the competition. The term of office of the Head of the Administration limited to the period of office of the Council of the convocation.[38]

SportsEdit

 
Akbuzat racecourse. Named after the winged horse in the mythology of Bashkirs, analogue of Pegasus

[citation needed]

Club Sport Founded Current League League
Rank
Stadium
Salavat Yulaev Ufa Ice Hockey 1961 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Ufa Arena
Tolpar Ufa Ice Hockey 2009 Minor Hockey League Jr. 1st Ice Palace Salavat Yulaev
Agidel Ufa Ice Hockey 2010 Women's Ice Hockey Championship 1st Ice Palace Salavat Yulaev
FC Ufa Football 2010 Russian Premier League 1st Neftyanik Stadium
Ural Ufa Volleyball 1992 Volleyball Super League 1st Dynamo Sports Palace
Ufimochka-USPTU Volleyball 1970 Women's Volleyball Super League 1st Dynamo Sports Palace

Education and scienceEdit

 
Bashkir State University, the main campus

Educational institutions include:

Graduate universities and Law Schools:

Scientific institutions include:

  • Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan[39]
  • Ufa Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Science (USC RAS)[40]

ReligionEdit

Lyalya Tyolpan Mosque and Cathedral of the Nativity of the Theotokos.

The major religions in the city are Russian Orthodox Church and Sunni Islam. The Bezpopovtsy strain of Russian Old Believers is also registered in Ufa.[41]

Ufa is a place of location of The Central Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Russia (ru). In 1989 was opened Russian Islamic University. In our days one of the largest mosqoues in Europe Ar-Rahim (ru) is under construction in Ufa.

Notable peopleEdit

Notable Ufa people include:

 
Zemfira, famous singer in Russia

International relationsEdit

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Resolution #391
  2. ^ The official website of Ufa does not list an anthem among the official symbols of the city.
  3. ^ a b Law #166-z
  4. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 80 252», в ред. изменения №275/2015 от 1 сентября 2015 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 80 252, as amended by the Amendment #275/2015 of September 1, 2015. ).
  5. ^ a b c d Law #162-z
  6. ^ Official website of Ufa. Irek Ishmukhametovich Yalalov, Head of the Ufa Urban Okrug Administration (in Russian)
  7. ^ a b Charter of Ufa, Article 18
  8. ^ a b c Official website of Ufa. Land Utilization (in Russian)
  9. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  10. ^ Republic of Bashkortostan Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности постоянного населения Республики Башкортостан на 1 января 2016 г. по муниципальным образованиям (in Russian)
  11. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  12. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  13. ^ a b Official website of Ufa. Brief Information About Ufa (in Russian)
  14. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 498. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  15. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  16. ^ a b «Mercator and Hondius (loth Ed., 1630) and N. Sanson (1650) show Jorman on the south of the Kama R., Pascherti in the position of Ufa, the present head-quarter of the Bashkirs, Sagatin ( = Fachatim of the text) at the head of the Ufa River, Marmorea on the Bielaya south of Ufa». — Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Chʻeng-wen Publishing Company, 1967. Henri Cordier
  17. ^ Главархитектура г. Уфы — История г. Уфы
  18. ^ Псянчин А. В. Башкортостан на старых картах. Уфа, 2001. С 70, 71, Он же. Mons Et Urbis: Уральские горы и город Уфа в европейской средневековой картографической традиции//Архив Башкортостана, № 1. 2007. С. 17-23.
  19. ^ Рудаков В. Г. К вопросу о двух столицах в Золотой Орде и местоположении города Гюлистана // Научное наследие А. П. Смирнова и современные проблемы археологии Волго-Камья. Материалы научной конференции. Труды ГИМ. Вып. 122. — М., 2000. — Рис. 1.
  20. ^ Там же; Псянчин А. В. Башкортостан на старых картах. — Уфа, 2001. — С. 71.
  21. ^ Мажитов Н.А,, Султанова А. Н. Сунгатов Ф. А. Башкирские города по арабским источникам IX—X вв. // Вестник АН РБ. 2008. Т. 13, № 2. С. 44-—48; Мажитов Н. А., Сунгатов Ф. А., Иванов В. А., Сатаров Т. Р., Султанова А. Н., Иванова Е. В. Городище Уфа II. Материалы раскопок 2006 года. Т. 1. Уфа, 2007. 160 с: ил.
  22. ^ Золотая Орда в источниках. T.I. Арабские и персидские сочинения. М., 2003. С 169.
  23. ^ Рычков П. И. История Оренбургская (1730—1750 гг.). Оренбург, 1896. С. 68,69.
  24. ^ «Краткое описание губернского города Уфы с начала его построения до сего 1806 года». // Что ж касается башкирцев, то видно из многих описаний, как сего народа, так и о жительстве их, кои от различных возмущений, как и междоусобных воин, так и соседних своих народов, строили маленькие укрепления и городки и наконец, соединясь во множестве, распространили свои жилища и укрепления, а для сей причины и город Уфа построен.
  25. ^ [1] History of Ufa
  26. ^ [2] Beyond Moscow -Ufa. Khristina Narizhnaya, The Moscow Times, Oct. 16 2011
  27. ^ Ufa – 2015 SCO BRICS. Official site
  28. ^ 30 лучших городов для бизнеса — 2013 // Forbes.ru
  29. ^ Ufa – capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan
  30. ^ http://www.interfax-russia.ru/Povoljie/news.asp?id=165284&sec=1679
  31. ^ http://www.oaobtz.ru/
  32. ^ Yeltsin lays cornerstone of first subway station, accessed June 6, 2013
  33. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  34. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  35. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России. (All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia.)". Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года (All-Union Population Census of 1979) (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1979. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  36. ^ "Weather and Climate – The Climate of Ufa" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved December 8, 2015. 
  37. ^ "Ufa Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 8, 2015. 
  38. ^ Charter of the Urban Okrug of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan
  39. ^ [3]
  40. ^ [4]
  41. ^ "БАШКОРТОСТАН". Православная Энциклопедия. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  42. ^ http://www.skysports.com/f1/news/24100/10270127/max-verstappen-and-daniil-kvyats-red-bull-swap-ted-kravitz-qa
  43. ^ Ufa Soviet Cafeterias and IKEA Furniture The St. Petersburg Times

SourcesEdit

  • Правительство Республики Башкортостан. Постановление №391 от 29 декабря 2006 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Башкортостан», в ред. Постановления №61 от 26 февраля 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Башкортостан». Опубликован: "Ведомости Государственного Собрания – Курултая, Президента и Правительства Республики Башкортостан", №5 (251), ст. 239, 12 марта 2007 г. (Government of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Resolution #391 of December 29, 2006 On Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Entities and Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as amended by the Resolution #61 of February 26, 2013 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Entities and Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Bashkortostan. ).
  • Закон №166-з от 26 декабря 2014 г. «О статусе города Уфы — столицы Республики Башкортостан». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования (6 января 2015 г.). Опубликован: официальный Интернет-портал правовой информации Республики Башкортостан http://www.npa.bashkortostan.ru, 27 декабря 2014 г. (Law #166-z of December 26, 2014 On the Status of the City of Ufa—the Capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication (January 6, 2015).).
  • Государственное Собрание —Курултай Республики Башкортостан. Закон №162-з от 17 декабря 2004 г. «О границах, статусе и административных центрах муниципальных образований в Республике Башкортостан», в ред. Закона №572-з от 17 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Республики Башкортостан "О границах, статусе и административных центрах муниципальных образований в Республике Башкортостан"». Вступил в силу в соответствии со статьёй 33. Опубликован: "Республика Башкортостан", №52 (25785), 22 марта 2005 г. (State Assembly of Bashkortostan—El Kurultai. Law #162-z of December 17, 2004 On the Borders, Status, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations in the Republic of Bashkortostan, as amended by the Law #572-z of July 17, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of the Republic of Bashkortostan "On the Borders, Status, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations in the Republic of Bashkortostan". Effective as of the date established in accordance with the provisions of Article 33.).
  • Совет городского округа города Уфа Республики Башкортостан. Решение №3/6 от 15 декабря 2005 г. «Об Уставе городского округа город Уфа Республики Башкортостан», в ред. Решения №41/2 от 28 января 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав городского округа город Уфа Республики Башкортостан». Вступил в силу 29 декабря 2005 г. Опубликован: "Вечерняя Уфа", №248 (10396), 28 декабря 2005 г. (Council of the Municipal Formation of the City of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Decision #3/6 of December 15, 2005 On the Charter of the Urban Okrug of the City of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as amended by the Decision #41/2 of January 28, 2015 On Amending the Charter of the Urban Okrug of the City of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Effective as of December 29, 2005.).

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