Yekaterinburg (Russian: Екатеринбу́рг; IPA: [jɪkətʲɪrʲɪnˈburk]), alternatively romanised as Ekaterinburg, is Russia's fourth-largest city after Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Novosibirsk, with a population of 1,349,772 as of 2010. Yekaterinburg is the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast located in the middle of the Eurasian continent, on the border of Europe and Asia. Situated on the Iset River, the city was built in November 18, 1723, and named after Russian emperor Peter the Great's wife, Yekaterina, who later became Catherine I after Peter's death. In 1924, the city was named Sverdlovsk (Russian: Свердло́вск) after the Communist party leader Yakov Sverdlov, and in 1991 back to Yekaterinburg.
|Yekaterinburg (in English)
|- City -|
Views of Yekaterinburg, Top left:Yekaterinburg Administration hall, Top right:Church on Blood in Honour of all Saint Resplendent in the Russian land, Center:Iset River and Visotsky business area, Bottom left:A monument of Tatischev and de Gennin, Bottom right:Sevastyanov's House
Location of Sverdlovsk Oblast in Russia
|City Day||3rd Saturday of August|
|Administrative status (as of 2011)|
|Federal subject||Sverdlovsk Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||City of Yekaterinburg|
|Administrative center of||Sverdlovsk Oblast, City of Yekaterinburg|
|Municipal status (as of June 2009)|
|Urban okrug||Yekaterinburg Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Yekaterinburg Urban Okrug|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Area||495 km2 (191 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||1,349,772 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||4th|
|Population (2017 est.)||1,488,791 inhabitants|
|Density||2,727/km2 (7,060/sq mi)|
|Time zone||YEKT (UTC+05:00)|
|Founded||November 18, 1723|
|City status since||1796|
|Previous names||Yekaterinburg (until 1924),
Sverdlovsk (until 1991)
|Dialing code(s)||+7 343|
|Yekaterinburg on Wikimedia Commons|
Yekaterinburg is a modern city in Russia, and is the main industrial and cultural centre of the Ural Federal District. The city had experienced economic and population growth and the city in the Contemporary Era and some of the tallest skyscrapers of Russia are built here.
Imperial Era (1723-1917)Edit
Further Information: Russian Empire
Russian historian Vasily Tatishchev and Russian engineer Georg Wilhelm de Gennin founded Yekaterinburg in 1723 and named it after the wife of Russian emperor Peter the Great, Yekaterina, who later became empress regnant Catherine I. The official date of the city's foundation is November 18, 1723. It was granted town status in 1796.
The city was one of Russia's first industrial cities, prompted at the start of the eighteenth century by decrees from the Tsar requiring the development in Yekaterinburg of metal-working businesses. The city was built, with extensive use of iron, to a regular square plan with iron works and residential buildings at the centre. These were surrounded by fortified walls, so that Yekaterinburg was at the same time both a manufacturing centre and a fortress at the frontier between Europe and Asia. It therefore found itself at the heart of Russia's strategy for further development of the entire Ural region. The so-called Siberian highway became operational in 1763 and placed the city on an increasingly important transit route, which led to its development as a focus of trade and commerce between east and west, and gave rise to the description of the city as the "window on Asia". With the growth in trade and the city's administrative importance, the ironworks became less critical, and the more important buildings were increasingly built using expensive stone. Small manufacturing and trading businesses proliferated. In 1781 Russia's empress, Catherine the Great, nominated the city as the administrative centre for the wider region, which led to a further increase in the numbers of military and administrative personnel in the city.
In the early hours of the morning of July 17, 1918, the deposed Tsar, his wife Alexandra, and their children Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Tsarevich Alexei were executed by the Bolsheviks at the Ipatiev House. Other members of the Romanov family were killed at Alapayevsk later the same day. On July 16, 1918, the Czechoslovak legions were closing on Yekaterinburg. The Bolsheviks executed the deposed imperial family, believing that the Czechoslovaks were on a mission to rescue them. The Legions arrived less than a week later and captured the city.
Soviet Era (1917-1991)Edit
Further Information: Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
In 1924, after the Russian Revolution, the city of Yekaterinburg was named Sverdlovsk after the Communist party leader Yakov Sverdlov. During the 1930s, Sverdlovsk was one of several places developed by the Soviet government as a centre of heavy industry, during which time the famous Uralmash was built. Then, during World War II, many state technical institutions and whole factories were relocated to Sverdlovsk away from cities affected by war (mostly Moscow), with many of them staying in Sverdlovsk after the victory. The Hermitage Museum collections were also partly evacuated from Leningrad to Sverdlovsk in July 1941 and remained there until October 1945.
On May 1, 1960, an American U-2 spy plane, piloted by Francis Gary Powers while under the employ of the CIA, was shot down over Sverdlovsk Oblast. He was captured, put on trial, found guilty of espionage and sentenced to seven years of hard labour. He served only about a year before being exchanged for Rudolf Abel, a high-ranking KGB spy, who had been apprehended in the United States in 1957.
In 1977, the Ipatiev House was demolished by order of Boris Yeltsin, to prevent it from being used as a rallying location for monarchists. Yeltsin later became the first President of Russia and represented the people at the funeral of the former Tsar in 1998.
Contemporary Era (1991-present)Edit
Further Information: Russian Federation
During the 1991 coup d'état attempt, Sverdlovsk, the home city of President Boris Yeltsin, was selected by him as a temporary reserve capital for the Russian Federation, in the event that Moscow became too dangerous for the Russian government. A reserve cabinet headed by Oleg Lobov was sent to the city, where Yeltsin enjoyed strong popular support at that time. Shortly after the failure of the coup and subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the city regained its historical name of Yekaterinburg on 4 September 1991. However, Sverdlovsk Oblast, of which Yekaterinburg is the administrative centre, kept its name.
On August 24, 2007, the BBC reported that Russian archaeologists had found the remains of two children of Russia's last Tsar. The remains were discovered in the ground close to the site in Yekaterinburg where the former Tsar, his wife, and their three other daughters were found in 1991 along with the remains of four servants. The discoveries in 2007 are thought to be those of Tsarevich Alexei and Grand Duchess Maria. Archaeologist Sergei Pogorelov said bullets found at the burial site indicate the children had been shot. He told Russian television the newly unearthed bones belonged to two young people: a young male aged roughly 10–13 and a young woman about 18–23. Ceramic vessels found nearby appear to have contained sulfuric acid, consistent with an account by one of the Bolshevik firing squad, who said that after shooting the family they doused the bodies in acid to destroy the flesh and prevent them becoming objects of veneration. The Tsar's remains were given a state funeral in July 1998.
Geography and ClimateEdit
Yekaterinburg is situated on the border of Europe and Asia, 1,667 kilometers (1,036 mi) east of Moscow and 3,375 kilometers (2,097 mi) west of Irkutsk. A misconception many people believe about Yekaterinburg is that it is located in Siberia, which is not.
The city has a total area of 495 square kilometers (191 sq mi).
Yekaterinburg is on the eastern side of the Ural Mountains, also known as the Urals. The city is surrounded by wooded hills, partially cultivated for agricultural purposes. Yekaterinburg is located on a natural watershed, so there would be many bodies of water close and in the city. The city is bisected by the Iset River, which flows from the Urals into the Tobol River. There are two lakes in the city, notably the Lake Shuvakish and Lake Shartash. The city borders Verkh-Isetskiy Pond, in which the Iset River goes through. Lake Isetskoye and Lake Baltym are both nearby the city, with Lake Isetskoye located near the town of Sredneurask, and Lake Baltym located near the towns of Sanatornyy and Baltym.
The city features a humid continental climate (Dfb) under the Köppen climate classification. The winter lasts for about six months—from October until the middle of April—and the temperature may fall to −45 °C (−49 °F), though rarely lower than −20 °C (−4 °F) to −25 °C (−13 °F). Summer in the Urals is short, with warm weather for only 65–70 days and an average temperature of +18 °C (64 °F). The city's location "behind" the mountain range and highly variable winds mean that the weather is quite changeable from one day to the next and from year to year.
|Climate data for Yekaterinburg|
|Record high °C (°F)||5.6
|Average high °C (°F)||−9.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−12.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−15.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−44.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||27
|Average rainy days||1||1||5||13||20||20||19||22||22||17||6||1||147|
|Average snowy days||26||23||18||10||4||0.4||0||0||2||13||23||25||144|
|Average relative humidity (%)||79||75||68||60||58||63||68||73||75||75||78||79||71|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||47||94||164||206||256||272||269||217||143||78||51||37||1,834|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)|
Having decreased during the 1990s, the population started to grow slowly in the 21st century.
Yekaterinburg is the administrative centre of the oblast. Within the framework of the administrative divisions, it is, together with twenty-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Yekaterinburg—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Yekaterinburg is incorporated as Yekaterinburg Urban Okrug.
The Sverdlovsk Oblast administration announced two road projects in 2014: the Yekaterinburg Ring Road (EKAD) and an overpass road on Sovetskaya Street. The Yekaterinburg Ring Road would surround the largest municipalities of Yekaterinburg and its purpose would be to help the economy of the city and reduce traffic on the Middle Ring Road of the city, making it easier for civilians to commute around the city than going through the city's traffic congestion. Eventually, the Ring Road would connect to other federal roads in order for easier access between other Russian cities. Construction of the road started in the same year. The projects were assigned to the Ministry of Transport and Communications since the projects were crucial to the city's economy. Officials hope the road projects will build environments more conducive to improving local quality of life and outside investments. Completing these major inter-regional roads will increase productive traffic by 1.5 to 2 times, improving the local economy with its ease of access to industries.
The city's public transit network includes many tram, bus, trolleybus, Marshrutka routes and Yekaterinburg Metro (underground) which opened in 1991. Today, the Yekaterinburg Metro consists of one line, with a total of nine stations. The Yekaterinburg children railway in the Central Park for Culture and Relaxation has four stations.
As the economy grew stronger after the recession of the 1990s, several European airlines started or resumed flying to the city's Koltsovo International Airport (SVX). These include Czech Airlines, Turkish Airlines, and Finnair. Yekaterinburg is also served by the smaller Yekaterinburg Aramil Airport.
Tram Tatra T3
The Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and numerous other scientific research institutes and establishments are in Yekaterinburg. With its 16 state-owned universities and educational academies, as well as a number of private higher education institutions, Yekaterinburg is considered the leading educational and scientific centre of the Urals. These institutions include the Ural Federal University (comprising Ural State University and Ural State Technical University), Ural State Pedagogical University, Ural State University of Forestry, Ural State Mining University, Ural State University of Railway Transport, Russian State Vocational Pedagogics University, Ural State University of Economics, Military Institute of Artillery, Ural State Conservatory, Ural State Agricultural Academy, Ural State Law Academy, Ural State Medical University, Ural State Academy of Performing Arts, Ural Academy of Public Service, Institute of International Relations, and the Urals Academy of Architecture.
The city has several dozen libraries, including the V. G. Belinsky Scientific Library, which is the largest public library in Sverdlovsk Oblast.
Yekaterinburg is home to numerous theatres and theatre companies: the Yekaterinburg State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre, the Sverdlovsk Academic theatre of Musical Comedy, the Yekaterinburg Academic Dramatic theatre, the Yekaterinburg theatre for Young Spectators, the Volkhonka (a popular chamber theatre), and the Kolyada theatre (a chamber theatre founded by Russian playwright, producer and actor Nikolai Kolyada). Yekaterinburg is the centre of New Drama, a movement of contemporary Russian playwrights Nikolai Kolyada, Vasily Sigarev, Konstantin Kostenko, the Presnyakov brothers, and Oleg Bogayev. Yekaterinburg is often called the capital of contemporary dance for a number of dance companies residing in the city: the Kipling, the Provincial Dances, the Tantstrest, and a special department of contemporary dance at the Yekaterinburg University of Humanities.
A number of popular Russian rock bands, such as Urfin Dzhyus, Chaif, Chicherina, Nautilus Pompilius, Nastya, Trek, Agata Kristi and Smyslovye Gallyutsinatsii, were originally formed in Yekaterinburg (Ural Rock is often considered as a particular variety of rock music. Yekaterinburg and St. Petersburg are actually considered to be the main centres of the genre in Russia). Also, opera singers like Boris Shtokolov, Yuri Gulyayev, Vera Bayeva graduated from the Urals State Conservatory. The Ural Philharmonic Orchestra (currently conducted by Dmitry Liss), founded by Mark Paverman and located in Yekaterinburg, is also very popular in Russia and in Europe, as well as the Ural Academic Popular Chorus, a folk-singing and dance ensemble.
There are over thirty museums in Yekaterinburg, including several museums of Ural minerals and jewelry, art galleries, one of the largest collections anywhere of Kasli mouldings (a traditional kind of cast-iron sculpture in the Urals), and the Shigirskaya Kladovaya (Шигирская кладовая), or Shigir Collection, which includes the oldest wood sculpture in the world: the Shigir Idol, found near Nevyansk and estimated to have been made about 9,500 years ago. Only here can you see a collection of Nevyansk icons, in the Nevyansk Icon Museum, with more than 300 icons representing the 18th through the 20th centuries on display.
In 2014, the city showcased its education, literary, art and theatre culture through the Russian Year of Culture Program.
Vladimir Yelizarov's Recording Studio SVE Records is based in Yekaterinburg. The studio is in a private residence built in 1837 under the title "The House of the Misters", in one of the historical centres of Yekaterinburg city, two hundred meters from Verkh-Isetsky Lake. In 1987, American singer Tina Turner recorded two tracks, which later appeared on her 1989 album Foreign Affair, whilst in the city as part of her highly acclaimed Break Every Rule World Tour.
Yekaterinburg also has a circus building, and one of the tallest incomplete architectural structures in the world, the Yekaterinburg TV Tower. There are also a number of unusual monuments: e. g. a popular landmark Keyboard monument and a monument to Michael Jackson.
According to Yekaterinburg News, the city has signed a cooperative agreement with the Russian mobile operator Vimpelcom, working under the Beeline brand. The partnership will involve cooperation on investment projects and social programs focused on increasing access to mobile services in the city. Beeline has launched an initiative to provide Wi-Fi services in 500 public trams and trolley buses in Yekaterinburg.
|Ural Yekaterinburg||Association Football||1930||Russian Premier League||1st||Central Stadium|
|Avtomobilist Yekaterinburg||Ice Hockey||2006||Kontinental Hockey League||1st||KRK Uralets|
|Avto Yekaterinburg||Ice Hockey||2009||Minor Hockey League||Jr. 1st||KRK Uralets|
|Spartak-Merkury||Ice Hockey||1992||Women's Hockey Championship||1st||Sports Palace Snezhinka|
|SKA-Sverdlovsk||Bandy||1935||Russian Bandy Supreme League||2nd||NTZ stadium|
|Ural Yekaterinburg||Basketball||2006||Russian Basketball Super League||2nd||Palace of Team Sports|
|UGMK Yekaterinburg||Basketball||1938||Women's Basketball Premier League||1st||Palace of Team Sports|
|Lokomotiv-Izumrud Yekaterinburg||Volleyball||1945||Volleyball Supreme League A||2nd||Palace of Team Sports|
|Uralochka Yekaterinburg||Volleyball||1966||Women's Volleyball Superleague||1st||Palace of Team Sports|
|Sinara Yekaterinburg||Futsal||1992||Futsal Super League||1st||Palace of Team Sports|
The BRIC countries met for their first official summit on June 16, 2009, in Yekaterinburg, with Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, and Hu Jintao, the respective leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China, all attending.
The foreign ministers of the BRIC countries had also met in Yekaterinburg previously on May 16, 2008.
In June 2013, at the 153rd General Assembly of the Bureau of International Expositions held in Paris, representatives from Yekaterinburg presented the city’s bid to host the 2020 World Expo. Yekaterinburg’s concept for the upcoming exhibition relates to the impact of globalization on the modern world.
Russian President Vladimir Putin confirmed during a televised statement in English to earmark the required funds to build an exhibition complex large enough to receive the estimated 30 million visitors from more than 150 countries.
Twin towns and sister citiesEdit
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Yekaterinburg is a sister city of:
- Irina Antonenko, Miss Russia 2010
- Vera Bazarova, pairs figure skater
- Pavel Bazhov, folklorist and children's author
- Old Man Bukashkin, artist and poet
- Pavel Datsyuk, ice hockey player
- Chiang Fang-liang, former first lady of Taiwan
- Denis Galimzyanov, sprinter cyclist
- Anna Gavrilenko, Group rhythmic gymnast Olympic Gold medalist
- Babak Jalali, Boxer, ex-deputy governor of Sverdlovsk Oblast
- Nikolay Karpol, national women volleyball team coach
- Nikolai Khabibulin, ice hockey player
- Alexei Yashin, ice hockey player
- Alexei Khvostenko, avant-garde poet, singer-songwriter, artist, and sculptor
- Ilya Kormiltsev, poet, translator, publisher
- Olga Kotlyarova, Olympic runner
- Maxim Kovtun, figure skater
- Vladislav Krapivin, children's author
- Valeria Savinykh, WTA Professional player
- Nikolay Krasovsky, mathematician
- Yulia Lipnitskaya, figure skater
- Iskander Makhmudov, businessman
- Vladimir Malakhov, ice hockey player
- Gennady Mesyats, vice-president of the Russian Academy of Sciences
- Maxim Miroshkin, pairs figure skater
- Alfia Nazmutdinova, rhythmic gymnast
- Ernst Neizvestny, sculptor
- Oleg Platonov, writer, historian, and economist
- Eduard Rossel, ex-governor of Sverdlovsk Oblast
- Boris Ryzhy, poet
- Vera Sessina, rhythmic gymnast
- Georgy Shishkin, painter
- Vassily Sigarev, playwright
- Anastasiia Tatareva, Group rhythmic gymnast Olympic Gold medalist
- Sergei Tchepikov, Olympic biathlon competitor
- Vladimir Tretyakov, ex-rector of the Ural State University
- Lev Vainshtein, Olympic shooter
- Sergei Vonsovsky, physicist
- Law #30-OZ
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 65 401», в ред. изменения №275/2015 от 1 сентября 2015 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 65 401, as amended by the Amendment #275/2015 of September 1, 2015. ).
- Law #85-OZ
- Official website of Yekaterinburg. Alexander Edmundovich Yakob, Head of Administration of the City of Yekaterinburg (in Russian)
- Charter of Yekaterinburg, Article 24.1
- Стратегический план развития Екатеринбурга до 2015 года. Раздел II. Исходные конкурентные возможности Екатеринбурга. Внутренние факторы развития города.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- "Federal State Statistic Service". Goverment of Russia. 2017-01-01. Retrieved 2017-07-07.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Haywood, A. J. (2010). Siberia: A Cultural History, Oxford University Press, p. 32
- "History - Официальный портал Екатеринбурга". Ekburg.ru. January 7, 1934. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- Ekaterinburg.com. General Information
- "President Yeltsin speaks about Tsar Murder". BBC News. July 17, 1998. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- Matthew S. Meselson, et al., "The Sverdlovsk Anthrax Outbreak of 1979", Science 266:5188 (November 18, 1994): 1202–1208.
- Martin McCauley, "Who's who in Russia since 1900", Routledge, 1997: p.133.
- "Russia dig finds 'tsar's family'". BBC News. August 24, 2007. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- "President Yelsin's speech". BBC News. July 17, 1998. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- "Where is Ekaterinburg in Russia?". www.ekaterinburg-ural.com. Retrieved 2017-06-22.
- "Климат Екатеринбурга" (in Russian). Погода и климат. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Home page. Ural Airlines. Retrieved on July 18, 2010. "Address: Utrenniy 1g, Yekaterinburg Russia, 620025, SITA SVXTOU6" Russian address: Home page. "Адрес: 620025, Россия, Екатеринбург, пер. Утренний, 1г"
- Reports, Yekaterinburg News. "Sverdlovsk focusing on two road projects". Retrieved 2017-06-14.
- Fletcher, Martin. "Yekaterinburg to showcase city’s cultural achievements during Year of Culture". Yekaterinburg News. February 13, 2014. (Retrieved 02-13-2014).
- "Monument to Michael Jackson unveiled in Yekaterinburg: Photo gallery". :. June 29, 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- Fletcher, Martin. "Yekaterinburg signs cooperative agreement with Vimpelcom under Beeline brand", Yekateringburg News, July 19, 2013. (Retrieved July 22, 2013).
- "Official website of the U.S. Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". Retrieved 2012-04-19.
- "Official website of the British Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". Retrieved 2012-04-19.
- "Official website of the German Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". Retrieved 2012-04-19.
- "Official website of the French Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". Retrieved 2012-04-19.
- "Chinese Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". Retrieved 2013-09-07.
- "First summit for emerging giants". BBC News. June 16, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- Hamilton, Louis (June 18, 2013). "Yekaterinburg presents city’s bid for 2020 World Expo". Yekaterinburg News. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
- "San Jose Sister City". Retrieved 2014. Check date values in:
- "Guangzhou Sister Cities [via WaybackMachine.com]". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- "Hamadan". Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "2012 Membership Directory SCI" (PDF). Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- Екатеринбургская городская Дума. Решение №8/1 от 30 июня 2005 г. «О принятии Устава муниципального образования "Город Екатеринбург"», в ред. Решения №1/27 от 27 января 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав муниципального образования "Город Екатеринбург"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Екатеринбургской городской Думы", №95, 15 июля 2005 г. (Yekaterinburg City Duma. Decision #8/1 of June 30, 2005 On the Adoption of the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Yekaterinburg", as amended by the Decision #1/27 of January 27, 2015 On Amending the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Yekaterinburg". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Областная Дума Законодательного Собрания Свердловской области. Областной закон №30-ОЗ от 20 мая 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Свердловской области», в ред. Закона №32-ОЗ от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Областной закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Свердловской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования за исключением отдельных положений, вступающих в силу в иные сроки. Опубликован: "Областная газета", №81, 3 июня 1997 г. (Oblast Duma of the Legislative Assembly of Sverdlovsk Oblast. Oblast Law #30-OZ of May 20, 1997 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sverdlovsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #32-OZ of April 25, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sverdlovsk Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication with the exception of several clauses which take effect on a different date.).
- Областная Дума Законодательного Собрания Свердловской области. Закон №85-ОЗ от 12 июля 2007 г. «О границах муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории Свердловской области», в ред. Закона №107-ОЗ от 29 октября 2013 г. «Об упразднении отдельных населённых пунктов, расположенных на территории города Ивделя, и о внесении изменений в Приложение 39 к Закону Свердловской области "О границах муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории Свердловской области"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Областная газета", №232–249, 17 июля 2007 г. (Oblast Duma of the Legislative Assembly of Sverdlovsk Oblast. Law #85-OZ of July 12, 2007 On the Borders of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Sverdlovsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #107-OZ of October 29, 2013 On Abolishing Several Inhabited Localities on the Territory of the Town of Ivdul and on Amending the Law of Sverdlovsk Oblast "On the Borders of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Sverdlovsk Oblast". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication.).