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Yekaterinburg (Russian: Екатеринбу́рг, IPA: [jɪkətʲɪrʲɪnˈburk]), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, on the border of Asia and Europe.[14][15] It is the main cultural and industrial center of the oblast. At the 2010 Census, it had a population of 1,349,772.[7] Yekaterinburg's urban area is the fourth largest in Russia, as well as one of the three most developed post-industrial urban areas of the country. Yekaterinburg is also the headquarters of the Central Military District.

Yekaterinburg
Екатеринбург (Russian)
Sverdlovsk (1924-91)
-  City[1]  -
EKB Montage 2017.png
Clockwise: City Administrative Building, Ural State College, Yekaterinburg City, Sevastyanov's House, Boris Yeltsin Presidential Center, Church of All Saints
Map of Russia - Sverdlovsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Sverdlovsk Oblast in Russia
Yekaterinburg is located in Sverdlovsk Oblast
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
Location of Yekaterinburg in Sverdlovsk Oblast
Coordinates: 56°50′N 60°35′E / 56.833°N 60.583°E / 56.833; 60.583Coordinates: 56°50′N 60°35′E / 56.833°N 60.583°E / 56.833; 60.583
Coat of Arms of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast).svg
Flag of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day 3rd Saturday of August[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Sverdlovsk Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to City of Yekaterinburg[2]
Administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast,[1] City of Yekaterinburg[citation needed]
Municipal status (as of June 2009)
Urban okrug Yekaterinburg Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Yekaterinburg Urban Okrug[3]
Head[4] Yevgeny Roizman[4]
Representative body City Duma[5]
Statistics
Area 495 km2 (191 sq mi)[6]
Population (2010 Census) 1,349,772 inhabitants[7]
Rank in 2010 4th
Population (2017 est.) 1,488,791 inhabitants[8]
Density 2,727/km2 (7,060/sq mi)[9]
Time zone YEKT (UTC+05:00)[10]
Founded November 18, 1723[11]
City status since 1796[citation needed]
Previous names Yekaterinburg (until 1924),[12]
Sverdlovsk (until 1991)[12]
Postal code(s)[13] 620000
Dialing code(s) +7 343[13]
Website
Yekaterinburg on Wikimedia Commons

Yekaterinburg was founded on November 18, 1723, named after Russian emperor Peter the Great's wife, Yekaterina, who later became Catherine I after Peter's death, serving as the mining capital of the Russian Empire as well as a strategic connection between Europe and Asia at the time. In 1781, Catherine II "the Great" gave Yekaterinburg the status of a district town of Perm Province, and built the main road of the Empire, the Siberian Route, through the city. Yekaterinburg became a key city to Siberia, which had rich resources, and was known as the "window to Asia", a reference to Saint Petersburg as a "window to Europe". In the late 19th century, Yekaterinburg became one of the centers of revolutionary movements in the Urals. In 1924, after Russia became a socialist state, the city was named Sverdlovsk (Russian: Свердло́вск) after the Communist party leader Yakov Sverdlov. During the Soviet Era, Sverdlovsk was turned into an industrial and administrative powerhouse that played a part in the Soviet Union's economy. In 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union, the city changed its name back to its historical name of Yekaterinburg.

Yekaterinburg is one of the most important economic centers in Russia, and the city had experienced economic and population growth recently. Some of the tallest buildings in Russia are located in the city.

Contents

HistoryEdit

PrehistoryEdit

 
Casting mold that can hold 5 sickles, dating back to the Bronze Age

In the land now occupied by Yekaterinburg, there have been settlements of people since ancient times. The earliest of the ancient settlements dated back to 8000 BC to 7000 BC during the Mesolithic Period. In the area of Isetskoe Pravoberezhnoye I, a settlement dating back to 6000 BC to 5000 BC of the Neolithic Period, stone processing workshops were found with artifacts such as grinding plates, anvils, clumps of rock, tools and finished products. According to the analysis of artifacts, the inhabitants of the settlement used over 50 different rocks and minerals to make tools, which indicates a good knowledge of the population of that time of the region's natural resources. On the peninsula Gamayun (left bank of the Upper Iset Pond), there are archaeological monuments dating back to the Chalcolithic Period: in the upper part there were found workshops for the production of stone tools, in the lower part - a settlement of two dwellings belonging to the Ayat people. Also in this area traces of his stay (the original dishes with the image of birds, evidence of metallurgical production) left the population of the Koptyak people, dating back to 2,000 BC , while on the monument of Tent I were found the only traces of burials of this culture in the Urals. In the Bronze Age, the Gamayun people lived in the area, leaving behind fragments of ceramics, weapons, ornaments.[16][17][18]

Archaeological artifacts in the vicinity of Yekaterinburg were discovered for the first time at the end of the 19th century in an area being constructed for a railway. Excavations and research took place starting from the 20th century. The artifacts are kept in museums such as the Sverdlovsk Regional Museum of Local Lore, the Hermitage, and the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences.[17]

Imperial EraEdit

 
Yekaterinburg, 1789

Russian historian Vasily Tatishchev and Russian engineer Georg Wilhelm de Gennin founded Yekaterinburg with the construction of a massive iron-making plant under the degree of Russian emperor Russian emperor Peter the Great in 1723.[19] They named the city after the emperor's wife, Yekaterina, who later became empress regnant Catherine I.[11] The official date of the city's foundation is November 18, 1723, when the shops was carried out a test run of the bloomery for battle hammers.[11] The plant was commissioned on November 24, 6 days later, which its size and technical equipment exceeded all metallurgical enterprises not only in the country, but also in the world.[20] It was granted town status in 1796.[citation needed]

The city was one of Russia's first industrial cities, prompted at the start of the eighteenth century by decrees from the Tsar requiring the development in Yekaterinburg of metal-working businesses. The city was built, with extensive use of iron, to a regular square plan with iron works and residential buildings at the center. These were surrounded by fortified walls, so that Yekaterinburg was at the same time both a manufacturing center and a fortress at the frontier between Europe and Asia. It therefore found itself at the heart of Russia's strategy for further development of the entire Ural region. The so-called Siberian Route became operational in 1763 and placed the city on an increasingly important transit route, which led to its development as a focus of trade and commerce between east and west, and gave rise to the description of the city as the "window on Asia". With the growth in trade and the city's administrative importance, the ironworks became less critical, and the more important buildings were increasingly built using expensive stone. Small manufacturing and trading businesses proliferated. In 1781 Russia's empress, Catherine the Great, nominated the city as the administrative center for the wider region.[21][22]

Following the October Revolution, the family of deposed Tsar Nicholas II were sent to internal exile in Yekaterinburg where they were imprisoned in the Ipatiev House in the city. In the early hours of the morning of July 17, 1918, the deposed Tsar, his wife Alexandra, and their children Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Tsarevich Alexei were executed by the Bolsheviks at the Ipatiev House. Other members of the Romanov family were killed at Alapayevsk later the same day. On July 16, 1918, the Czechoslovak legions were closing on Yekaterinburg. The Bolsheviks executed the deposed imperial family, believing that the Czechoslovaks were on a mission to rescue them. The Legions arrived less than a week later and captured the city.[23][24] The city remained under the control of the White movement in which a provisional government was established. The Red Army took back the city on July 14, 1919, and restored Soviet authority.[25][26]

Soviet EraEdit

 
Snow-covered statue of Yakov Sverdlov

In the years following the Russian Revolution and the Russian Civil War, political authority of the Urals was transferred from Perm to Yekaterinburg. On October 19, 1920, Yekaterinburg established its first university, the Ural State University, as well as polytechnic, pedagogical, and medical institutions under the decree of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. Enterprises in the city ravaged by the war were nationalized, including: the Metalist (formerly Yates) Plant, the Verkh-Isetsky (formerly Yakovleva) Plant, and the Lenin flax-spinning factory (formerly Makarov). In 1924, the city of Yekaterinburg was renamed Sverdlovsk after the Communist party leader Yakov Sverdlov.[27][28][dead link][25]

During the reign of Joseph Stalin, Sverdlovsk was one of several places developed by the Soviet government as a center of heavy industry. Old factories were reconstructed and new large factories were built, especially those specialized in machine-building and metal-working. These plants included Uralmash, Magnitogorsk, and the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. During this time, the population of Sverdlovsk has grown more than 3 times, and it has become one of the fastest growing cities of the USSR. At that time, very large powers were given to the regional authorities. By the end of the 1930s, there were 140 industrial enterprises, 25 research institutes, and 12 higher education institutions in Sverdlovsk.[29][30][dead link]

During World War II, the city became the headquarters of the Ural Military District on the basis of which more than 500 different military units and formations were formed, including the 22nd Army and the Ural Volunteer Tank Corps. Uralmash became a main production site for armored vehicles. Many state technical institutions and whole factories were relocated to Sverdlovsk away from cities affected by war (mostly Moscow), with many of them staying in Sverdlovsk after the victory. The Hermitage Museum collections were also partly evacuated from Leningrad to Sverdlovsk in July 1941 and remained there until October 1945.[31]

 
Cathedral on the Blood stands on the site of the Ipatiev House, where the Romanovs—the last royal family of Russia—were executed

In the postwar years, new industrial and agricultural enterprises were put into operation and massive housing construction began.[32][25] The lookalike five-story apartment blocks that remain today in Kirovsky, Chkalovsky, and other residential areas of Sverdlovsk sprang up in the 1960s, under the direction of Khrushchev's government.[33] In 1977, the Ipatiev House was demolished by order of Boris Yeltsin in accordance to a resolution from the Politburo in order to prevent it from being used as a rallying location for monarchists. Yeltsin later became the first President of Russia and represented the people at the funeral of the former Tsar in 1998.[34] There was an anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk in April and May 1979, which was attributed to a release from the Sverdlovsk-19 military facility.[35]

Contemporary EraEdit

During the 1991 coup d'état attempt, Sverdlovsk, the home city of President Boris Yeltsin, was selected by him as a temporary reserve capital for the Russian Federation, in the event that Moscow became too dangerous for the Russian government. A reserve cabinet headed by Oleg Lobov was sent to the city, where Yeltsin enjoyed strong popular support at that time.[36] Shortly after the failure of the coup and subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the city regained its historical name of Yekaterinburg on September 4, 1991. However, Sverdlovsk Oblast, of which Yekaterinburg is the administrative center, kept its name.[37][38]

In the 2000s, an intensive growth of trade, business, and tourism began in Yekaterinburg. In 2003, Russian President Vladimir Putin and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder negotiated in Yekaterinburg. From June 15 to 17, 2009, the SCO and BRIC summits were held in Yekaterinburg, which deeply affected the economic, cultural and tourist situation in the city. In July 13–16, 2010, a meeting between Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and German Chancellor Angela Merkel took place in the city.[39]

Geography and climateEdit

LocationEdit

 
Yekaterinburg City and vicinities, satellite image of ESA Sentinel-2

Yekaterinburg is situated on the border of Europe and Asia, 1,667 kilometers (1,036 mi) east of Moscow and 3,375 kilometers (2,097 mi) west of Irkutsk. A misconception many people believe about Yekaterinburg is that it is located in Siberia, which it is not.[40]

The city has a total area of 495 square kilometers (191 sq mi).

Yekaterinburg is on the eastern side of the Ural Mountains, also known as the Urals. The city is surrounded by wooded hills, partially cultivated for agricultural purposes. Yekaterinburg is located on a natural watershed, so there would be many bodies of water close and in the city. The city is bisected by the Iset River, which flows from the Urals into the Tobol River. There are two lakes in the city, notably the Lake Shuvakish and Lake Shartash. The city borders Verkh-Isetskiy Pond, in which the Iset River goes through. Lake Isetskoye and Lake Baltym are both nearby the city, with Lake Isetskoye located near the town of Sredneuralsk, and Lake Baltym located near the towns of Sanatornyy and Baltym.

TimeEdit

Yekaterinburg uses the Yekaterinburg Time, which is five hours ahead of the UTC (UTC+5), and two hours ahead of Moscow Time.[41]

ClimateEdit

The city features a humid continental climate (Dfb) under the Köppen climate classification.[42] It is characterized by sharp variability in weather conditions, with well-marked seasons. The Ural Mountains, despite their insignificant height, block air from the west, from the European part of Russia. As a result, the Middle Urals are open to the invasion of cold arctic air and continental air from the West Siberian Plain. Equally, warm air masses from the Caspian Sea and the deserts of Central Asia can freely penetrate from the south. Therefore, the weather in Yekaterinburg is characterized by sharp temperature fluctuations and weather anomalies: in winter, from severe frost to thaw and rain; in summer, from temperatures above +35 °C to frosts.[42]

The city is located in a zone of sufficient moisture. The distribution of precipitation is determined by the circulation of air masses, relief, and air temperatures. The main part of the precipitation is brought by cyclones with a western air mass transfer, that is, from the European part of Russia, while their average annual amount is 550–650 mm. The maximum falls on a warm season, during which about 60-70% of the annual amount falls. For the winter period, a snow cover with a thickness of up to 70 cm is characteristic. The coefficient of moistening ranges from 1.2 to 1.6.[42]

  • The average temperature in January is -12.6 °C. The absolute minimum temperature is -46.7 °C (December 31, 1978);
  • The average July temperature is +19 °C. The absolute maximum temperature is +38.8 °C (July 1, 1911);
  • The average annual temperature is +3 °C;
  • The average annual wind speed is 2.9 m / s;
  • The average annual humidity is 71%;
  • The average annual precipitation is 537 mm;
Climate data for Yekaterinburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
9.4
(48.9)
17.3
(63.1)
28.8
(83.8)
33.4
(92.1)
35.6
(96.1)
38.8
(101.8)
37.2
(99)
31.9
(89.4)
24.7
(76.5)
13.5
(56.3)
5.9
(42.6)
38.8
(101.8)
Average high °C (°F) −9.1
(15.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
1.0
(33.8)
9.8
(49.6)
17.4
(63.3)
23.0
(73.4)
24.4
(75.9)
21.1
(70)
14.5
(58.1)
6.8
(44.2)
−2.8
(27)
−7.9
(17.8)
7.6
(45.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.6
(9.3)
−11.1
(12)
−3.8
(25.2)
4.3
(39.7)
11.3
(52.3)
17.1
(62.8)
19.0
(66.2)
15.9
(60.6)
9.8
(49.6)
3.4
(38.1)
−5.8
(21.6)
−11.0
(12.2)
3.0
(37.4)
Average low °C (°F) −15.7
(3.7)
−14.5
(5.9)
−7.6
(18.3)
0.0
(32)
6.2
(43.2)
12.1
(53.8)
14.4
(57.9)
11.9
(53.4)
6.4
(43.5)
0.7
(33.3)
−8.3
(17.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−0.7
(30.7)
Record low °C (°F) −44.6
(−48.3)
−42.4
(−44.3)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−13.5
(7.7)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
−9.0
(15.8)
−22.7
(−8.9)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−46.7
(−52.1)
−46.7
(−52.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 27
(1.06)
20
(0.79)
21
(0.83)
28
(1.1)
50
(1.97)
75
(2.95)
90
(3.54)
73
(2.87)
58
(2.28)
39
(1.54)
33
(1.3)
27
(1.06)
541
(21.3)
Average rainy days 1 1 5 13 20 20 19 22 22 17 6 1 147
Average snowy days 26 23 18 10 4 0.4 0 0 2 13 23 25 144
Average relative humidity (%) 79 75 68 60 58 63 68 73 75 75 78 79 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 47 94 164 206 256 272 269 217 143 78 51 37 1,834
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[43]
Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[44]

DemographicsEdit

PopulationEdit

Year Pop. ±%
1897 43,239 —    
1926 140,000 +223.8%
1939 423,000 +202.1%
1959 779,000 +84.2%
1970 1,025,000 +31.6%
1979 1,211,172 +18.2%
1989 1,364,621 +12.7%
2002 1,293,537 −5.2%
2010 1,349,772 +4.3%
2013 1,396,074 +3.4%
2015 1,428,042 +2.3%

According to the results of the 2010 Census, the population of Yekaterinburg was 1,349,772;[7] up from 1,293,537 recorded in the 2002 Census.[45] At the time of the official 2010 Census, the ethnic makeup of the city's population whose ethnicity was known (1,349,772) was:

  • Russian: 1,106,688 (89.04%)
  • Tatar: 46,232 (3.72%)
  • Ukrainian: 12,815 (1.03%)
  • Bashkir: 11,922 (0.96%)
  • Mari: 6,481
  • Azerbaijanis: 6,381
  • Tajiks: 5,868
  • Armenians: 5,271
  • Jews: 4,339
  • Uzbeks: 4,072
  • Belarusians: 3,672
  • Udmurts: 2,666
  • Mordovians: 2,664
  • Chuvash: 2,508
  • Germans: 2,383

ReligionEdit

 
This photo by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky from 1910 shows the tallest building in the pre-revolutionary Urals, the Great Zlatoust bell tower

Christianity is the predominant religion in the city, of which most are adherents to the Russian Orthodox Church. The Yekaterinburg and Verkhotursky diocese is located in the Holy Trinity Cathedral in the city. Other religions practiced in Yekaterinburg include Islam, Old Believers, Catholicism, Protestantism, and Judaism.

Yekaterinburg has a large percentage of Muslims, but the community suffers from a lack of mosques in the city: with there are only 2 small mosques. Another mosque was built in the nearby city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma. On November 24, 2007, the first stone was laid in the construction of a large Cathedral Mosque with four minarets, and space for 2500 parishioners in the immediate vicinity of the cathedral and a synagogue, thus forming the "area of the three religions".[46] The mosque was planned to be built for the SCO summit, but due to funding problems, construction did not move from zero and is now frozen.

Construction of a Methodist church started in 1992, and with the help of American donations, finished in 2001.[47] A synagogue was opened in 2005, on the same place a 19th-century synagogue was demolished in 1962.

Most of the city's religious buildings were destroyed during the Soviet era, in addition to the synagogue, the three largest Orthodox churches in Yekaterinburg were demolished - the Epiphany Cathedral, the Ekaterininsky Cathedral, and the Great Zlatoust Church. Other Christian churches such as the Lutheran Church of Yekaterinburg and the Roman Catholic Church of St. Anne (a new Catholic church of the same name was built in 2000) were demolished as well. Other churches were used as warehouses and industrial sites. The only religious building in Yekaterinburg in the Soviet era was the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist. Recently, some churches are being rebuilt. Since 2006, according to the surviving drawings, the Great Zlatoust Church was restored in 2012. In April 17, 2010, the city was visited by His Holiness Patriarch Kirill.[48]

GovernmentEdit

Yekaterinburg is the administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast.[1] Within the framework of the administrative divisions, it is, together with twenty-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Yekaterinburg[2]—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Yekaterinburg is incorporated as Yekaterinburg Urban Okrug.[3]

Administrative districtsEdit

The city is divided into seven administrative districts:[49]

  • Verkh-Isetsky (1)
  • Zheleznodorozhnyy (2)
  • Ordzhonikidzevsky (3)
  • Kirovsky (4)
  • Oktyabrsky (5)
  • Chkalovsky (6)
  • Leninsky (7)

Each district is not a municipal formation, and the historical center of the city is divided into five inner-city districts (except Chkalovsky and Ordzhonikidzevsky).

A district named Akademicheskogo formed from the Leninsky and Verkh-Isetsky Districts is proposed.[50][51]

AdministrationEdit

UrbanEdit

 
Building of the Administration of Yekaterinburg located on 1905 Square

The Charter of Yekaterinburg establishes a four-link system for the organization of local authorities, which includes: the Head of Yekaterinburg, who serves as the chairman of the Yekaterinburg City Duma, the Yekaterinburg City Duma, the Administration of the City of Yekaterinburg, and the Chamber of Accounts.[52]

According to the charter of Yekaterinburg, the highest official of the municipal formation is the head of Yekaterinburg. The head is elected by universal suffrage, but since April 3, 2018, the procedure for direct elections of the Head of the City of Yekaterinburg was abolished. The position is held by Yevgeny Roizman since September 14, 2013. The head of the city is endowed with representative powers and powers to organize activities and guide the activities of the City Duma. In addition, the head of the city exercises other powers: he concludes a contract with the head of the city administration, ensures compliance with the Russian Constitution, Russian legislation, the city charter, and other normative acts.[53][54]

In the event of a temporary absence of the head of Yekaterinburg, his authority under his written order is exercised by the deputy head of Yekaterinburg.[55]

The representative body of the municipal formation is the Yekaterinburg City Duma, which represents the entire population of the city. The membership of the Duma is 36 deputies (18 deputies were elected in single-mandate constituencies and 18 in a single electoral district). Deputies are elected by residents of the city on the basis of universal suffrage for a period of 5 years.[52]

The executive and administrative body of the municipal formation is the Administration of the City of Yekaterinburg, led by the head of the Administration, currently held by Aleksandr Yacob. The administration is endowed with its own powers to resolve issues of local importance, but it is under the control and accountable to the Yekaterinburg City Duma. The building of the Administration of Yekaterinburg is located on 1905 Square.[54]

The Chamber of Accounts is a permanently operating body of external municipal financial control. The Chamber is formed by the apparatus of the City Duma and is accountable to it. The Chamber consists of the chairman, deputy chairman, auditors and staff. The structure and number of staff of the chamber, including the number of auditors, is determined by the decision of the City Duma. The term of office of the Chamber staff is 5 years. The Chamber of Accounts is a legal entity.[55]

OblastEdit

 
The building of Sverdlovsk Oblast's Legislative Assembly

In accordance with the regional charter, Yekaterinburg is the administrative center of the Sverdlovsk Oblast.[1] The executive power is exercised by the governor of Sverdlovsk Oblast, the legislative power by the legislative assembly of Sverdlovsk Oblast, and the judicial power by the Sverdlovsk Regional Court, located in the building of the Palace of Justice.[56] The building serving the regional government is the White House and the building serving the legislative assembly is located next to it on October Square. The ministries of the Sverdlovsk Region are located in the building of the regional government, as well as in other separate buildings of the city.[57]

FederalEdit

Yekaterinburg serves as the center of the Ural Federal District. As a result, it serves as the residence of the presidential envoy, the highest official of the district and part of the administration of the President of Russia. The residence is located the building of the regional government on October Square near the Iset embankment. The position is currently held by Igor Khalmanskikh.[58]

In addition, Yekaterinburg serves as the center of the Central Military District and more than 30 territorial branches of the federal executive bodies, whose jurisdiction extends not only to Sverdlovsk Oblast, but also to other regions in the Urals, Siberia, and the Volga Region. Its current district commander is Lieutenant-General Aleksandr Lapin, who has held the position since 22 November 2017.[59]

EconomyEdit

OverviewEdit

Yekaterinburg is one of the largest economic centers in Russia. It is included in the City-600 list (it unites the 600 largest cities in the world that produce 60% of global GDP), compiled by the McKinsey Global Institute, a research organization. In 2010, the consulting company estimated the gross product of Yekaterinburg to be about $19 billion (according to the calculations of the company, it should grow to 40 billion by 2025).[60][61]

By volume of the economy, Ekaterinburg ranks third in the country, after Moscow and St. Petersburg. According to research of the Institute for Urban Economics, in the ranking of the largest cities and regional capital cities according to economical standards for 2015, Yekaterinburg ranked 3rd. The city's gross urban product (GVP) was 898 billion rubles. Per capita GDP was 621.0 thousand rubles (18th place).[62] In 2015, the gross urban product of the Yekaterinburg metropolitan area amounted to 50.7 billion international dollars (the fourth place in the country) or 25.4 thousand international dollars in terms of per inhabitant of the metropolitan area.[63]

In the Soviet era, Yekaterinburg (as Sverdlovsk) was a purely industrial city, with a share of industry in the economy of 90% (of which 90% were in defense production). With Chelyabinsk and Perm, the three cities formed what to be the Urals industrial hub.[64]

The former head of Yekaterinburg, Arkady Chernetsky, has set the goal of diversifying the city's economy, which has resulted in the development of sectors such as warehousing, transportation, logistics, telecommunications, financial sector, wholesale and retail trade, etc. in Yekaterinburg.[64] Economist-geographer Natalia Zubarevich points out that at the present stage, Yekaterinburg has practically lost its industrial specialization.[65]

Living costs and the labor marketEdit

 
Aquamarine apartment complex with the topped out 188-meter Vysotsky skyscraper in the background

The standard of living in Yekaterinburg exceeds the average standard across Russia. According to the Department of Sociology of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, it is among the top ten cities with the highest standard of living. Compared to other Russian cities with a population of around or over one million, in 2015, Yekaterinburg held a leading position in terms of average monthly wages and retail turnover, in terms of the total volume of investments in 4th place of fixed assets, and 2nd place in housing placement.[66][67]

The average monthly wage in Yekaterinburg following the results of 2015 was 41,492 rubles. The average number of employees of large and medium-sized organizations is 440,300 people. The unemployment rate at the end of 2015 was 0.83% of the total economically active population. Locals labelled the main problems of the city such the current state of the healthcare system, housing system, and transportation system.[67][68]

The budget of Yekaterinburg in 2015 was executed on income in the amount of 32,063.6 million rubles, for expenses in the amount of 32,745.8 million rubles. Among the budget expenditures: 17 billion rubles were spent on education, over 1 billion rubles on culture, and about 900 million rubles on health. The main part of the revenue of the city treasury was its own tax and non-tax revenues (more than 18 billion rubles). The revenues from the regional and federal budgets were at the lowest level in 10 years. Specialists noted a decrease in tax revenues and an increase in tax debt (exceeded 2 billion rubles).[67][69]

The main budget expenditures are the development of the economy (which accounts for 19% of expenditures) and the social security of the townspeople (11% of expenditures go). Cities such as Perm, Kazan and Ufa, spend for these purposes in a smaller percentage of costs (from 2 to 6%). Also, a fairly strict budgetary discipline is noted—the budget deficit is kept at the level of 2% of its volume.[70]

Finance and BusinessEdit

Yekaterinburg is one of the largest financial and business centers in Russia, with offices of multinational corporations, representative offices of foreign companies, and a large number of federal and regional financial and credit organizations. The financial market of Yekaterinburg is characterized by stability and independence, based both on the broad presence of large foreign and Moscow credit organizations, and on the availability of large and stable local financial holdings.[71]

The financial sector of Yekaterinburg has more than 100 banks, including 11 foreign banks. The list of the largest Russian banks for assets for 2016 included 10 banks registered in Yekaterinburg, including but not all: Ural Bank for Reconstruction and Development, SKB-Bank, Uraltransbank, and UM Bank.[72][73]

Also in Yekaterinburg is the Ural headquarters of the Central Bank of Russia. Since August 7, 2017, by order of the Bank of Russia, the branches of the Siberian, Far Eastern and part of the Prevolzhsky Federal Districts have been transferred to the control of the Ural Megaregal Directorate. Thus, this is one of the three main departments of the Mega-regulator in the territory of Russia.[74]

A major role in the formation of Yekaterinburg as a business center has its infrastructural potential, which is growing at a high rate: transport accessibility for Russian and foreign economic entities, the availability of hotels, advanced communication services, business related services (consulting, exhibition activities, etc.).[71] Yekaterinburg has its own central business district, Yekaterinburg City.[75]

IndustryEdit

 
1st Pyateletka Square, where Uralmash is headquartered

Yekaterinburg has been a major industrial center since its foundation. In the 18th century, the main branches were smelting and processing of metal. Since the beginning of the 19th century, machine building appeared, and in the second half of the 19th century, light and food (especially milling) industry was widely spread. A new stage in the development of production occurred during the period of industrialization - at this time in the city, factories were built, which determined the industry specialization industry - heavy engineering. During World War II, Yekaterinburg (as Sverdlovsk) hosted about sixty enterprises evacuated from Central Russia and Ukraine, as a result of which there was a sharp increase in the production capacity of existing plants and the emergence of new branches of the Urals industry.

At present, more than 220 large and medium-sized enterprises are registered in Yekaterinburg, 197 of them in manufacturing industries.[71] In 2015, they shipped 323,288 million rubles worth of own-produced goods. Production by industry was divided accordingly: metallurgical production and metalworking - 20.9%, food production - 13.3%, production of electrical equipment, electronic and optical equipment - 9.2%, production of vehicles - 8.4%, production of machinery and equipment - 6.4%, chemical production - 5.5%, production of other nonmetallic mineral products - 3.7%, production of rubber and plastic products - 2.8%, pulp and paper production, publishing and printing - 0.5%, and other - 29.3%.[76]

Several headquarters of large Russian industrial companies are located in the city: IDGC of Urals, Enel Russia, Steel-Industrial Company, Russian Copper Company, Kalina, NLMK-Sort, VIZ-Stal, Sinara Group, Uralelectrotyazhmash, Automation Association named after academician NA Semikhatov, Ural Heavy Machinery Plant (Uralmash), Fat Plant, Fores, confectionery association Sladko, Machine Building Plant named after M.I. Kalinin, Ural Turbine Plant, Uralkhimmash and others.[77]

Retail and servicesEdit

 
Vaynera Street, where most of Yekaterinburg's retail are centralized

The consumer market contributes significantly to Yekaterinburg's economy. Revenue of retail stores in 2015 amounted to 725.9 billion rubles, and the number of retailers totaled 4,290.[78] As of January 1, 2016, 36 shopping centers operate in the city, taking up a total area of ​​which was 1,502.7 thousand square meters. The availability of shopping centers of shopping centers per 1,000 inhabitants increased to 597.2 square meters.[79]

Retail areas amounted to 2,019 thousand square meters, with the availability of retail space reached 1,366.3 square meters per 1,000 inhabitants. According to these statistics, Yekaterinburg holds leading positions among other major cities of Russia. In the consumer market of Yekaterinburg, 1041 network operators are represented. The number of wholesale enterprises totalled 1,435. Yekaterinburg has an agricultural market named Shartashsky.[79][80]

The revenue of catering in 2015 totaled to 38.6 billion rubles. The network of catering enterprises in Yekaterinburg is presented as follows: 153 restaurants, 210 bars, 445 cafes, 100 coffee houses, 582 dining rooms, 189 eateries, 173 fast-food establishments, 10 tea shops, 319 other types of institutions (buffets, cafeterias, catering companies). 82.6% of catering enterprises provide additional services to consumers.[81]

The revenue of the services industry in 2015 totaled to 74.9 billion rubles. The fastest pace in the city is developing hairdressing services, sewing and knitting atelier services, pawnshop services, fitness center services. The network of public service enterprises in Yekaterinburg includes 5,185 facilities. In 2015, the provision of service areas for service enterprises totaled to 382.1 square meters per 1,000 citizens. The highest concentration of household services is observed in the Verkh-Isetsky, Oktyabrsky and Leninsky districts.[82]

TourismEdit

Yekaterinburg is a major center for the Russian tourist industry. In 2015, the city was one of the top five most visited Russian cities (others being Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, and Vladivostok) according to the Global Destinations Cities Index, which represents the payment system Mastercard.[83] In recent years, a lot of work has been done to create a positive image of Yekaterinburg as a center for international tourism, including holding of summits for the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in 2008 and 2009 and the international exhibition Innoprom in 2009 and 2010.[84] In 2014, Yekaterinburg ranked third among Russian cities in popularity among foreign tourists after Moscow and St. Petersburg.[85]

In 2015, the total flow of inbound tourism grew by 10% compared to the previous year and amounted to 2.1 million people.[86] In recent years, there has been a tendency to reduce the role of business tourism in the overall flow: if in 2013 about 80% of trips were business, in 2015 their number was already 67%. Most tourists go to "bow to the memory of the last Russian emperor and his family." In addition, new tourist ideas are developing such as the Bazhov theme, the geological and mineralogical theme, industrial tourism, and the event calendar.[87]

TransportationEdit

Yekaterinburg is the third largest transport hub of Russia, behind Moscow and St. Petersburg. The city has 6 federal highways, 7 main railway lines, and an international airport. The location of Ekaterinburg in the central part of the region allows for 7–10 hours to get from it to any large city of the Urals.[88] The formation of Yekaterinburg as an important transportation hub is largely due to the city's favorable geographical location on a low stretch of the Ural Mountains, through which it was convenient to lay the main roads connecting the European and Eastern parts of Russia.[89]

RoadsEdit

 
A bypass.

Yekaterinburg is one of the ten Russian megacities with the largest car fleet (437,300 cars were registered in the city in 2014), which has been intensively been increasing in recent years (by 6–14% annually).[90][91] The level of motorization in 2015 has reached 409.5 cars per 1,000 people.[92] Its pace in the past few years has seriously exceeded the pace of development and the capacity of the road infrastructure. For the first time, transport problems started to appear in Yekaterinburg in the 1980s and though it did not seem threatening at first, the situation gets worse every year. Studies have shown that as early as 2005, the capacity limit for the road network was reached, which has now led to permanent congestion.[93]

To increase the capacity of the street-road network, stage-by-stage reconstruction of streets is being carried out, as well as multi-level interchanges being built. In order to reduce the transit traffic, the Sverdlovsk Oblast administration announced two road projects in 2014: the Yekaterinburg Ring Road (EKAD) and an overpass road on Sovetskaya Street. The Yekaterinburg Ring Road would surround the largest municipalities of Yekaterinburg and its purpose would be to help the economy of the city and reduce traffic on the Middle Ring Road of the city, making it easier for civilians to commute around the city than going through the city's traffic congestion. Eventually, the Ring Road would connect to other federal roads in order for easier access between other Russian cities. Construction of the road started in the same year. The projects were assigned to the Ministry of Transport and Communications since the projects were crucial to the city's economy. Officials hope the road projects will build environments more conducive to improving local quality of life and outside investments. Completing these major inter-regional roads will increase productive traffic by 1.5 to 2 times, improving the local economy with its ease of access to industries.[94]

Since 2014, the project for the introduction of paid parking in the central part of Yekaterinburg is being implemented. The project is implemented in parallel with the increase in the number of intercepting parking lots and the construction of parking lots. At the end of 2015, in the central part of the city there were 2,307 paid parking places.[92]

The total length of the street-road network in Yekaterinburg is 1311.5 kilometers, of which: 929.8 kilometers are the length of the cobbled carriageways, 880 kilometers are with upgraded coverage, 632 kilometers are backbone networks, of which 155 kilometers are on the citywide backbone network movement. 20 interchanges have been constructed at different levels within the city limits, including 11 on the EKAD and 9 on the middle ring. 74 transport facilities (27 bridges across the Iset, Patrushikha, Mostovka, Istok Rivers, 13 dams on the Iset, Patrushikha, Istok, Olkhovka, Warm, Shilovka Rivers, 23 road overpasses, and 18 out-of-the-way pedestrian crossings) were built as well.[95]

Yekaterinburg is served by the following highways:[96]

Public transitEdit

Yekaterinburg uses almost all types of public transport. The largest municipal carriers—the EMPU "Municipal Association of Bus Enterprises", the EMLM "Tram-Trolleybus Office", and the EYMP "Yekaterinburg Metro"—transported 207.4 million people in 2015.[97] The total volume of passenger transportation by all land transport modes decreases annually. If the annual passenger traffic of municipal transport was 647.1 million people in 2002, and according to this index the city occupied the third place in the country with a wide margin, then in 2008 this figure would be 412 million people (the fourth place in Russia).[98][99]

 
Tram Tatra T3

Since 1991, the city operates the sixth metro in Russia and the thirteenth in the CIS. At the moment there is one line with 9 stations. In 2015 49.9 million passengers were transported; according to this metric the Yekaterinburg Metro is the fourth in Russia, behind the Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Novosibirsk metros.[100] Although the metro is the second most popular type of public transport, in recent years significant problems have appeared in its work: loss-making, obsolete rolling stock, and a shortage of funds for modernization.[101] The tram network was established in 1929 and currently[when?] plays a leading role in the urban transport system. The volume of passengers carried for 2013 is 127.8 million,[102] but this declines every year (245 million people in 2013[103]). In 2016 there were 30 routes operating 459 cars. The total length of the tracks is 185.5 km. As of 2016, the construction of a tram line "Ekaterinburg-Verkhnyaya Pyshma" was planned.[104]

There are 93 bus routes operating in Yekaterinburg, including 30 municipal ones (EMUP "MOAP").[105] In 2007, 114.5 million passengers were transported by municipal intercity buses (124.6 million in 2006).[106] The decrease in volume is due to the increasing role of the fixed-route taxis in the urban transport system of Yekaterinburg, as well as the high cost of travel. In the park of EMPU, there are 537 buses.[107] In 2013, there are 19 routes, which employ 250 trolleybuses. The total length of trolleybus lines is 168.4 km. The number of passengers transported by trolleybus in 2007 amounted to 78.4 million (84.3 million in 2006).[106]

Also operates the route of a city electric train linking the north-western (Seven Keys microdistrict) and the southern (Elizavet micro district) parts of Yekaterinburg.

RailEdit

Yekaterinburg is a major railway junction. In the Yekaterinburg node, 7 main lines converge (to Perm, Tyumen, Kazan, Nizhny Tagil, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan and Tavda). The Sverdlovsk Railway Administration is located in the city, which serves trains on the territory of the Sverdlovsk and Tyumen Regions, the Perm Territory, the Khanty-Mansiysk and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Districts, as well as parts of the Omsk Region, and there is a single road traffic control center. The Perm-Yekaterinburg-Tyumen section is now part of the main route of the Trans-Siberian Railway.

AirEdit

Yekaterinburg is served by two primary airports: Koltsovo International Airport (KSX) and the smaller Yekaterinburg Aramil Airport. Koltsovo Airport is one of the largest airports in the country, serving 5.404 million passengers (including 3.485 million serviced by domestic airlines, 1.919 million at international flights) in 2017, making it the sixth busiest airport in Russia.[108]

EducationEdit

 
Main building of the Ural Federal University

The Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and numerous other scientific research institutes and establishments are in Yekaterinburg. With its 16 state-owned universities and educational academies, as well as a number of private higher education institutions, Yekaterinburg is considered the leading educational and scientific center of the Urals. These institutions include the Ural Federal University (comprising Ural State University and Ural State Technical University), Ural State Pedagogical University, Ural State University of Forestry, Ural State Mining University, Ural State University of Railway Transport, Russian State Vocational Pedagogics University, Ural State University of Economics, Military Institute of Artillery, Ural State Conservatory, Ural State Agricultural Academy, Ural State Law Academy, Ural State Medical University, Ural State Academy of Performing Arts, Ural Academy of Public Service, Institute of International Relations, and the Urals Academy of Architecture.

Life and cultureEdit

OverviewEdit

 
The Rastorguyev-Kharitonov Palace, built in 1794–1820

The city has several dozen libraries, including the V. G. Belinsky Scientific Library, which is the largest public library in Sverdlovsk Oblast.

Yekaterinburg is home to numerous theaters and theater companies: the Yekaterinburg State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater, the Sverdlovsk Academic theater of Musical Comedy, the Yekaterinburg Academic Dramatic theater, the Yekaterinburg theater for Young Spectators, the Volkhonka (a popular chamber theater), and the Kolyada theater (a chamber theater founded by Russian playwright, producer and actor Nikolai Kolyada). Yekaterinburg is the center of New Drama, a movement of contemporary Russian playwrights Nikolai Kolyada, Vasily Sigarev, Konstantin Kostenko, the Presnyakov brothers, and Oleg Bogayev. Yekaterinburg is often called the capital of contemporary dance for a number of dance companies residing in the city: the Kipling, the Provincial Dances, the Tantstrest, and a special department of contemporary dance at the Yekaterinburg University of Humanities.

A number of popular Russian rock bands, such as Urfin Dzhyus, Chaif, Chicherina, Nautilus Pompilius, Nastya, Trek, Agata Kristi and Smyslovye Gallyutsinatsii, were originally formed in Yekaterinburg (Ural Rock is often considered as a particular variety of rock music. Yekaterinburg and St. Petersburg are actually considered to be the main centers of the genre in Russia). Also, opera singers like Boris Shtokolov, Yuri Gulyayev, Vera Bayeva graduated from the Urals State Conservatory. The Ural Philharmonic Orchestra (currently conducted by Dmitry Liss), founded by Mark Paverman and located in Yekaterinburg, is also very popular in Russia and in Europe, as well as the Ural Academic Popular Chorus, a folk-singing and dance ensemble.

There are more than thirty museums in Yekaterinburg, including several museums of Ural minerals and jewelry, art galleries, one of the largest collections anywhere of Kasli mouldings (a traditional kind of cast-iron sculpture in the Urals). Only there can one see a collection of Nevyansk icons, in the Nevyansk Icon Museum, with more than 300 icons representing the eighteenth through the twentieth centuries on display.

It also is the home of the Shigirskaya Kladovaya (Шигирская кладовая), or Shigir Collection, which includes the oldest known wooden sculpture in the world. The sculpture was found near Nevyansk and originally estimated to have been made approximately 9,500 years ago, but now is estimated to have been made 11,500 years ago.

In 2014, the city showcased its education, literary, art, and theater culture through the Russian Year of Culture Program.[109]

Vladimir Yelizarov's Recording Studio, SVE Records, is based in Yekaterinburg. The studio is in a private residence built in 1837 under the title "The House of the Misters", in one of the historical centers of Yekaterinburg city, two hundred meters from Verkh-Isetsky Lake. In 1987, American singer Tina Turner recorded two tracks, which later appeared on her 1989 album Foreign Affair, whilst in the city as part of her highly acclaimed Break Every Rule World Tour.[citation needed]

According to Yekaterinburg News, the city has signed a cooperative agreement with the Russian mobile operator Vimpelcom, working under the Beeline brand. The partnership will involve cooperation on investment projects and social programs focused on increasing access to mobile services in the city. Beeline has launched an initiative to provide Wi-Fi services in 500 public trams and trolley buses in Yekaterinburg.[110]

LandmarksEdit

Yekaterinburg also has a circus building, and—until it was demolished in 2018—one of the tallest incomplete architectural structures in the world, the Yekaterinburg TV Tower. There are also a number of unusual monuments: e.g. a popular landmark Keyboard monument and a monument to Michael Jackson.[111]

 
Central Stadium during renovation.

SportsEdit

Yekaterinburg is one of the 11 host-cities that will receive matches of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The matches will be played on the upgraded Central Stadium.

Sport ClubsEdit

Club Sport Founded Current League League
Rank
Stadium
Ural Yekaterinburg Association Football 1930 Russian Premier League 1st Central Stadium
Avtomobilist Yekaterinburg Ice Hockey 2006 Kontinental Hockey League 1st KRK Uralets
Avto Yekaterinburg Ice Hockey 2009 Minor Hockey League Jr. 1st KRK Uralets
Spartak-Merkury Ice Hockey 1992 Women's Hockey Championship 1st Sports Palace Snezhinka
SKA-Sverdlovsk Bandy 1935 Russian Bandy Supreme League 2nd NTZ stadium
Ural Yekaterinburg Basketball 2006 Russian Basketball Super League 2nd Palace of Team Sports
UGMK Yekaterinburg Basketball 1938 Women's Basketball Premier League 1st Palace of Team Sports
Lokomotiv-Izumrud Yekaterinburg Volleyball 1945 Volleyball Supreme League A 2nd Palace of Team Sports
Uralochka Yekaterinburg Volleyball 1966 Women's Volleyball Superleague 1st Palace of Team Sports
Sinara Yekaterinburg Futsal 1992 Futsal Super League 1st Palace of Team Sports

International relationsEdit

 
Berlin Buddy Bears, a gift of the German Consulate General to the City of Yekaterinburg

ConsulatesEdit

The United States,[112] United Kingdom,[113] Germany,[114] France,[115] China[116] and several other countries have consulates in Yekaterinburg.

BRIC SummitEdit

The BRIC countries met for their first official summit on June 16, 2009, in Yekaterinburg,[117] with Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, and Hu Jintao, the respective leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China, all attending.

The foreign ministers of the BRIC countries had also met in Yekaterinburg previously on May 16, 2008.

World ExpoEdit

In June 2013, at the 153rd General Assembly of the Bureau of International Expositions held in Paris, representatives from Yekaterinburg presented the city’s bid to host the 2020 World Expo. Yekaterinburg's concept for the upcoming exhibition relates to the impact of globalization on the modern world.

Russian President Vladimir Putin confirmed during a televised statement in English to earmark the required funds to build an exhibition complex large enough to receive the estimated 30 million visitors from more than 150 countries.[118]

Now the city is bidding for Expo 2025 competing against Osaka, Japan and Baku, Azerbaijan for the hosting rights. Yekaterinburg's concept for the bid exhibition relates to the technologies to make people happy by changing the world with innovation and quality of life. The host will be announced in November 2018.

Twin towns and sister citiesEdit

Yekaterinburg is a sister city of:

Notable peopleEdit

OthersEdit

 
Border of Europe and Asia near Yekaterinburg

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Law #30-OZ
  2. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 65 401», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 65 401, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  3. ^ a b c Law #85-OZ
  4. ^ a b Official website of Yekaterinburg. Alexander Edmundovich Yakob, Head of Administration of the City of Yekaterinburg (in Russian)
  5. ^ Charter of Yekaterinburg, Article 24.1
  6. ^ Стратегический план развития Екатеринбурга до 2015 года. Раздел II. Исходные конкурентные возможности Екатеринбурга. Внутренние факторы развития города.
  7. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Federal State Statistic Service". Government of Russia. 2017-01-01. Retrieved 2017-07-07. 
  9. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  10. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
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  26. ^ "Временное Областное Правительство Урала - Энциклопедия Екатеринбурга - Энциклопедии & Словари". enc-dic.com. Retrieved 2018-05-20. 
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  35. ^ Matthew S. Meselson, et al., "The Sverdlovsk Anthrax Outbreak of 1979", Science 266:5188 (November 18, 1994): 1202–1208.
  36. ^ Martin McCauley, "Who's who in Russia since 1900", Routledge, 1997: p.133.
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SourcesEdit

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  • Областная Дума Законодательного Собрания Свердловской области. Областной закон №30-ОЗ от 20 мая 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Свердловской области», в ред. Закона №32-ОЗ от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Областной закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Свердловской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования за исключением отдельных положений, вступающих в силу в иные сроки. Опубликован: "Областная газета", №81, 3 июня 1997 г. (Oblast Duma of the Legislative Assembly of Sverdlovsk Oblast. Oblast Law #30-OZ of May 20, 1997 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sverdlovsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #32-OZ of April 25, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sverdlovsk Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication with the exception of several clauses which take effect on a different date.).
  • Областная Дума Законодательного Собрания Свердловской области. Закон №85-ОЗ от 12 июля 2007 г. «О границах муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории Свердловской области», в ред. Закона №107-ОЗ от 29 октября 2013 г. «Об упразднении отдельных населённых пунктов, расположенных на территории города Ивделя, и о внесении изменений в Приложение 39 к Закону Свердловской области "О границах муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории Свердловской области"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Областная газета", №232–249, 17 июля 2007 г. (Oblast Duma of the Legislative Assembly of Sverdlovsk Oblast. Law #85-OZ of July 12, 2007 On the Borders of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Sverdlovsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #107-OZ of October 29, 2013 On Abolishing Several Inhabited Localities on the Territory of the Town of Ivdul and on Amending the Law of Sverdlovsk Oblast "On the Borders of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Sverdlovsk Oblast". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication.).

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit