Delta-class submarine

The Delta class, (Russian: Дельта) Soviet designations Project 667B Murena, Project 667BD Murena-M, Project 667BDR Kalmar, Project 667BDRM Delfin, (NATO reporting names Delta I, Delta II, Delta III, Delta IV respectively) are a series of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, designed and built in the Soviet Union, which formed the backbone of the Soviet and Russian strategic submarine fleet since their introduction in 1973. They carry nuclear ballistic missiles of the R-29 Vysota family, with the Delta I, Delta II, Delta III and Delta IV classes carrying the R-29 (NATO reporting name: SS-N-8 'Sawfly'), R-29D (SS-N-8 'Sawfly'), R-29R (SS-N-18 'Stingray') and R-29RM (SS-N-23 'Skiff') respectively. The Delta I class carried 12 missiles, while the Delta II class which are lengthened versions of the Delta I class carry 16 missiles. The Delta III and Delta IV classes carry 16 missiles with multiple warheads and have improved electronics and noise reduction. 34 boats were built and commissioned during 1972–1990; approximately five or six remain active in 2023.

A Delta IV-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine
External video
on RT Documentary Official YouTube Channel(in English)
video icon K-433 Svyatoy Georgiy Pobedonosets: Nuclear Triad Workhorse on YouTube

The R-27 Zyb missile carried by the Yankee-class submarines of the late 1960s had a range of 2,500–3,000 km (1,553–1,864 mi), so the earlier submarines were forced to patrol close to the North American coast, whereas the Deltas could launch the over 7,700 km (4,785 mi)-range R-29s from the relative safety of the Arctic Ocean. In turn the Deltas were superseded by the larger Typhoon-class submarines. The early Deltas remained in service until the 1990s with treaties such as START I. High running costs and the retirement of the Typhoons' R-39 missiles meant that some Delta III-class submarines were reactivated in the 2000s (decade) to replace the Typhoons.

In December 2010, Pavel Podvig at Russianforces.org estimated the strength of the Russian strategic submarine fleet at one Typhoon-class submarine (used to test the RSM-56 Bulava missile), four Delta III, six Delta IV class, and one Borei class strategic missile submarines.[1] They will ultimately be replaced by the new Borei class, also referred to as the Dolgorukiy class.

DevelopmentEdit

In the 1960s the Soviet Navy wanted new submarine-launched nuclear missiles that could threaten targets in North America without their launch platforms needing to pass the SOSUS sensors in the GIUK gap to be within range.[2]

Delta I (Project 667B Murena) 18 boatsEdit

 
A Delta I-class submarine
Class overview
NameDelta I class
Builders
OperatorsSoviet Union
Preceded byYankee class
Succeeded byDelta II class
Completed18
Retired18
General characteristics
Displacement
  • Surfaced: 7,800 tons
  • Submerged: 10,000 tons
Length139 m (456 ft)
Beam12 m (39 ft 4 in)
Draught9 m (29 ft 6 in)
Propulsion2 pressurized water-cooled reactors powering 2 steam turbines driving 2 shafts and each developing 38.7 MW (51,900 shp)
Speed
  • Surfaced: 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph)
  • Submerged: 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph)
RangeUnlimited, except by food supplies
Complement120
Armament
  • D-9 launch tubes for 12 R-29 (SS-N-8 Sawfly) SLBMs
  • 4 × 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes
  • 2 × 400 mm (16 in) torpedo tubes

The Delta-class submarines could deploy on alert patrols in the marginal ice-seas of the Soviet Arctic littoral, including the Norwegian and Barents Seas. Consequently, unlike their predecessors, they no longer needed to pass through Western SOSUS sonar barriers to come within range of their targets. To improve the accuracy of the missiles, the Delta I-class submarines carry the Tobol-B navigation system and the Cyclone-B satellite navigation system.

After authorization of the development of the class in 1965, the first Delta I, K-279, was commissioned into the Soviet Northern Fleet on 22 December 1972. A total of 18 submarines of this class were built, and all served Soviet Navy, under the designation Project 667B Murena ("Eel").

In 1991, nine Delta I-class submarines were still in active service. Their decommissioning began in 1994, with removal of the missile compartments scheduled by 1997. All submarines of this class were taken out of service by 1998 and were scrapped by 2005.

Delta II (Project 667BD Murena-M) 4 boatsEdit

 
A Delta II-class submarine
Class overview
NameDelta II class
BuildersSeverodvinsk
OperatorsSoviet Union
Preceded byDelta I class
Succeeded byDelta III class
Completed4
Retired4
General characteristics
Displacement
  • Surfaced: 9,350 tons
  • Submerged: 10,500 tons
Length155 m (508 ft 6 in)
Beam12 m (39 ft 4 in)
Draught9 m (29 ft 6 in)
Propulsion2 pressurized water-cooled reactors powering 2 steam turbines driving 2 shafts each developing 41 MW (55,000 shp)
Speed
  • Surfaced: 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph)
  • Submerged: 24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph)
RangeUnlimited, except by food supplies
Complement130
Armament
  • D-9D launch tubes for 16 R-29D SLBMs
  • 4 × 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes
  • 2 × 400 mm (16 in) torpedo tubes

The Delta II-class submarine was a large ballistic missile submarine designed to remedy shortcomings in the Delta I-class submarine. The design was essentially the same, but the submarine was lengthened in the fourth and fifth compartments by 16 meters (52 ft) to allow the installation of four more missile tubes. The new type of Delta also received additional quieting measures including having the steam turbines mounted on shock absorbers, having all pipes and hydraulics separated from the hull through rubber insulation, and a special hydroacoustic coating being applied to the hull.[citation needed]

The NATO reporting name, Delta II indicates this submarine as a visually distinguishable new class. The Soviet designation, 667BD Murena-M indicates this submarine is an improved Delta I.

Only four submarines of this class were built, apparently in favor of building the following class, the Delta III, and all Delta IIs were out of service by 1996.

 
Delta-II-class, 1997

Delta III (Project 667BDR Kalmar) 14 boatsEdit

 
A Delta III-class submarine
Class overview
NameDelta III class
BuildersSeverodvinsk
OperatorsSoviet Union, Russia
Preceded byDelta II class
Succeeded byTyphoon class & Delta IV class
Completed14
Active2
General characteristics
Displacement
  • Surfaced: 13,500 tons
  • Submerged: 18,200 tons
Length166 m (544 ft 7 in)
Beam12.3 m (40 ft 4 in)
Draught8.8 m (29 ft)
Propulsion2 pressurized water-cooled reactors powering 2 steam turbines delivering 44,700 kW (59,900 shp) to 2 five-bladed fixed-pitched shrouded propellers.
Speed
  • Surfaced: 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph)
  • Submerged: 24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph)
RangeUnlimited, except by food supplies
Complement135
Armament
  • 16 missiles
  • 4 × bow 533 mm (21.0 in) torpedo tubes

The 667BDR Kal'mar ("Squid") Delta III-class submarine is a large ballistic missile submarine. Like the earlier Delta-class submarines the Delta III class is a double-hulled design with a thin, low magnetic steel outer hull wrapped around a thicker inner pressure hull. Development began in 1972 at the Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering.[citation needed] The submarine was the first that could launch any number of missiles in a single salvo, as well as the first submarine capable of carrying ballistic missiles with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles. The submarine carried 16 of the R-29R missiles each carrying 3 to 7 MIRVs, with a range of 6,500 to 8,000 km (4,000 to 5,000 mi), depending on the number of re-entry vehicles.

On 30 September 2008 a Russian Navy spokesman reported that Ryazan had successfully completed a 30-day transit from a base in northern Russia under the Arctic ice cap to a base on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The Navy added that Ryazan will soon be assigned to regularly patrol the Pacific Ocean.[3]

K-433 Svyatoy Georgiy Pobedonosets was involved in a collision with a fishing vessel on 22 September 2011. The submarine did not sustain serious damage.[4]

Delta III class — significant dates
# Shipyard Name Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
K-424 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk NA 30 January 1974 11 February 1976 30 December 1976 Northern Decommissioned 28 March 1995 for scrapping.[5] Disposed of in 1998[6]
K-441 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk NA 7 May 1974 25 May 1976 31 October 1976 Pacific Decommissioned 28 March 1995 for scrapping[5] Disposed of in 2000.[7]
K-449 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk NA 19 July 1974 29 July 1976 5 February 1977 Pacific In reserve from 1996,[5] decommissioned in 2001, scrapped before 2008
K-455 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk NA 16 October 1974 16 August 1976 30 December 1976 Pacific In reserve from 1998 to 1999.[5] Disposed of in 2002[8]
K-490 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk NA 6 March 1975 27 January 1977 30 September 1977 Pacific In reserve from 1998 to 1999,[5] Disposed of before 2008[9]
K-487 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk NA 9 June 1975 4 April 1977 27 December 1977 Northern In reserve from 1998 to 1999,[5] Disposed of in 1999–2011[10]
K-496 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Borisoglebsk 23 September 1975 13 August 1977 30 December 1977 Northern[5] Decommissioned on 9 December 2008,[11] fuel discharged.[12] Disposed of in 2010[13]
K-506 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Zelenograd 29 December 1975 26 January 1978 30 November 1978 Pacific Removed from service in 2010, to be decommissioned[14]
K-211 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy 19 August 1976 13 January 1979 28 September 1979 Pacific Retired in 2010[15]
K-223 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Podolsk 19 February 1977 30 April 1979 27 November 1979 Pacific Removed from active service in 2018[16]
K-180 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk NA 27 December 1977 8 January 1980 25 September 1980 Pacific[5] In reserve from 2004. Disposed of in 2008[17]
K-433 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Svyatoy Georgiy Pobedonosets 24 August 1978 20 June 1980 15 December 1980 Pacific Removed from active service in 2018[16]
BS-136 (ex K-129) SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Orenburg 9 April 1979 15 April 1981 5 November 1981 Northern 1994–2002 – conversion to support submarine project 09786 (carrier of mini-submarine). Active as of 2008.[18] Experimental boat
K-44 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Ryazan 31 January 1980 19 January 1982 17 September 1982[19] Pacific Overhauled in 2007 and in 2012–2016;[20] Active 2020[21] reported converted to SSN[clarification needed] as of 2021[22]

Delta IV (Project 667BDRM Delfin) 7 boatsEdit

 
A Delta IV-class submarine
Class overview
NameDelta IV class
BuildersSeverodvinsk
OperatorsSoviet Union, Russian Federation
Preceded byDelta III & Typhoon classes
Succeeded byBorei class
Completed7
Active6
General characteristics
Propulsion2 pressurized water-cooled reactors powering 2 steam turbines with two fixed-pitched shrouded propellers.
Speed
  • Surfaced: 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph)
  • Submerged: 24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph)
RangeUnlimited, except by food supplies

Seven Delta IV-class submarines were built; perhaps three or four remain in active service in the Russian Navy. The submarines, based at the Sayda Guba Naval Base, operate in the Northern Fleet. The Severodvinsk Shipyard built these vessels between 1981 and 1992. The last vessel was K-407 Novomoskovsk.

The design of the Delta IV class resembles that of the Delta III class and constitutes a double-hulled configuration with missile silos housed in the inner hull.

On 29 December 2011, a shipyard fire broke out in the drydock where a Delta IV-class vessel named Ekaterinburg was being serviced. It was reported that the fire managed to spread to the submarine, that all weapons were disembarked from the submarine and the nuclear reactor was shut down beforehand.[23][24][25]

Overall designEdit

The submarines' design is similar to that of Delta III class (Project 667 BDR). The submarines constitutes a double-hulled configuration with missile silos housed in the inner hull. The forward horizontal hydroplanes are arranged on the sail. They can rotate to the vertical for breaking through the ice cover. The propulsion system provides a speed of 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph) surfaced and 24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph) submerged. The submarines carry supplies for an endurance of 80 days. The surface of the submarines has an acoustic coating to reduce the acoustic signature.[citation needed]

See the Delta III class overview for specifications.

ArmamentEdit

The Delta IV-class submarines employs the D-9RM launch system and carries 16 R-29RMU Sineva liquid-fueled missiles which each carry four independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs). Unlike previous modifications, the Delta IV-class submarine is able to fire missiles in any direction from a constant course in a circular sector. The underwater firing of the ballistic missiles can be conducted at a depth of 55 meters (180 ft) while cruising at a speed of 6–7 knots (11–13 km/h; 6.9–8.1 mph). All the missiles can be fired in a single salvo.

The 667BDRM Delfin submarines are equipped with the TRV-671 RTM missile-torpedo system that has four torpedo tubes with a calibre of 533 mm (21 in). Unlike the Delta III-class design, it is capable of using all types of torpedoes, anti-submarine torpedo-missiles and anti-hydroacoustic devices[clarification needed]. The battle management system Omnibus-BDRM controls all combat activities, processing data and commanding the torpedo and missile-torpedo weapons. The Shlyuz navigation system provides for the improved accuracy of the missiles and is capable of stellar navigation at periscope depths. The navigational system also employs two floating antenna buoys to receive radio-messages, target destination data and satellite navigation signals at great depth. The submarines are also equipped with the Skat-VDRM hydroacoustic system.[citation needed]

The Delta IV-class submarines are strategic nuclear missile submarines, designed to carry out strikes on military and industrial installations and naval bases. The submarines carry the RSM-5 Makeyev (NATO reporting name: SS-N-23 Skiff) submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). The RSM-54 is a three-stage liquid-propellant ballistic missile with a range of 8,300 km (5,200 mi). The warhead consists of four to ten multiple, independently targeted re-entry vehicles (MIRVs) each rated at 100 kilotonnes of TNT (420 TJ). The missile uses stellar inertial guidance to provide a circular error probable (CEP) of 500 m (1,600 ft).[citation needed] The CEP value is a measure of the accuracy of strike on the target and is the radius of the circle within which half the strikes will impact.

The submarines are also capable of launching the Novator SS-N-15 Starfish anti-ship missile or anti-ship torpedoes. Starfish is armed with a nuclear warhead and has a range of up to 45 km (28 mi). The submarines have four 533 mm torpedo tubes capable of launching all types of torpedoes, including anti-submarine torpedoes and anti-hydroacoustic devices. The system is fitted with a rapid reloading torpedo system. The submarines can carry up to 12 missiles or torpedoes. All torpedoes are accommodated in the bow section of the hull.[citation needed]

In 2011 K-84 Ekaterinburg successfully tested a new version of the SS-N-23 missile, reportedly designated R-29RMU2 Layner. The missile has improved survivability against anti-ballistic missiles.[26] Later on K-114 Tula conducted another successful launch.[27]

DeploymentEdit

Initially all the Delta IV-class submarines were based with the Russian Northern Fleet at Olenya Bay. All the submarines of this class serve in 12th Squadron (the former 3rd flotilla) of strategic submarines of the Northern Fleet, which now located in Yagelnaya Bay.[28][29]

UnitsEdit

Delta IV class — significant dates
# Shipyard Name Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
K-51 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Verkhoturye 23 February 1981 7 March 1984 28 December 1984 Northern Active, overhaul 2010–12, overhaul completed,[citation needed] upgraded Sineva missiles installed[30]
K-84 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Ekaterinburg 17 February 1982 17 March 1985 30 December 1985 Northern Inactive. Upgraded Sineva missiles installed,[30] overhaul 2011–14 (29 December 2011 a fire broke out while ship was drydocked and the vessel was partially submerged to control the flames.[25]) Re-commissioned in December 2014.[31] Removed from active service and prepared for decommissioning in 2020[32]
BS-64 (ex K-64) SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Podmoskovye 18 December 1982 2 February 1986 23 December 1986 Northern Active,[citation needed] in 1999–2016 was in conversion to a Project 09787 special purpose platform.[33][34] Cut out all the missile silos.[35]
K-114 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Tula 22 February 1984 22 January 1987 30 October 1987 Northern In overhaul 2014–2017, returned to active duty in December 2017,[36][37] upgraded Sineva missiles installed[30]
K-117 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Bryansk 20 April 1985 8 February 1988 30 September 1988 Northern Active,[citation needed] overhaul 2002–08, overhaul complete, upgraded Sineva missiles installed.[30] Technical conditioning to extend service life by 3.5 years scheduled to commence post March 2018.[38]
K-18 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Karelia 7 February 1986 2 February 1989 10 October 1989 Northern Active, overhaul 2004–10, overhaul complete,[39] upgraded Sineva missiles installed[30]
K-407 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Novomoskovsk 2 February 1987 28 February 1990 27 November 1990 Northern Active,[citation needed] overhaul 2008–2012, overhaul complete,[40][41] upgraded Sineva missiles installed[30]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Strategic fleet". Russian Forces. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  2. ^ Cote, Dr. Owen R. (March 2000). "The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines". U.S. Navy. Archived from the original on 10 April 2006. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  3. ^ "Russian Sub Ends 30-Day Voyage Under The Arctic". Houston Chronicle. McClatchy-Tribune. 1 October 2008. p. 9.
  4. ^ "Russian Nuclear Sub Lightly Damaged in Collision". Defense News. 22 September 2011. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Apalkov, Yu. V. (2002). Korabli VMF SSSR, Vol. 1, Part 1 [Ships of the Soviet Navy] (in Russian). St Petersburg: Galeia Print. ISBN 5-8172-0069-4.
  6. ^ "К-424 Проект 667БДР". DeepStorm (in Russian). 20 August 1980. Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  7. ^ "К-441 Проект 667БДР". DeepStorm (in Russian). Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  8. ^ "К-455 Проект 667БДР". DeepStorm (in Russian). Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  9. ^ "К-490 Проект 667БДР". DeepStorm (in Russian). 24 July 1979. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  10. ^ "К-487 Проект 667БДР". DeepStorm (in Russian). 18 January 1981. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  11. ^ "Началась утилизация АПЛ "Борисоглебск"" [The dismantling of the Borisoglebsk nuclear submarine has begun]. Bellona.ru (in Russian). 9 December 2008. Archived from the original on 5 September 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  12. ^ "Zvezdochka experts discharged nuclear fuel from SSBN Borisoglebsk". Rusnavy.com. 10 March 2010. Archived from the original on 17 March 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  13. ^ "К-496, "Борисоглебск" Проект 667БДР". DeepStorm (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  14. ^ "Атомную подлодку "Зеленоград" утилизируют" [Nuclear submarine "Zelenograd" disposed of]. Netall.ru (in Russian). 23 July 2010. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  15. ^ "К-211, "Петропавловск-Камчатский" Проект 667БДР". DeepStorm (in Russian). Archived from the original on 7 October 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  16. ^ a b Podvig, Pavel (14 March 2018). "Two Project 667BDR submarines withdrawn from service". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  17. ^ "К-180 Проект 667БДР". DeepStorm (in Russian). Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  18. ^ "К-129, КС-129, Оренбург Проект 667БДР". DeepStorm (in Russian). 25 February 2008. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  19. ^ "Russian nuclear submarine makes 30-day trip under Arctic ice". Rusnavy.com. 1 October 2008. Archived from the original on 14 September 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  20. ^ Podvig, Pavel (25 September 2007). "Project 667BDR submarines are staying?". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  21. ^ "Nuclear SSBN submarines of Russian Pacific Fleet conduct ASW mission training". Navy Recognition. October 2020.
  22. ^ Kristensen, Hans M.; Korda, Matt (2022). "Russian nuclear weapons, 2022". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 78 (2): 98–121. Bibcode:2022BuAtS..78b..98K. doi:10.1080/00963402.2022.2038907. S2CID 247134744.
  23. ^ "Russia submerges nuclear submarine to douse blaze". Yahoo! News. 29 December 2011. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  24. ^ "Russian nuclear submarine, Yekaterinburg, in dock fire". BBC News. 29 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  25. ^ a b "Russia battles fire on nuclear submarine". Reuters. 29 December 2011. Archived from the original on 29 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  26. ^ "Russian SLBM Liner Completed Flight Tests". RusNavy. 20 May 2011. Archived from the original on 30 December 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  27. ^ Центр обновления. Severnyflot (in Russian). Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  28. ^ Северный флот. Kommersant (in Russian). 25 February 2008. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
  29. ^ Kristensen, Hans M.; Korda, Matt (2021). "Russian nuclear weapons, 2021". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 77 (2): 90–108. Bibcode:2021BuAtS..77b..90K. doi:10.1080/00963402.2021.1885869. ISSN 0096-3402. All Delta IVs are part of the Northern Fleet and based at Yagelnaya Bay (Gadzhiyevo) on the Kola Peninsula.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Norris, Robert S.; Kristensen, Hans M. (January 2010). "Russian Nuclear Forces, 2010". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 66 (1): 74–81. Bibcode:2010BuAtS..66a..74N. doi:10.2968/066001010. S2CID 145187667. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  31. ^ Podvig, Pavel (19 December 2014). "Ekaterinburg and Vladimir Monomakh join the fleet". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  32. ^ Грашин, Рудольф. "Игорь Британов: командир, ушедший с гибнущей К-219 последним" [Igor Britanov: the commander who left the dying K-219 last]. Oblgazeta.ru (in Russian).
  33. ^ й-64, ая-64 оПНЕЙР 667адпл. DeepStorm (in Russian). Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  34. ^ "Project 09787 Special-Purpose Submarine BS-64 "Podmoskovye" Handed Over to Russian Navy". Navy Recognition. December 2016. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  35. ^ "й-64, ая-64 оПНЕЙР 667адпл". DeepStorm (in Russian). Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  36. ^ "Russian Delta-class SSBN 'Tula' leaves hangar during refit". Naval Today. 27 February 2017. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  37. ^ ""Звёздочка" завершила ремонт АПЛ "Тула"" [Zvezdochka completes repair of the nuclear submarine "Tula"]. Zvezdochka.ru (in Russian). 28 December 2017.
  38. ^ ""Звездочка" способна продлить срок службы АПЛ "Брянск" на 5 лет" [Zvezdochka can extend the service life of the nuclear submarine "Bryansk" by 5 years]. FlotProm (in Russian). Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  39. ^ Podvig, Pavel (22 January 2010). "Karelia submarine returns to service". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  40. ^ "Продолжаются ремонт и модернизация РПКСН "Новомосковск"" [The repair and modernization of the SSBN "Novomoskovsk"]. Flot (in Russian). 19 November 2010. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  41. ^ "Repair and upgrade of SSBN Novomoskovsk is in progress". RusNavy. 19 November 2010. Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.

External linksEdit