Nizhny Tagil (Russian: Нижний Тагил, IPA: [ˈnʲiʐnʲɪj tɐˈgʲil]) is a city in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located 25 kilometers (16 mi) east of the virtual border between Europe and Asia. Population: 361,811 (2010 Census); 390,498 (2002 Census); 439,521 (1989 Census).
View of Nizhny Tagil
|Federal subject||Sverdlovsk Oblast|
|City status since||1919|
|• Mayor||Sergey Nosov|
|Elevation||200 m (700 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||48th in 2010|
|• Subordinated to||City of Nizhny Tagil|
|• Capital of||Prigorodny District, City of Nizhny Tagil|
|• Urban okrug||Nizhny Tagil Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Nizhny Tagil Urban Okrug|
|Time zone||UTC+5 (MSK+2 )|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 3435|
The history of Nizhny Tagil begins with the opening of the Vysokogorsky iron ore quarry in 1696. The deposits were particularly rich, and included lodes of pure magnetic iron. The surrounding landscape provided everything needed for a successful and productive mining and smelting operation — rivers for transport, forests for fuel, and suitable climate.
Over the following decades, the city developed as one of the early centers of Russian industrialization, and it has been a major producer of cast iron and steel. The town of Nizhny Tagil is also known for its production of the famous soviet tank T-34-85. The T-34-85 made here has manufacturing changes like a triangle shape flat armour surface on the turret, and wheels with a type of spoke.
The first Russian steam locomotive was constructed there in 1833, and the father-and-son engineers who developed it, Yefim and Miron Cherepanovs (Черепанов), were in 1956 commemorated by an 8-meter (26 ft) bronze statue (executed by sculptor A. S. Kondratyev and architect A. V. Sotnikov) which stands in the center of the Theatrical Square in the heart of downtown.
According to some sources, the copper for the skin of the Statue of Liberty was mined and refined in Nizhny Tagil. However, research by Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, USA, suggests that the Visnes mine in Norway is the most likely source.
In the 1990s, police estimated that about 50% of adult males were in the Russian Mafia. Membership has declined since then.
In early 2007, a mass grave with 30 murdered girls and women was found near Nizhny Tagil. They had been abducted in the city by a prostitution gang between 2002 and 2006. See Nizhny Tagil mass murder (2002-2007). A fictionalized description of Nizhny Tagil and these murders appears in “The Bourne Sanction,” by Eric Van Lustbader, chapters 28, 30, 34 and 39.
Rivers and ponds take up one third of the city's territory. Nizhny Tagil spans 22 kilometers (14 mi) from north to south and 21 kilometers (13 mi) from east to west. The altitude of the city varies from 170 to 380 meters (560 to 1,250 ft).
The city is built around the extinct volcano Lisya Mountain. This mountain with a watchtower on its top is a symbol of the city. Another hill, Medved-Kamen, is located in the northern part of the city at an altitude of 288 meters (945 ft).
The city features a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfc) with mildly warm summers and very long and cold winters. Precipitation is mostly concentrated between late spring and early fall, peaking in the months of July and August. A freeze has been recorded for every month of the year.
|Climate data for Nizhny Tagil (1949–2011)|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.1
|Average high °C (°F)||−11.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−14.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−19.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−45.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||32.5
|Average precipitation days||18.2||14.5||16.7||11.9||13.3||13.6||9.1||12.6||13.2||17.4||20.6||17.8||178.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||77.0||72.9||70.2||63.9||63.3||71.3||72.6||78.2||79.4||78.5||79.3||78.5||73.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||49.6||89.6||124.0||201.0||235.6||243.0||282.1||201.5||132.0||71.3||33.0||34.1||1,696.8|
Administrative and municipal statusEdit
Within the framework of the administrative divisions, Nizhny Tagil serves as the administrative center of Prigorodny District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-three rural localities, incorporated separately as the City of Nizhny Tagil—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Nizhny Tagil is incorporated as Nizhny Tagil Urban Okrug.
The city is divided into three city districts: Leninsky, encompassing the city center and Nizhnetagilsky Pond; Tagilstroyevsky, a comparatively small section at the north part of town; and Dzerzhinsky, a sizable section to the east of the city center principally consisting of apartment buildings and other residences.
- Nikolay Didenko 2006-?
- Valentina Isayeva 2008-?
- Sergey Nosov 2012-?
Nizhny Tagil is an industrial center of the Middle Urals. Highly power-intensive industries such as ferrous metallurgy, engineering, chemistry, and metal working are well-developed in the city. A total of 606 manufacturing companies operate in Nizhny Tagil.
Uralvagonzavod (UVZ) is the main producer of modern tanks on the territory of the former Soviet Union and Russia. It is the largest main battle tank manufacturer in the world. The T-72, T-90, and T-14 are produced in the city. As of 2016 an economic slowdown in Russia had resulted in diminished demand for civilian products such as train cars, but strong demand continued for tanks.
There are resources to manufacture medical tools for traumatology at the Nizhny Tagil medical tools plant.
Nizhny Tagil is one of centers of exhibition activity in the Middle Urals. Nizhny Tagil Institute of Metals Testing was the host of the international exhibitions such as Ural Expo Arms / Russian Expo Arms, Russian Defense Expo (2001 and 2002).
There are eight prisons in the city. A number of these are "colonies", which means they are obliged to contribute to supporting themselves through unpaid work. One prison is for police only, another for women, another is a colony, IK-5. Some prisoners help manufacture tanks, which reduces the cost of the tank substantially.
Nizhny Tagil is known for its decorative trays.
Demidovs' initiatives in the area of culture had a favorable influence on the development of Tagil community into the Urals' most important cultural center. In the 19th century, a library and the museum of natural history and antiquity were opened.
The city has a network of 28 libraries servicing 75,000 readers every year.
Tagil museums include the old regional history museum, the museum of Fine Arts, and a number of new museums opened in the 1990s: the museum of tray painting art, the museum of lifestyle and handicrafts representing the starting point of a new ethnographic complex.
The Demidov Park, a new cultural and historical project, is planned to be built in the city.
City theatrical life is represented by three professional theaters: the National D. N. Mamin-Sibiryak Academic Drama Theater, a puppet theater, community theaters, and the actor department of Nizhny Tagil College of Arts, which has been training actors and actresses for Nizhny Tagil and oblast scenes for two years.[clarification needed]
Several Maximum-security prisons surround the town, and most town residents have close connections to them. When prisoners are released from the prisons, they are not given their train fare, and most remain in the town.
The oldest university is Nizhny Tagil State Socio-Educational Academy. The state educational academy operates 4 institutes, 13 faculties and 29 departments. There is post-graduate work in three fields: general education, the history of pedagogy and education, Russian history, the Russian language.[clarification needed] In art and graphics department 2008 year launched five workshops in which students engage in decorative art. The Academy has four modern sports halls. In summer, a wall is erected for climbing. There is a gymnasium and fitness room.
Medical care is provided in 29 medical care centers that employ 1,100 doctors and 4,500 assistants. Annually, up to 100,000 people are hospitalized, 28,000 surgeries are performed, and up to four million appointments are registered in the city medical care centers.
There is a Yekaterinburg branch of eye microsurgery in Nizhny Tagil. There is obstetrical care. There is a network of municipal and private pharmacies.
In 2015, pollution from factories was 600,000 short tons (540,000 t) annually. Respiratory rate of infection in children was 50% higher than the rest of the country. The city had the highest rate of stomach and lung cancer in the country.
Nizhny Tagil has been connected to the following personalities:
- Valeri Brainin, poet, musicologist, President (from 2004 to 2014) of the Russian branch of the International Society for Music Education - a member of UNESCO
- Yefim Cherepanov, inventor and industrial engineer, constructor of the first Russian locomotive
- Miron Cherepanov (son of Yefim Cherepanov), inventor and industrial engineer, constructor of the first Russian locomotive
- Pavel Gayev, Soviet military intelligence officer, guards colonel
- Dmitry Larionov, slalom canoe champion
- Felix Lembersky, painter
- Konstantin Novoselov, 2010 Nobel Prize winner for his research on Graphene
- Valeri Ogorodnikov, film director, Prize "Silver Leopard" at Locarno International Film Festival and State Price of Russian Federation for the film "Barrack", Price of FIPRESCI for the film "Burglar" at Venice Film Festival
- Bar Paly, Russian-Israeli model and actress
- Igor Radulov, hockey player, winger currently playing for Салават Юлаев (Salavat Yulaev Ufa) of the KHL
- Alexander Radulov, hockey player, winger currently playing for the Dallas Stars, formerly with Салават Юлаев (Salavat Yulaev Ufa) of the KHL (brother with Igor)
- Boris Rauschenbach, physicist and rocket engineer
- Sergei Shepelev, former Soviet national ice hockey team member
- Nikita Soshnikov, hockey player, winger currently playing for the St. Louis Blues organization; previously with the Toronto Maple Leafs of the NHL, formerly with the Toronto Marlies of the AHL and Moscow Oblast Atlant of the KHL
- Victor Starffin, baseball player
- Aron Zinshtein, painter
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 65 232», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 65 232, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
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- "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 65 476», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 65 476, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
- Law #85-OZ
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- "Statue of Liberty Made of Russian Copper?".
- "Statue of Liberty Copper".
- Louka, Alexandros Katsis and Maria. "Pollution, Prisons, Sickness, and Raves: Inside Russia's 'City of the Colorful Sky'". vice.com. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- "Nizhnyj Tagil Climate Normals" (in Russian). Climatebase. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
- Law #30-OZ
- Andrew E. Kramer (February 25, 2016). "Stirrings of Labor Unrest Awaken as Russia's Economic Chill Sets In". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
While workers on the train-car side of the factory have been put on two-thirds pay — about $260 a month — the tank assembly lines are still rolling full speed, and workers are paid in full.
- Holm, Michael. "42nd Missile Division". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
- Russia's Sex Slave Graveyard. The eXile. February 2008.
- Нижнетагильский Технологический Институт
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 31, 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Judah, Ben (April 15, 2013). "Fragile Empire: How Russia Fell In and Out of Love with Vladimir Putin". Yale University Press. Retrieved January 30, 2019 – via Google Books.
- Алексеев, Михаил; Колпакиди, Александр; Кочик, Валерий (2012). Энциклопедия военной разведки, 1918-1945 гг [Encyclopaedia of Military Intelligence, 1918-1945] (in Russian). Москва: Кучково поле : Ассоциация "Военная книга". p. 210. ISBN 978-5-9950-0219-2.
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- "Nikita Soshnikov Stats and News". NHL.com. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Nikita Soshnikov hockey statistics and profile at hockeydb.com". www.hockeydb.com. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Города-побратимы". ntagil.org (in Russian). Nizhny Tagil. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Nizhne-Tagilsk.|
- Official website of Nizhny Tagil (in Russian)
- Information and entertainment portal of Nizhny Tagil (in Russian)
- Official website of Evraz Group, owner of Nizhnetagilsky Metallurgichesky Kombinat (NTMK) (in English)
- Official website of Russian Defense Expo-2005 (in Russian)
- Recreation and entertainment in Nizhny Tagil (in Russian)
- Portal of Nizhny Tagil (in Russian)
- Photos of Nizhny Tagil (in Russian)