Nizhny Tagil

Nizhny Tagil (Russian: Нижний Тагил, IPA: [ˈnʲiʐnʲɪj tɐˈgʲil]) is a city in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located 25 kilometers (16 mi) east of the boundary between Asia and Europe. Population: 361,811 (2010 Census);[2] 390,498 (2002 Census);[8] 439,521 (1989 Census).[9]

Nizhny Tagil
Нижний Тагил
View of Nizhny Tagil
View of Nizhny Tagil
Flag of Nizhny Tagil
Coat of arms of Nizhny Tagil
Location of Nizhny Tagil
Nizhny Tagil is located in Russia
Nizhny Tagil
Nizhny Tagil
Location of Nizhny Tagil
Nizhny Tagil is located in Sverdlovsk Oblast
Nizhny Tagil
Nizhny Tagil
Nizhny Tagil (Sverdlovsk Oblast)
Coordinates: 57°55′N 59°58′E / 57.917°N 59.967°E / 57.917; 59.967Coordinates: 57°55′N 59°58′E / 57.917°N 59.967°E / 57.917; 59.967
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSverdlovsk Oblast[1]
FoundedOctober 1722
City status since1919
Government
 • MayorVladislav Pinaev
Elevation
200 m (700 ft)
Population
 • Total361,811
 • Estimate 
(2018)[3]
353,950 (−2.2%)
 • Rank48th in 2010
 • Subordinated toCity of Nizhny Tagil[4]
 • Capital ofPrigorodny District[1], City of Nizhny Tagil
 • Urban okrugNizhny Tagil Urban Okrug[5]
 • Capital ofNizhny Tagil Urban Okrug
Time zoneUTC+5 (MSK+2 Edit this on Wikidata[6])
Postal code(s)[7]
622002Edit this on Wikidata
Dialing code(s)+7 3435
OKTMO ID65751000001
Websitentagil.org

HistoryEdit

The prehistory of Nizhny Tagil dates back to the mid-16th century, when the Stroganovs received the right to possess land by the Kama and Chusovaya basins. In 1579 they founded the first settlement, the Utkin sloboda, by the river Utka, the mouth of Chusoya. Fateyevo, the first Russian village in the Tagil region, was founded in 1665.[10]

In 1696, by the order of Tsar Peter the Great, the Vysokogorsky iron ore quarry was opened. Voevode Dmitry Protasyev was elected to search for iron and magnetic ores.[10] The deposits were particularly rich, and included lodes of pure magnetic iron. The surrounding landscape provided everything needed for a successful and productive mining and smelting operation — rivers for transport, forests for fuel, and suitable climate. Several years later, the Tsar introduced in Russia a special administration on mining.[10]

Over the following decades, the city developed as one of the early centers of Russian industrialization, and it has been a major producer of cast iron and steel. The town of Nizhny Tagil, home of the factory Uralvagonzavod, is also known for its production of soviet tanks, including the famous T-34; nearly every second T-34 was manufactured in Nizhny Tagil.[11]

 
First Russian locomotive
 
T-72 monument in its production place, Nizhny Tagil

The first Russian steam locomotive was constructed there in 1833, and the father-and-son engineers who developed it, Yefim and Miron Cherepanovs (Черепанов), were in 1956 commemorated by an 8-meter (26 ft) bronze statue (executed by sculptor A. S. Kondratyev and architect A. V. Sotnikov) which stands in the center of the Theatrical Square in the heart of downtown.

According to some sources, the copper for the skin of the Statue of Liberty was mined and refined in Nizhny Tagil.[12] However, research by Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, USA, suggests that the Visnes mine in Norway is the most likely source.[13]

GeographyEdit

Rivers and ponds take up one third of the city's territory. Nizhny Tagil spans 22 kilometers (14 mi) from north to south and 21 kilometers (13 mi) from east to west. The altitude of the city varies from 170 to 380 meters (560 to 1,250 ft).

The city is built around the extinct volcano Lisya Mountain. This mountain with a watchtower on its top is a symbol of the city. Another hill, Medved-Kamen [ru], is located in the northern part of the city at an altitude of 288 meters (945 ft).

Neighboring cities include Yekaterinburg 130 kilometers (81 mi) to the south, Serov and Priobye in the north, Perm in the west, and Alapayevsk and Verkhnyaya Salda in the east.[citation needed]

 
Panoramic view of Nizhniy Tagil
 
The watchtower atop the hill, a symbol of Nizhny Tagil
 
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Nizhny Tagil
 
Nizhny Tagil railway station

ClimateEdit

The city features a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfc) with mildly warm summers and very long and cold winters. Precipitation is mostly concentrated between late spring and early fall, peaking in the months of July and August. A freeze has been recorded for every month of the year.

Climate data for Nizhny Tagil (1949–2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.1
(52.0)
11.1
(52.0)
30.2
(86.4)
30.0
(86.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.9
(93.0)
34.6
(94.3)
37.2
(99.0)
29.4
(84.9)
22.6
(72.7)
12.3
(54.1)
4.9
(40.8)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F) −11.5
(11.3)
−9.6
(14.7)
−0.8
(30.6)
8.1
(46.6)
15.5
(59.9)
20.8
(69.4)
22.7
(72.9)
19.4
(66.9)
13.2
(55.8)
4.6
(40.3)
−4.6
(23.7)
−9.7
(14.5)
5.7
(42.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −14.7
(5.5)
−13.7
(7.3)
−5.2
(22.6)
3.0
(37.4)
9.7
(49.5)
15.1
(59.2)
17.2
(63.0)
14.2
(57.6)
8.6
(47.5)
1.4
(34.5)
−7.2
(19.0)
−12.4
(9.7)
1.3
(34.3)
Average low °C (°F) −19.0
(−2.2)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−10.8
(12.6)
−2.8
(27.0)
2.8
(37.0)
8.1
(46.6)
10.8
(51.4)
8.6
(47.5)
3.7
(38.7)
−2.0
(28.4)
−10.7
(12.7)
−16.3
(2.7)
−3.9
(25.0)
Record low °C (°F) −45.0
(−49.0)
−42.0
(−43.6)
−36.1
(−33.0)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−12.8
(9.0)
−5.0
(23.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−2.6
(27.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−38.9
(−38.0)
−46.0
(−50.8)
−46.0
(−50.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32.5
(1.28)
27.6
(1.09)
24.0
(0.94)
32.9
(1.30)
54.7
(2.15)
55.6
(2.19)
95.9
(3.78)
78.5
(3.09)
57.4
(2.26)
37.3
(1.47)
27.7
(1.09)
25.4
(1.00)
549.5
(21.63)
Average precipitation days 18.2 14.5 16.7 11.9 13.3 13.6 9.1 12.6 13.2 17.4 20.6 17.8 178.9
Average relative humidity (%) 77.0 72.9 70.2 63.9 63.3 71.3 72.6 78.2 79.4 78.5 79.3 78.5 73.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 49.6 89.6 124.0 201.0 235.6 243.0 282.1 201.5 132.0 71.3 33.0 34.1 1,696.8
Source: Climatebase[14]

Administrative and municipal structureEdit

Within the framework of the administrative divisions, Nizhny Tagil serves as the administrative center of Prigorodny District,[1] even though it is not a part of it.[4] As an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-three rural localities, incorporated separately as the City of Nizhny Tagil[4]—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[15] As a municipal division, the City of Nizhny Tagil is incorporated as Nizhny Tagil Urban Okrug.[5]

The city is divided into three city districts: Leninsky, encompassing the city center and Nizhnetagilsky Pond; Tagilstroyevsky, a comparatively small section at the north part of town; and Dzerzhinsky, a sizable section to the east of the city center principally consisting of apartment buildings and other residences.[citation needed]

The city is governed by four local authorities:

  • The Nizhny Tagil City Duma (city council)
  • The Mayor of Nizhny Tagil
  • The Administration of Nizhny Tagil
  • The Audit Chamber of Nizhny Tagil

The city's government structure was defined in the charter of a municipal unit, which was passed on 24 November 2005.[16] The city's highest official is the mayor elected by the population of Nizhny Tagil for a term of 5 years in office. The executive is foremost the Administration of Nizhny Tagil, the head of which is the mayor. The legislature agency is the City Duma (city council), composed of 28 deputies, which are chosen via MPP for a term of 5 years in office.[17]

GovernmentEdit

Former mayors:

  1. Nikolay Didenko 2006-?
  2. Valentina Isayeva 2008-?
  3. Sergey Nosov 2012-?

EconomyEdit

In 2015, a large portion of the land within the bounds of the city is dominated by the facilities of the factories located in this industrial city.[18]

Nizhny Tagil is an industrial center of the Middle Urals. Highly power-intensive industries such as ferrous metallurgy, engineering, chemistry, and metal working are well-developed in the city. A total of 606 manufacturing companies operate in Nizhny Tagil.[citation needed]

Nizhny Tagil Iron and Steel Plant (Nizhnetagilsky Metallurgichesky Kombinat, NTMK) is a leading Russian steel company.[citation needed]

Uralvagonzavod (UVZ) is the main producer of modern tanks on the territory of the former Soviet Union and Russia. It is the largest main battle tank manufacturer in the world. The T-72, T-90, and T-14 are produced in the city.[18] As of 2016 an economic slowdown in Russia had resulted in diminished demand for civilian products such as train cars, but strong demand continued for tanks.[19]

There are resources to manufacture medical tools for traumatology at the Nizhny Tagil medical tools plant.[citation needed]

Expo-CenterEdit

Nizhny Tagil is one of centers of exhibition activity in the Middle Urals. Nizhny Tagil Institute of Metals Testing was the host of the international exhibitions such as Ural Expo Arms / Russian Expo Arms, Russian Defense Expo (2001 and 2002).

MilitaryEdit

The 42nd Rocket Division of Strategic Rocket Forces is based in Nizhny Tagil,[20][21] equipped with 36 Topol nuclear missiles.[citation needed]

CultureEdit

The House of Demidov's initiatives in the area of culture helped to develop the Tagil community into the Urals' most important cultural center. In the 19th century, a library and the museum of natural history and antiquity were opened.[22]

The city has a network of approximately 24 libraries[23] servicing 75,000 readers every year.[citation needed]

Tagil museums include the old regional history museum, the museum of Fine Arts, and a number of new museums opened in the 1990s: the museum of tray painting art, the museum of lifestyle and handicrafts representing the starting point of a new ethnographic complex.[citation needed]

The Demidov Park, a new cultural and historical project, is planned to be built in the city. However, due to European sanctions against Russia, its foundation has been postponed.[24]

Nizhny Tagil has been chosen to host international Urals' Industrial Heritage conferences and workshops. In 2003, during the 12nd International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage, a charter was signed for the conservation of Russian industrial heritage.[25]

City theatrical life is represented by four theaters: the National D. N. Mamin-Sibiryak Academic Drama Theater, a puppet theater, a youth theater, and the actor department of Nizhny Tagil College of Arts, which has been training actors and actresses.

EducationEdit

The oldest university is Nizhny Tagil State Socio-Educational Academy. The state educational academy operates 4 institutes, 13 faculties and 29 departments. There is post-graduate work in three fields: general education, the history of pedagogy and education, Russian history, the Russian language.[citation needed][clarification needed] In art and graphics department 2008 year launched five workshops in which students engage in decorative art. The Academy has four modern sports halls. In summer, a wall is erected for climbing. There is a gymnasium and fitness room.[citation needed]

The Nizhny Tagil Technological Institute[26] is located south-east of the city center.[citation needed]

SportsEdit

The city formerly had an association football team, FC Uralets Nizhny Tagil, which played in the Russian Second Division and was dissolved in 2006.[citation needed]

The city ice hockey team is Sputnik Nizhny Tagil, which played in the Russian Major League.[citation needed]

The bandy club Metallurg Nizhny Tagil plays in the 2nd highest division.[27]

Nizhny Tagil is a host of several competitions in ski jumping World Cup.

Public healthEdit

Medical care is provided in 29 medical care centers that employ 1,100 doctors and 4,500 assistants. Annually, up to 100,000 people are hospitalized, 28,000 surgeries are performed, and up to four million appointments are registered in the city medical care centers.[citation needed]

There is a Yekaterinburg branch of eye microsurgery in Nizhny Tagil.[citation needed] There is obstetrical care.[citation needed] There is a network of municipal and private pharmacies.[citation needed]

In 2015, pollution from factories was 600,000 short tons (540,000 t) annually. Respiratory rate of infection in children was 50% higher than the rest of the country. The city had the highest rate of stomach and lung cancer in the country.[18][28]

TransportEdit

Rail lines and highways connect the city to the rest of the country.[citation needed][clarification needed]

Near the city there is a Salka Aerodrome, located 17 kilometers (11 mi) northeast of the city. It was a military base until 1994. Then it became a civil airfield with main activities in Russian experimental aviation.[citation needed]

PeopleEdit

Nizhny Tagil has been connected to the following personalities:

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

 
Site of the city's first town council

Nizhny Tagil is twinned with:[33]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 65 232», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 65 232, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  2. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 65 476», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 65 476, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  5. ^ a b Law #85-OZ
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  9. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  10. ^ a b c Нижний Тагил. 1964. Из летописи Нижнего Тагила
  11. ^ Каждый третий танк Т-34 сделан в Нижнем Тагиле
  12. ^ "Statue of Liberty Made of Russian Copper?".
  13. ^ "Statue of Liberty Copper".
  14. ^ "Nizhnyj Tagil Climate Normals" (in Russian). Climatebase. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
  15. ^ Law #30-OZ
  16. ^ Главы МО. Город Нижний Тагил
  17. ^ О городской Думе
  18. ^ a b c Louka, Alexandros Katsis and Maria. "Pollution, Prisons, Sickness, and Raves: Inside Russia's 'City of the Colorful Sky'". vice.com. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  19. ^ Andrew E. Kramer (February 25, 2016). "Stirrings of Labor Unrest Awaken as Russia's Economic Chill Sets In". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2016. While workers on the train-car side of the factory have been put on two-thirds pay — about $260 a month — the tank assembly lines are still rolling full speed, and workers are paid in full.
  20. ^ Kristensen, Hans M.; Korda, Matt (2021). "Russian nuclear weapons, 2021". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 77 (2): 90–108. doi:10.1080/00963402.2021.1885869. ISSN 0096-3402. SS-27 Mod 2 upgrades now appear to be complete at the 39th Guards Missile Division at Novosibirsk, the 42nd Missile Division at Nizhny Tagil, the 14th Missile Division at Yoshkar-Ola, and the 29th Guards Missile Division at Irkutsk.
  21. ^ Holm, Michael. "42nd Missile Division". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  22. ^ Династия Демидовых. http://historyntagil.ru/books/11_12_26.htm
  23. ^ Библиотеки Нижнего Тагила
  24. ^ Европейские санкции тормозят создание в Нижнем Тагиле «Демидов-парка»
  25. ^ "Индустриальное наследие, как потенциал развития старопромышленных территорий".
  26. ^ Нижнетагильский Технологический Институт
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 31, 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ Judah, Ben (April 15, 2013). Fragile Empire: How Russia Fell In and Out of Love with Vladimir Putin. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300185256. Retrieved January 30, 2019 – via Google Books.
  29. ^ Алексеев, Михаил; Колпакиди, Александр; Кочик, Валерий (2012). Энциклопедия военной разведки, 1918-1945 гг [Encyclopaedia of Military Intelligence, 1918-1945] (in Russian). Москва: Кучково поле : Ассоциация "Военная книга". p. 210. ISBN 978-5-9950-0219-2.
  30. ^ Лурье, Вячеслав; Кочик, Валерий (2002). ГРУ: дела и люди [GRU: Business and People] (in Russian). Москва: ОЛМА-ПРЕСС. p. 144. ISBN 9785765414996.
  31. ^ "Nikita Soshnikov Stats and News". NHL.com. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  32. ^ "Nikita Soshnikov hockey statistics and profile at hockeydb.com". www.hockeydb.com. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  33. ^ "Города-побратимы". ntagil.org (in Russian). Nizhny Tagil. Retrieved February 2, 2020.

External linksEdit