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Nizhny Tagil (Russian: Нижний Тагил, IPA: [ˈnʲiʐnʲɪj tɐˈgʲil]) is a city in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located 25 kilometers (16 mi) east of the virtual border between Europe and Asia. Population: 361,811 (2010 Census);[2] 390,498 (2002 Census);[8] 439,521 (1989 Census).[9]

Nizhny Tagil

Нижний Тагил
Flag of Nizhny Tagil
Flag
Coat of arms of Nizhny Tagil
Coat of arms
Location of Nizhny Tagil
Nizhny Tagil is located in Russia
Nizhny Tagil
Nizhny Tagil
Location of Nizhny Tagil
Nizhny Tagil is located in Sverdlovsk Oblast
Nizhny Tagil
Nizhny Tagil
Nizhny Tagil (Sverdlovsk Oblast)
Coordinates: 57°55′N 59°58′E / 57.917°N 59.967°E / 57.917; 59.967Coordinates: 57°55′N 59°58′E / 57.917°N 59.967°E / 57.917; 59.967
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSverdlovsk Oblast[1]
FoundedOctober 1722
City status since1919
Government
 • MayorSergey Nosov
Area
 • Total298 km2 (115 sq mi)
Elevation
200 m (700 ft)
Population
 • Total361,811
 • Estimate 
(2018)[3]
353,950 (-2.2%)
 • Rank48th in 2010
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toCity of Nizhny Tagil[4]
 • Capital ofPrigorodny District[1], City of Nizhny Tagil
 • Urban okrugNizhny Tagil Urban Okrug[5]
 • Capital ofNizhny Tagil Urban Okrug
Time zoneUTC+5 (MSK+2 Edit this on Wikidata[6])
Postal code(s)[7]
622002Edit this on Wikidata
Dialing code(s)+7 3435
Twin townsFrantiškovy Lázně, Kryvyi Rih, Cheb, Novokuznetsk, Brest, Chattanooga, Mariánské LázněEdit this on Wikidata
OKTMO ID65751000001
Websitentagil.org
The watchtower atop the hill, a symbol of Nizhny Tagil
T-72 monument in its production place, Nizhny Tagil
View of Nizhny Tagil
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Nizhny Tagil
First Russian locomotive
Nizhny Tagil railway station
Nizhny Tagil industry

Contents

HistoryEdit

The history of Nizhny Tagil begins with the opening of the Vysokogorsky iron ore quarry in 1696. The deposits were particularly rich, and included lodes of pure magnetic iron. The surrounding landscape provided everything needed for a successful and productive mining and smelting operation — rivers for transport, forests for fuel, and suitable climate.[citation needed]

Over the following decades, the city developed as one of the early centers of Russian industrialization, and it has been a major producer of cast iron and steel.[citation needed] The town of Nizhny Tagil is also known for its production of the famous soviet tank T-34-85. The T-34-85 made here has manufacturing changes like a triangle shape flat armour surface on the turret, and wheels with a type of spoke.

The first Russian steam locomotive was constructed there in 1833, and the father-and-son engineers who developed it, Yefim and Miron Cherepanovs (Черепанов), were in 1956 commemorated by an 8-meter (26 ft) bronze statue (executed by sculptor A. S. Kondratyev and architect A. V. Sotnikov) which stands in the center of the Theatrical Square in the heart of downtown.[citation needed]

According to some sources, the copper for the skin of the Statue of Liberty was mined and refined in Nizhny Tagil.[10] However, research by Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, USA, suggests that the Visnes mine in Norway is the most likely source.[11]

In the 1990s, police estimated that about 50% of adult males were in the Russian Mafia. Membership has declined since then.[12]

In early 2007, a mass grave with 30 murdered girls and women was found near Nizhny Tagil. They had been abducted in the city by a prostitution gang between 2002 and 2006. See Nizhny Tagil mass murder (2002-2007).[citation needed] A frightful, fictionalized description of Nizhny Tagil and these murders appears in “The Bourne Sanction,” by Eric Van Lustbader, chapters 28, 30, 34 and 39.[citation needed]

GeographyEdit

Rivers and ponds take up one third of the city's territory. Nizhny Tagil spans 22 kilometers (14 mi) from north to south and 21 kilometers (13 mi) from east to west. The altitude of the city varies from 170 to 380 meters (560 to 1,250 ft).

The city is built around the extinct volcano Lisya Mountain. This mountain with a watchtower on its top is a symbol of the city. Another hill, Medved-Kamen [ru], is located in the northern part of the city at an altitude of 288 meters (945 ft).

Neighboring cities include Yekaterinburg 130 kilometers (81 mi) to the south, Serov and Priobye in the north, Perm in the west, and Alapayevsk and Verkhnyaya Salda in the east.[citation needed]

ClimateEdit

The city's climate is temperate continental.

Climate data for Nizhny Tagil (1949–2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.1
(52.0)
11.1
(52.0)
30.2
(86.4)
30.0
(86.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.9
(93.0)
34.6
(94.3)
37.2
(99.0)
29.4
(84.9)
22.6
(72.7)
12.3
(54.1)
4.9
(40.8)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F) −11.5
(11.3)
−9.6
(14.7)
−0.8
(30.6)
8.1
(46.6)
15.5
(59.9)
20.8
(69.4)
22.7
(72.9)
19.4
(66.9)
13.2
(55.8)
4.6
(40.3)
−4.6
(23.7)
−9.7
(14.5)
5.7
(42.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −14.7
(5.5)
−13.7
(7.3)
−5.2
(22.6)
3.0
(37.4)
9.7
(49.5)
15.1
(59.2)
17.2
(63.0)
14.2
(57.6)
8.6
(47.5)
1.4
(34.5)
−7.2
(19.0)
−12.4
(9.7)
1.3
(34.3)
Average low °C (°F) −19.0
(−2.2)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−10.8
(12.6)
−2.8
(27.0)
2.8
(37.0)
8.1
(46.6)
10.8
(51.4)
8.6
(47.5)
3.7
(38.7)
−2.0
(28.4)
−10.7
(12.7)
−16.3
(2.7)
−3.9
(25.0)
Record low °C (°F) −45.0
(−49.0)
−42.0
(−43.6)
−36.1
(−33.0)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−12.8
(9.0)
−5.0
(23.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−2.6
(27.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−38.9
(−38.0)
−46.0
(−50.8)
−46.0
(−50.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32.5
(1.28)
27.6
(1.09)
24.0
(0.94)
32.9
(1.30)
54.7
(2.15)
55.6
(2.19)
95.9
(3.78)
78.5
(3.09)
57.4
(2.26)
37.3
(1.47)
27.7
(1.09)
25.4
(1.00)
549.5
(21.63)
Average precipitation days 18.2 14.5 16.7 11.9 13.3 13.6 9.1 12.6 13.2 17.4 20.6 17.8 178.9
Average relative humidity (%) 77.0 72.9 70.2 63.9 63.3 71.3 72.6 78.2 79.4 78.5 79.3 78.5 73.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 49.6 89.6 124.0 201.0 235.6 243.0 282.1 201.5 132.0 71.3 33.0 34.1 1,696.8
Source: Climatebase[13]

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Within the framework of the administrative divisions, Nizhny Tagil serves as the administrative center of Prigorodny District,[1] even though it is not a part of it.[4] As an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-three rural localities, incorporated separately as the City of Nizhny Tagil[4]—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[14] As a municipal division, the City of Nizhny Tagil is incorporated as Nizhny Tagil Urban Okrug.[5]

The city is divided into three city districts: Leninsky, encompassing the city center and Nizhnetagilsky Pond; Tagilstroyevsky, a comparatively small section at the north part of town; and Dzerzhinsky, a sizable section to the east of the city center principally consisting of apartment buildings and other residences.[citation needed]

GovernmentEdit

Former mayors:

  1. Nikolay Didenko 2006-?
  2. Valentina Isayeva 2008-?
  3. Sergey Nosov 2012-?

EconomyEdit

In 2015, a large portion of the land within the bounds of the city is dominated by the facilities of the factories located in this industrial city.[citation needed][12]

Nizhny Tagil is an industrial center of the Middle Urals. Highly power-intensive industries such as ferrous metallurgy, engineering, chemistry, and metal working are well-developed in the city. A total of 606 manufacturing companies operate in Nizhny Tagil.[citation needed]

Nizhny Tagil Iron and Steel Plant (Nizhnetagilsky Metallurgichesky Kombinat, NTMK) is a leading Russian steel company.[citation needed]

Uralvagonzavod (UVZ) is the main producer of modern tanks on the territory of the former Soviet Union and Russia. It is the largest main battle tank manufacturer in the world. The T-72, T-90, and T-14 are produced in the city.[12][citation needed] As of 2016 an economic slowdown in Russia had resulted in diminished demand for civilian products such as train cars, but strong demand continued for tanks.[15]

There are resources to manufacture medical tools for traumatology at the Nizhny Tagil medical tools plant.[citation needed]

Expo-CenterEdit

Nizhny Tagil is one of centers of exhibition activity in the Middle Urals. Nizhny Tagil Institute of Metals Testing was the host of the international exhibitions such as Ural Expo Arms / Russian Expo Arms, Russian Defense Expo (2001 and 2002).[citation needed]

MilitaryEdit

The 42nd Rocket Division of Strategic Rocket Forces is based here,[16] equipped with 36 Topol nuclear missiles.[citation needed]

PrisonsEdit

There are eight prisons in the city. A number of these are "colonies", which means they are obliged to contribute to supporting themselves through unpaid work. One prison is for police only, another for women, another is a colony, IK-5.[17] Some prisoners help manufacture tanks, which reduces the cost of the tank substantially.[12]

CultureEdit

Nizhny Tagil is known for its decorative trays.[citation needed]

Demidovs' initiatives in the area of culture had a favorable influence on the development of Tagil community into the Urals' most important cultural center. In the 19th century, a library and the museum of natural history and antiquity were opened.[citation needed]

The city has a network of 28 libraries servicing 75,000 readers every year.[citation needed]

Tagil museums include the old regional history museum, the museum of Fine Arts, and a number of new museums opened in the 1990s: the museum of tray painting art, the museum of lifestyle and handicrafts representing the starting point of a new ethnographic complex.[citation needed]

The Demidov Park, a new cultural and historical project, is planned to be built in the city.[citation needed]

Nizhny Tagil has been chosen to host international Urals' Industrial Heritage conferences and workshops.[citation needed][clarification needed]

City theatrical life is represented by three professional theaters: the National D. N. Mamin-Sibiryak Academic Drama Theater, a puppet theater, community theaters, and the actor department of Nizhny Tagil College of Arts, which has been training actors and actresses for Nizhny Tagil and oblast scenes for two years.[citation needed][clarification needed]

Several Maximum-security prisons surround the town, and most town residents have close connections to them. When prisoners are released from the prisons, they are not given their train fare, and most remain in the town.[18]

EducationEdit

The oldest university is Nizhny Tagil State Socio-Educational Academy. The state educational academy operates 4 institutes, 13 faculties and 29 departments. There is post-graduate work in three fields: general education, the history of pedagogy and education, Russian history, the Russian language.[citation needed][clarification needed] In art and graphics department 2008 year launched five workshops in which students engage in decorative art. The Academy has four modern sports halls. In summer, a wall is erected for climbing. There is a gymnasium and fitness room.[citation needed]

The Nizhny Tagil Technological Institute[19] is located south-east of the city center.[citation needed]

SportsEdit

The city formerly had an association football team, FC Uralets Nizhny Tagil, which played in the Russian Second Division and was dissolved in 2006.[citation needed]

The city ice hockey team is Sputnik Nizhny Tagil, which played in the Russian Major League.[citation needed]

The bandy club Metallurg Nizhny Tagil plays in the 2nd highest division.[20]

Nizhny Tagil was also a host of several competitions in ski jumping World Cup.

Public healthEdit

Medical care is provided in 29 medical care centers that employ 1,100 doctors and 4,500 assistants. Annually, up to 100,000 people are hospitalized, 28,000 surgeries are performed, and up to four million appointments are registered in the city medical care centers.[citation needed]

There is a Yekaterinburg branch of eye microsurgery in Nizhny Tagil.[citation needed] There is obstetrical care.[citation needed] There is a network of municipal and private pharmacies.[citation needed]

In 2015, pollution from factories was 600,000 short tons (540,000 t) annually. Respiratory rate of infection in children was 50% higher than the rest of the country. The city had the highest rate of stomach and lung cancer in the country.[12][21]

TransportEdit

Rail lines and highways connect the city to the rest of the country.[citation needed][clarification needed]

The city is served by the Salka Airport, located 17 kilometers (11 mi) northeast of the city. It was a military base until 1994. Then it became a civil airport.[citation needed]

PeopleEdit

Nizhny Tagil has been connected to the following personalities:

Twin townsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 65 232», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 65 232, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  2. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 65 476», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 65 476, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  5. ^ a b Law #85-OZ
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  9. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  10. ^ "Statue of Liberty Made of Russian Copper?".
  11. ^ "Statue of Liberty Copper".
  12. ^ a b c d e Louka, Alexandros Katsis and Maria. "Pollution, Prisons, Sickness, and Raves: Inside Russia's 'City of the Colorful Sky'". vice.com. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  13. ^ "Nizhnyj Tagil Climate Normals" (in Russian). Climatebase. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
  14. ^ Law #30-OZ
  15. ^ Andrew E. Kramer (February 25, 2016). "Stirrings of Labor Unrest Awaken as Russia's Economic Chill Sets In". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2016. While workers on the train-car side of the factory have been put on two-thirds pay — about $260 a month — the tank assembly lines are still rolling full speed, and workers are paid in full.
  16. ^ Holm, Michael. "42nd Missile Division". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  17. ^ https://www.opendemocracy.net/od-russia/anastasia-zotova/stop-torture-in-russian-prisons
  18. ^ Russia's Sex Slave Graveyard. The eXile. February 2008.
  19. ^ Нижнетагильский Технологический Институт
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ Judah, Ben (April 15, 2013). "Fragile Empire: How Russia Fell In and Out of Love with Vladimir Putin". Yale University Press. Retrieved January 30, 2019 – via Google Books.
  22. ^ "Nikita Soshnikov Stats and News". NHL.com. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  23. ^ "Nikita Soshnikov hockey statistics and profile at hockeydb.com". www.hockeydb.com. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  24. ^ a b "В Нижний Тагил прибыли делегации городов-побратимов - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  25. ^ "Хеб (Чешская Республика) - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  26. ^ a b "Часы-указатель времени в городах-побратимах Нижнего Тагила подверглись атаке вандалов - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  27. ^ "Брест (Белоруссия) - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  28. ^ "Чаттануга (США) - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  29. ^ "Новокузнецк (Россия, Кемеровская область) - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  30. ^ "Кривой Рог (Украина) - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.

External linksEdit