Nizhny Tagil (Russian: Нижний Тагил, IPA: [ˈnʲiʐnʲɪj tɐˈgʲil]) is a city in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located 25 kilometers (16 mi) east of the virtual border between Europe and Asia. Population: 361,811 (2010 Census); 390,498 (2002 Census); 439,521 (1989 Census).
Нижний Тагил (Russian)
|- City -|
Location of Sverdlovsk Oblast in Russia
Coat of arms
|Administrative status (as of 2011)|
|Federal subject||Sverdlovsk Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||City of Nizhny Tagil|
|Administrative center of||Prigorodny District, City of Nizhny Tagil|
|Municipal status (as of June 2009)|
|Urban okrug||Nizhny Tagil Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Nizhny Tagil Urban Okrug|
|Mayor||Sergey Nosov|
|Population (2010 Census)||361,811 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||48th|
|Time zone||YEKT (UTC+05:00)|
|Founded||October 1722|
|City status since||1919|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 3435|
|Nizhny Tagil on Wikimedia Commons|
The history of Nizhny Tagil begins with the opening of the Vysokogorsky iron ore quarry in 1696. The deposits were particularly rich, and included lodes of pure magnetic iron. The surrounding landscape provided everything needed for a successful and productive mining and smelting operation — rivers for transport, forests for fuel, and suitable climate.
Over the following decades, the city developed as one of the early centers of Russian industrialization, and it has been a major producer of cast iron and steel. The town of Nizhny Tagil is also known for its production of the famous soviet tank T-34-85. The T-34-85 made here has manufacturing changes like a triangle shape flat armour surface on the turret, and wheels with a type of spoke.
The first Russian steam locomotive was constructed there in 1833, and the father-and-son engineers who developed it, Yefim and Miron Cherepanovs (Черепанов), were in 1956 commemorated by an 8-meter (26 ft) bronze statue (executed by sculptor A. S. Kondratyev and architect A. V. Sotnikov) which stands in the center of the Theatrical Square in the heart of downtown.
In early 2007, a mass grave with 30 murdered girls and women was found near Nizhny Tagil. They had been abducted in the city by a prostitution gang between 2002 and 2006. See Nizhny Tagil mass murder (2002-2007). A frightful, fictionalized description of Nizhny Tagil and these murders appears in “The Bourne Sanction,” by Eric Van Lustbader, chapters 28, 30, 34 and 39.
Rivers and ponds take up one third of the city's territory. Nizhny Tagil spans 22 kilometers (14 mi) from north to south and 21 kilometers (13 mi) from east to west. The city is built around the extinct volcano Lisya Mountain. This mountain with a watchtower on its top is a symbol of the city. Another mountain, Medved-Kamen, is located in the northern part of the city and is 100 meters (330 ft) high. High rock walls break into the Tagil River.
The city's climate is temperate continental.
|Climate data for Nizhny Tagil (1949–2011)|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.1
|Average high °C (°F)||−11.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−14.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−19.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−45.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||32.5
|Average precipitation days||18.2||14.5||16.7||11.9||13.3||13.6||9.1||12.6||13.2||17.4||20.6||17.8||178.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||77.0||72.9||70.2||63.9||63.3||71.3||72.6||78.2||79.4||78.5||79.3||78.5||73.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||49.6||89.6||124.0||201.0||235.6||243.0||282.1||201.5||132.0||71.3||33.0||34.1||1,696.8|
The altitude of the city varies from 170 to 380 meters (560 to 1,250 ft). This makes Nizhny Tagil one of the rare natural store-rooms on the Earth.[why?] There are many mineral deposits containing 63 elements of the periodic table.
Administrative and municipal statusEdit
Within the framework of the administrative divisions, Nizhny Tagil serves as the administrative center of Prigorodny District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-three rural localities, incorporated separately as the City of Nizhny Tagil—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Nizhny Tagil is incorporated as Nizhny Tagil Urban Okrug.
The city is divided into three city districts: Leninsky, encompassing the city center and Nizhnetagilsky Pond; Tagilstroyevsky, a comparatively small section at the north part of town; and Dzerzhinsky, a sizable section to the east of the city center principally consisting of apartment buildings and other residences.
- Nikolay Didenko 2006-?
- Valentina Isayeva 2008-?
- Sergey Nosov 2012-?
A large portion of the land within the bounds of the city is dominated by the facilities of the various factories located in this industrial city, including those of Oxochem.
Nizhny Tagil is an industrial center of the Middle Urals. Such highly power-intensive industries as ferrous metallurgy, engineering, chemistry, and metal working are well-developed in the city. A total of 606 manufacturing companies operate in Nizhny Tagil.
Uralvagonzavod (UVZ) is well known in Russia as the main producer of modern tanks on the territory of the former Soviet Union and Russia. It is the largest main battle tank manufacturer in the world. The T-72, T-90, and T-14 are produced in the city. As of 2016 an economic slowdown in Russia had resulted in diminished demand for civilian products such as train cars, but strong demand continued for tanks.
There are resources to manufacture medical tools for traumatology at the Nizhny Tagil medical tools plant.
Nizhny Tagil is one of centers of exhibition activity in the Middle Urals. Nizhny Tagil Institute of Metals Testing was the host of the international exhibitions such as Ural Expo Arms / Russian Expo Arms, Russian Defense Expo (2001 and 2002).
Nizhny Tagil is known for its decorative trays.
Demidovs' initiatives in the area of culture had a favorable influence on the development of Tagil community into the Urals' most important cultural center. In the 19th century, a library and the museum of natural history and antiquity were opened.
The city has a network of 28 libraries servicing 75,000 readers every year.
Tagil museums include the old regional history museum, the museum of Fine Arts, and a number of new museums opened in the 1990s: the museum of tray painting art, the museum of lifestyle and handicrafts representing the starting point of a new ethnographic complex.
The Demidov Park, a new cultural and historical project, is planned to be built in the city.
City theatrical life is represented by three professional theaters: the National D. N. Mamin-Sibiryak Academic Drama Theater, a puppet theater, community theaters, and the actor department of Nizhny Tagil College of Arts, which has been training actors and actresses for Nizhny Tagil and oblast scenes for two years.[clarification needed]
Several Maximum-security prisons surround the town, and most town residents have close connections to them. When prisoners are released from the prisons, they are not given their train fare, and most remain in the town.
The oldest university is Nizhny Tagil State Socio-Educational Academy. The state educational academy operates 4 institutes, 13 faculties and 29 departments. There is post-graduate work in three fields: general education, the history of pedagogy and education, Russian history, the Russian language.[clarification needed] In art and graphics department 2008 year launched five workshops in which students engage in decorative art. The Academy has four modern sports halls. In summer, a wall is erected for climbing. There is a gymnasium and fitness room.
Medical care is provided in 29 medical care centers that employ 1,100 doctors and 4,500 assistants. Annually, up to 100,000 people are hospitalized, 28,000 surgeries are performed, and up to four million appointments are registered in the city medical care centers.
There is a Yekaterinburg branch of eye microsurgery in Nizhny Tagil. There is obstetrical care. There is a network of municipal and private pharmacies.
Nizhny Tagil has been connected to the following personalities:
- Bar Paly, Russian-Israeli model and actress
- Yefim Cherepanov, inventor and industrial engineer, constructor of the first Russian locomotive
- Miron Cherepanov (son of Yefim Cherepanov), inventor and industrial engineer, constructor of the first Russian locomotive
- Felix Lembersky, painter
- Valeri Ogorodnikov, film director, Prize "Silver Leopard" at Locarno International Film Festival and State Price of Russian Federation for the film "Barrack", Price of FIPRESCI for the film "Burglar" at Venice Film Festival
- Igor Radulov, hockey player, winger currently playing for Салават Юлаев (Salavat Yulaev Ufa) of the KHL
- Alexander Radulov, hockey player, winger currently playing for the Dallas Stars, formerly with Салават Юлаев (Salavat Yulaev Ufa) of the KHL (brother with Igor)
- Boris Rauschenbach, physicist and rocket engineer
- Sergei Shepelev, former Soviet national ice hockey team member
- Nikita Soshnikov, hockey player, winger currently playing for the St. Louis Blues organization; previously with the Toronto Maple Leafs of the NHL, formerly with the Toronto Marlies of the AHL and Moscow Oblast Atlant of the KHL
- Aron Zinshtein, painter
- Victor Starffin, baseball player
- Dmitry Larionov, champion of rowing slalom
- Konstantin Novoselov, 2010 Nobel Prize winner for his research on Graphene
- Valeri Brainin, poet, musicologist, President (from 2004) of the Russian branch of the International Society for Music Education - a member of UNESCO
Nizhny Tagil is twinned with:
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 65 232», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 65 232, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 65 476», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 65 476, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
- Law #85-OZ
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- "Statue of Liberty Made of Russian Copper?".
- "Nizhnyj Tagil Climate Normals" (in Russian). Climatebase. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- Law #30-OZ
- Andrew E. Kramer (25 February 2016). "Stirrings of Labor Unrest Awaken as Russia's Economic Chill Sets In". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
While workers on the train-car side of the factory have been put on two-thirds pay — about $260 a month — the tank assembly lines are still rolling full speed, and workers are paid in full.
- Holm, Michael. "42nd Missile Division". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
- Russia's Sex Slave Graveyard. The eXile. February 2008.
- Нижнетагильский Технологический Институт
- "Nikita Soshnikov Stats and News". NHL.com. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Nikita Soshnikov hockey statistics and profile at hockeydb.com". www.hockeydb.com. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "В Нижний Тагил прибыли делегации городов-побратимов - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Хеб (Чешская Республика) - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Часы-указатель времени в городах-побратимах Нижнего Тагила подверглись атаке вандалов - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Брест (Белоруссия) - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Чаттануга (США) - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Новокузнецк (Россия, Кемеровская область) - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "Кривой Рог (Украина) - Нижний Тагил. Официальный сайт". ntagil.org. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Nizhne-Tagilsk.|
- Official website of Nizhny Tagil (in Russian)
- Information and entertainment portal of Nizhny Tagil (in Russian)
- Official website of Evraz Group, owner of Nizhnetagilsky Metallurgichesky Kombinat (NTMK) (in English)
- Official website of Russian Defense Expo-2005 (in Russian)
- Recreation and entertainment in Nizhny Tagil (in Russian)
- Portal of Nizhny Tagil (in Russian)
- Photos of Nizhny Tagil (in Russian)