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The T-14 Armata (Russian: Т-14 «Армата»; industrial designation "Ob'yekt 148", Russian: Объект 148) is a next-generation Russian main battle tank based on the Armata Universal Combat Platform—the first series-produced next-generation tank. The Russian Army initially planned to acquire 2,300 T-14s between 2015 and 2020. Production and fiscal shortfalls delayed this to 2025, and then to the cancellation of the main production run. The test batch of 100 is to be delivered and deployed to the 2nd Guards Tamanskaya Motor Rifle Division, with delivery expected in 2020 or later; tanks will be transferred only after the completion of all state tests.
|Type||Main battle tank|
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Used by||Russian Ground Forces|
|Designer||Ural Design Bureau of Transport Machine-Building, Uralvagonzavod|
|Unit cost||$3.7 million|
|No. built||20+ (100 planned)|
|Length||8.7 m (29 ft)|
|Width||3.5 m (11 ft)|
|Height||3.3 m (11 ft)|
Glacis: 900 mm vs APFSDS and 1400 mm vs HEAT.|
Internal armored capsule with more than 900 mm RHA equivalent
|2A82-1M 125 mm (4.92 in) smoothbore cannon with 45 rounds (32 of them in the autoloader).|
Future version may use the smoothbore 2A83 152 mm tank gun.
|12.7 mm (0.50 in) Kord machine gun (6P49), 7.62 mm (0.30 in) PKTM machine gun (6P7К)|
1,500 hp–2,000 hp
|Transmission||12-speed automatic gearbox|
|min 500 kilometres (310 mi)|
|Maximum speed||80 km/h (50 mph)–90 km/h (56 mph) (estimated)|
The tank was first displayed in public during rehearsals for the 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade. During the 2015 rehearsals, one of the tanks suddenly stopped moving, and after attempts to tow it failed, it moved away under its own power after about 15 minutes.
The Russian Federation was expecting to order 2,300 T-14 main battle tanks for delivery by 2020. In 2015, Russian media had announced that around 20 tanks had been delivered for testing, without naming a source. However, in 2016 the Russian Defence Ministry announced that it had signed a contract for a “test batch” of 100 T-14 tanks to be delivered by 2020, with the full project extended until 2025.
In July 2018, Deputy Prime Minister for Defence and Space Industry Yury Borisov said there is currently no need to mass-produce the Armata when its older predecessors, namely the latest variants of the T-72, remain "effective against American, German and French counterparts”, saying, “Why flood our military with Armatas, the T-72s are in great demand on the market(s).” Instead, a modernization program of the T-72s, T-80s and T-90s in-service will take precedence. In August 2018, at the ARMY2018 Forum outside Moscow, the Russian Ministry of Defense signed a contract for the purchase of 32 T-14s tanks and 100 T-15 infantry fighting vehicles, with delivery to be finished by 2021. In February 2019 it was announced that the first 12 tanks would be delivered by the end of that year. In August 2019, the Russian Military-Industrial Courier reported that out of a contractually agreed 132 Armata-platform vehicles over three years to 2021 (including T-14 tanks, and also T-15 IFVs and T-16 BREM ARVs (ru:Т-16 (БРЭМ)), assuming production of 44 vehicles a year, only 16 would be delivered by the end of 2019. This implied a shortfall of at least 28 vehicles that year. Uralvagonzavod had apparently suffered severe personnel turnover, reportedly linked to financial abuses. By November 2019 the delivery forecast slipped to "late 2019 or early 2020."
In mid January 2020 the head of Rostec said no Armata-platform vehicles including T-14 tanks had been delivered, and in February the CEO of Uralvagonzavod only said that Armata-platform armour (not necessarily T-14 tanks) would start shipping to begin operation evaluation in 2020, with the full contract of 132 Armata-platform vehicles completed by 2022. Furthermore, also in February 2020 it became evident that the set of requirements for the intended engine of the tank were not met by the construction bureau and the project of development of the engine would be closed in first quarter of 2020, further delaying the introduction of the tank for an unspecified time. In August 2020, the Industry and Trade minister told journalists that the production of 132 Armata-platform tanks and fighting vehicles had begun after the resolution of problems with engines and thermal-imaging equipment, and they would be issued to the armed forces in 2021.
The Armata was designed over the course of five years, and features a number of innovative characteristics, including an unmanned turret. The crew of three is seated in an armoured capsule in the front of the hull, which will also include a toilet for the crew.
The main armament of the T-14 is the 2A82-1M 125 mm (4.92 in) smoothbore cannon, a replacement for the 2A46 125 mm gun of previous Russian and Soviet tanks. According to Russian sources, its muzzle energy is greater than that of the German Leopard 2's Rheinmetall 120 mm gun, Features include an absence of a fume extractor (due to the unmanned turret), a fire rate of 10–12 rpm (rounds per minute), left side casing ejection port for the 125 mm gun and a maximum effective-penetration range of 8 km with ATGMs. The 2A82-1M 125 mm cannon can fire a wide range of ammunition, including armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) projectiles, guided missiles, high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT-FS) shells, air-burst HE-Frag shells and other types of rounds. The Vacuum-1 APFSDS round, developed for the 2A82-1M gun, has a penetrator that is 900 mm long, and is said to be capable of penetrating 1 m of RHA equivalent at a distance of 2 km. The new controlled-detonation Telnik HE-Frag shell is available and has entered service. The gun is capable of firing guided missiles like the 9M119M1 Invar-M which has an effective range of 100 m to 5 km, and can engage low-flying air targets such as helicopters, with a new 3UBK21 Sprinter ATGM with an effective range up to 12 km developed specifically for it. 3UBK25 active homing ATGM is currently under development. It should also be noted that the Russian military has plans to upgrade to a massive 152 mm gun, which, according to a top ranking Russian official, will be able to pierce through one meter of steel.
The secondary armament consists of a 12.7×108mm Kord (GRAU index 6P49) machine gun with 300 rounds (not observed during the 2015 parade) and a 7.62×54mmR Pecheneg PKP (GRAU Index: 6P41) or a PKTM (6P7К) machine gun with 1,000 rounds. All guns are remotely controlled. In addition, another 1,000 rounds can be stored separately. A 12.7 mm machine gun is installed above the turret roof-mounted commander's sight, which avoids visual obstructions, while the turret front has a peculiar slit that is speculated to be intended for the coaxial 7.62 mm machinegun. The tank's turret might be fitted with a Shipunov 2A42 30 mm cannon to deal with various targets, including low-flying aerial targets, such as attack planes and helicopters.
In the future, the T-14 may use the 2A83 152 mm gun instead of its current 2A82-1M 125 mm gun. The cannon, which was first developed in 2000 for the T-95 prototype, has a high-speed APFSDS shell with a 1,980 m/s muzzle velocity, only dropping to 1,900 m/s at 2 km. However, Russian engineers have so far kept the 125 mm-size gun, assessing that improvements in ammunition are enough to increase effectiveness, while concluding that a larger bore weapon would offer few practical advantages.
The T-14 is powered by a ChTZ 12N360 (A-85-3A) diesel engine delivering up to 1,500 hp. The engine's theoretical maximum power, not normally used, is 2,000 hp, at the cost of radically decreasing its service life, projected min 2,000 hours at nominal 1,500 hp, comparable to other modern tank engines, and up to 10,000 hours at moderated 1,200 hp. The engine is electronically controlled. Operational range is over 500 km.
The T-14 has a 12-speed automatic gearbox, with a top speed of 80–90 kilometres per hour (50–56 mph) and a range of 500 kilometres (310 mi). At least one expert speculated that the transmission might be an electronically controlled mechanical gearbox with external reverse and demultiplier gears, giving the tank equal forward and reverse gear ranges. Other sources suggest a partly or fully hydrostatic transmission. Uniquely for a Soviet/Russian design, the transmission is joined with the engine into a single unit that can be swapped out in the field in just under 30 minutes.
Unlike previous Russian and Soviet designs, such as the T-90/80/72/64, the T-14 has seven 700 mm road wheels per side, based on the T-80 variant. It has the ability to adjust the suspension of at least two first roadwheels, and, probably, the last ones. In the 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade rehearsal video, a T-14 Armata is shown retracting one of its frontal first wheels during turns. This, along with published design blueprints, suggest at least a partial hydraulic suspension system based on the adjustable lever arm shock absorbers that now double as suspension actuators. This may have been done to improve the pivoting ability of the tank, as an active suspension system improves the target lock time[clarification needed] by a factor of 2.2, and reduces the timeframe between target detection and reaction by 31%, all due to the resulting smoother ride.
Much thought was given to the tank's strategic mobility. Its moderate mass of 48 tons allows it to be easily transported by rail or trailer, which conserves its engine and transmission's service life, and to cross the majority of bridges in Russia. Two T-14s with their crews and all attending equipment can be easily airlifted by the heavy An-124 transport plane. However, the most numerous Russian strategic airlifter, the Il-76, is only able to lift one T-14 and its needed equipment in its newest, PS-90-equipped variant.
The T-14's crew of three is protected by an internal armored capsule Both the chassis and the turret are equipped with the Malachit dual-explosive reactive armour (ERA) system on the front, sides and the top. The tank uses an integrated, computerized control system which monitors the state and functions of all tank modules. In battle, the software can analyze threats and then either suggest or automatically take actions to eliminate them, while without the external threat it can detect and rectify crew errors. Serial production of the Armata Platform's ceramic armor components began in mid-2015.
The tank features the Afghanit (Russian: Афганит) active protection system (APS), which includes a millimeter-wave radar to detect, track, and intercept incoming anti-tank munitions, both kinetic energy penetrators and tandem-charges. Currently, the maximum speed of the interceptable target is 1,700 m/s (Mach 5.0), with projected future increases of up to 3,000 m/s (Mach 8.8). According to news sources, it protects the tank from all sides, however it is not geared towards shooting upwards to defend against top-attack munitions.
Defense Update released an analysis of the tank in May 2015, speculating that Afghanit's main sensors are the four panels mounted on the turret's sides, which are probably AESA radar panes spread out for a 360° view, with possibly one more on top of the turret. In their opinion, the active part of the system consists of both a hard kill and soft kill element, the first of which actively destroys an incoming projectile (such as an unguided rocket or artillery shell), while the second confuses the guidance systems of ATGMs, causing them to lose target lock. They believe that it would be effective against 3rd and 4th generation ATGMs, including Hellfire, TOW, BILL, Javelin, Spike, Brimstone, and JAGM, as well as sensor-fused weapons (SFW). Some Russian sources claim the hard-kill APS is effective even against depleted uranium-cored armor-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) rounds traveling at 1.5–2 km/s (0.93–1.24 mi/s), but others are skeptical, saying the fragmentation charge would not do much to the dense penetrator; while it might be able to push it off course somewhat with a hit-to-kill approach, it likely will not do much to stop it. According to a Russian Ministry of Defence source, practical tests confirmed the destruction of the uranium subcalibre projectile (goal speed up to 2 km/s). However, several outside analysts remain skeptical, as the feat has not yet been independently verified or even publicly demonstrated.
Afghanit hard-kill launchers are the long tubes mounted in groups of five between the turret's front sides and the chassis. These send out an electronically activated charge that fires an unknown type of warhead towards the target. Many analysts currently assume it is some form of high-explosive fragmentation charge, but the possibility has been raised by other sources of the usage of a more solid warhead (possibly similar to an explosively formed penetrator), as seen in Russian patent RU 2263268. The tank is also equipped with the NII Stali Upper Hemisphere Protection Complex, which consists of two steerable cartridges with 12 smaller charges each, and a turret-top VLS with two more similar cartridges, corresponding to the vehicle's soft kill APS. Additionally, using the AESA radar and anti-aircraft machine gun it is possible to destroy incoming missiles and slow-flying shells (except kinetic energy penetrators).
In July 2015, the deputy director of the Uralvagonzavod tank manufacturing company claimed the T-14 would be invisible to radar and infrared detection due to radar-absorbing paint and the placement of components with heat signatures deep within the hull. The turret's shape is designed to reduce its radio and thermal signature for a stealth ground vehicle. American and Russian armor experts have doubts about these unproven claims. A retired senior U.S. military officer said that sensitive modern thermal technology could detect things such as vehicle movement, a weapon firing, an exposed crewman, or the exhaust of an engine capable of moving a 50-ton tank regardless of heat-generating component placement. Analysts also pointed out that most stealth technology in Russia has been for aircraft to reduce their radar cross section from airborne or ground-based detection, while in a ground vehicle the approach would be to make it indistinguishable from ground clutter to optimize shielding from air-to-ground detection and the two techniques do not necessarily overlap.
According to Pravda, T-14 is the only tank in the world that meets the "principle of six zones", which roughly translates into: 1) Avoid collision with more powerful enemy by employing a radar to detect and avoid them; 2) Avoid detection by employing stealth characteristic; 3) Avoid target acquisition by employing electronic warfare system to interfere with enemy's mean of target acquisition; 4) Avoid being hit by employing active protection system to disrupt incoming munitions; 5) Avoid penetration by means of passive armor; 6) Avoid destruction by means of placing the crew inside a protected capsule.
Sensors and communicationEdit
The T-14 is equipped with 26.5–40 GHz active electronically scanned array radar, which is used mainly by the APS. Up to 40 airborne or 25 ground targets down to 0.3 m (12 in) in size can be tracked simultaneously at a range of up to 100 km. The tracking system provides an automatic firing solution for the destruction of the target, which can then be transferred to either the APS or the main gun control computers. The tank will be able to give target designation for artillery and serve in air defence and reconnaissance roles. The T-14 uses highly protected communication channels that connect a group of T-14s and the command post.
The commander and gunner have largely identical multispectral image sights, with visible electromagnetic spectrum and thermography channels and laser rangefinders. The commander's sight is installed on the turret top and has a 360° field of view, while the gunner's, situated in the turret's niche to the gun's left, is slaved to it and is additionally equipped with a direct-vision periscopic channel and laser designator for the T-14's gun-launched, SACLOS anti-tank missiles. The detection distance of tank-sized objects for both sights is 7,500 m (8,000) in daylight, through the TV/periscopic channel, and ≈3,500 m at night through the thermal channel. There is also a backup night-vision capable sight, with 2,000/1,000 m respective detection distances. In addition to traditional vision periscopes, the driver has a forward looking infrared camera and a number of zooming closed-circuit television cameras. Video cameras are installed for all-round vision for the crew, since it lacks the normal vantage point of turret roof hatches. This 360-degree camera coverage is perhaps one of the T-14's most unusual features, made necessary because of extremely limited visibility without them. The crew, clustered in the front of the hull, would have poor situation awareness if the camera setup and video feeds were to fail.
Although the T-14 is touted as an entirely Russian-made next-generation tank, some components may not be entirely domestically made. Cybersecurity analysts have stated that Russian industries have had difficulty producing critical components of night-vision systems which are standard on the tank, and have attempted to buy them from Western or Chinese suppliers in the past. This means components of the T-14 could have originated outside of Russia, and may be more difficult to obtain or produce due to sanctions against Russia for its involvement in Crimea and eastern Ukraine.
Denis Manturov, the Russian minister of trade and industry, said that Russia was ready to sell the Armata tank to Egypt. "Russia is ready to discuss with Egypt the delivery of the T-14 Armata tank after executing its plans for this new generation tank under the state armaments program," he told RIA Novosti on a visit to Cairo in May 2015.
The manufacturer of the Russian Armata tank invited a delegation from Egypt to a military equipment and arms expo in Russia, where the capability of the new tank will be demonstrated. "We invited the Egyptian delegation to the exhibition of weapons, which will be held in September this year , to show what this machine is capable of," the company's director Oleg Sienko told TV Channel Russia-24.
Vladimir Kozhin, a Russian presidential aide, said that Russia's foreign partners, including China and India, have expressed interest in purchasing new military equipment presented at the May 9 Victory Day parade in Moscow, including the Armata tank. "To a larger extent it is our traditional partners: India, China and South-East Asia," he told the Izvestia newspaper. Even though China has shown interest in the T-14, Chinese company Norinco claims their domestic VT-4 tank is superior to the Armata design in terms of mechanical reliability, fire control, and unit cost.
The T-14 Armata has been described as a major concern for Western armies, and British intelligence views the unmanned turret as providing many advantages. Western observers, however, question Russia's ability to purchase modern tanks like the T-90 and T-14 in significant numbers. In response to the Armata, German Rheinmetall AG has developed a new 130mm L/51 tank gun, claiming it provides a 50 percent increase in armor penetration over the 120mm L/55 in service with the Bundeswehr. Germany and France have joined forces to develop an unspecified "Main Ground Combat System" (MGCS) to compete with the technological advances of the Armata and replace both the Leclerc and Leopard 2 MBTs around 2030.
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Without hyperbole, Armata represents the most revolutionary step change in tank design in the last half century. ..revolutionary turret design that makes crew less vulnerable under fire. The tank is also reckoned to be lighter, faster and lower in profile than Western rivals.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to T-14 Armata.|
- New Russian Armor – First analysis: Armata: Defense Update analysis.
- Russia's armour revolution: Jane's analysis (archived version).
- Full details: Armata official government source
- The T-14 Armata from a technical point of view, by Captain Stefan Bühler, graduate engineer (University of Applied Sciences), Explosive Ordnance Disposal Officer at the NBC-KAMIR Competence Center for the Swiss Armed Forces and Commander of Tank Squadron 12/1