Open main menu

The Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko" (Russian: Росси́йская объединённая демократи́ческая па́ртия «Я́блоко» Rossiyskaya obyedinyonnaya demokraticheskaya partiya "Yabloko") is a Russian social-liberal political party founded by former Soviet Deputy Prime Minister Grigory Yavlinsky, as well as two Senators, and currently led by Representative Emilia Slabunova. The party's logo consists of a red circle and a green isosceles triangle, suggesting an apple in a constructivist style, a nod to the party's acronym which is a Russian word for "apple" (Russian: я́блоко, romanizedjábloko/yábloko). Yabloko’s party platform stands for a social market economy, fair competition in politics and the economy, is for the inviolability of private property, and for equal opportunity. On a federal level, the party is represented by one senator, Vladimir Lukin.

Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko"

Российская объединённая демократическая партия «Яблоко»
LeaderEmilia Slabunova[1]
FounderGrigory Yavlinsky
Yury Boldyrev
Vladimir Lukin
Merger ofUnion of Greens of Russia (faction) (2016–present)
IdeologySocial liberalism[2]
Social democracy[2]
Green politics[3]
Green liberalism[3][2]
Rhine capitalism[6][7]
Third Way[8]
Political positionCentre (majority)[9][10]
Centre-left to Centre-right (factions)
European affiliationAlliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (full member)
European Green Party (associate member for Green Russia faction of Yabloko)[11]
International affiliationLiberal International
ColoursGreen, Red
Federation Council
1 / 170
State Duma
0 / 450
Seats in the Regional Parliaments
13 / 3,928


The party dates back to early 1990s. The immediate predecessor of the Yabloko party was the electoral cartel Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin, formed for the legislative elections of 1993. "Yabloko" is an acronym of the names of its founders: "Я" (Ya) for Grigory Yavlinsky; "Б" (B) for Yury Boldyrev, and "Л" (L) for Vladimir Lukin, with the full name meaning "apple" in Russian. The party stands for free markets and civil liberties in Russia, better relations with the United States and membership in the European Union. The party opposed president Boris Yeltsin's and his prime ministers' policies, earning the reputation of a determined opposition movement that nevertheless was devoted to democratic reforms (in contrast, most of the opposition was communist or far right at that time).[12] Similarly, it has continued to oppose Vladimir Putin for what they see as his increasing authoritarianism and has called for the removal of his government "by constitutional means."[citation needed]

Originally established as a public organization in 1993, it transformed into a political party in 2001. It contested the legislative elections of 1993, 1995, 1999, and 2003.

It is argued that the vote-count in the 2003 Russian parliamentary election was marred by fraud.[citation needed] Some exit-polls and parallel recounts conducted by opposition observers showed that Yabloko crossed the 5% threshold needed for parliamentary representation, gaining 6% of the vote, which should have been translated into some 20 parliamentary seats.[citation needed] Vladimir Putin himself telephoned Yavlinsky on the night of the election to congratulate his party on making it back into the Duma. However, most of these polls had a high margin of error (plus or minus three percent) and only showed Yabloko obtaining seats by a tiny margin. Official results announced by the Central Election Commission gave Yabloko 4.30% of the vote and no seats on the proportional party-list system. Only four Yabloko candidates won in individual district races and were elected to the Duma.

On 4 December 2005 Yabloko-United Democrats, a coalition formed by Yabloko and the Union of Rightist Forces, won 11% of the vote in the Moscow municipal elections and became one of only three parties (along with United Russia and the Communist Party) to enter the new Moscow City Duma. This success was seen by Yabloko leaders as a hopeful sign for the 2007 Russian parliamentary election, and reinforced the view that Yabloko and the Union of Rightist Forces need to unite in order to be elected to the State Duma in 2007.

The Commission on the Unification of Democratic Forces, under the chairmanship of Boris Nemtsov, was established by the Union of Rightist Forces on February 16, 2006. However, the merger plans were discarded in December 2006 since the differences seemed too large.[13]

The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko had been an observer of the Liberal International since 2002, and became a full member after the ELDR Bucharest congress in October 2006. The party's central office is located in Moscow.

In the 2007 Russian legislative election, Yabloko lost its representation in the State Duma.

In the Russian Regional elections on 4th of December 2011 Yabloko won a few places in regional parliaments of Russia: 6 of 50 in Legislative Assembly of Saint Petersburg, 4 of 50 in Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia and 1 of 44 in Pskov legislative body.

In the Russian Regional elections on the 8th of September 2019 Yabloko won in different regional parliaments of Russia: 4 out of 45 seats in the Moscow City Duma and 1 in the Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai. The party also managed to secure 111 municipal seats throughout the country, 81 of them in St Petersburg.


The first chairman of the party was Grigory Yavlinsky (1993–2008). 22 June 2008 15th Congress of the Yabloko Party elected Sergey Mitrokhin as the chairperson, who held this position until 2015. 19 December 2015 18th Congress of the party decided that no person shall hold the chairperson position for more than two periods, thus, preventing Mitrokhin from continuing in his position. The congress elected a Karelian activist of the party, Emilia Slabunova as the chairperson.[1]

Election resultsEdit

Presidential electionEdit

Presidency of Russia
Election year Candidate First Round Second Round
# of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
1996 Grigory Yavlinsky 5,550,752 7.4% (#4)
2000 Grigory Yavlinsky 4,351,450 5.9% (#3)
2018 Grigory Yavlinsky 769,644 1.05% (#5)

Parliamentary lower house electionsEdit

Year Vote percent Seats won
1993 7.86
27 / 450
1995 6.89
45 / 450
1999 5.93
21 / 450
2003 4.3
4 / 450
2007 1.6
0 / 450
2011 3.43
0 / 450
2016 2.0
0 / 450

Regional parliamentary electionsEdit

Regional parliaments of Russia in which Yabloko is represented.

Regional Parliament Election year Seats
# Position
  Karelia 2016
3 / 36
  Khabarovsk Krai 2019
1 / 36
  Kostroma Oblast 2015
1 / 36
  Pskov Oblast 2016
2 / 44
Federal cities
  Saint Petersburg 2016
2 / 50
  Moscow 2019
4 / 45
  1. ^ a b Tied with other parties.

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Hale, Henry (2004). "Yabloko and the Challenge of Building a Liberal Party in Russia". Europe-Asia Studies. 56 (7): 993–1020. doi:10.1080/1465342042000294338.
  • White, David (2006). The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko: Opposition in a Managed Democracy, Burlington: Ashgate.


  1. ^ a b "Партию "Яблоко" возглавила Эмилия Слабунова". 20 December 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d "How Russia's political parties line up". BBC News. 6 March 2012 – via
  3. ^ a b "Фракция "Зеленая Россия" » Программные документы". Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  4. ^ Publications, Europa (19 October 2018). The International Who's Who 2004. Psychology Press. ISBN 9781857432176 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Lewis, Paul G. (19 October 2018). Party Development and Democratic Change in Post-Communist Europe: The First Decade. Taylor & Francis US. ISBN 9780714681740 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ White, David (19 October 2018). The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko: Opposition in a Managed Democracy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9780754646754 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ White, David (19 October 2018). The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko: Opposition in a Managed Democracy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9780754646754 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Yabloko, Author. "Russian Democratic Party YABLOKO » Concert in support of "The third way": "We'll fight till the end"".
  9. ^ Gowland, David; Dunphy, Richard; Lythe, Charlotte, eds. (2006). The European Mosaic (Third ed.). Pearson Education. p. 228. ISBN 9780582473706.
  10. ^ Ross, Cameron (2009). Local Politics and Democratization in Russia. ISBN 9780415336543. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  11. ^ "Green Russia". European Greens.
  12. ^ Shabaev, Andrey. "Российская многопартийность. Глава 4".
  13. ^ Sputnik (16 December 2006). "Russian liberal SPS, Yabloko parties give up unification plans". Retrieved 8 May 2016.

External linksEdit