List of political parties in Russia

This article discusses political parties in Russia.

The Russian Federation has a multi-party system. As of 2020 six parties have members in the federal parliament, the State Duma, with one dominant party (United Russia).

HistoryEdit

 
Certificate of state registration of political parties in Russia, issued by the Ministry of Justice of Russia

After the Perestroika reforms in the 1980s Russia had over 100 registered parties, but the people elected to the State Duma represented only a small number of parties. After 2000, during Vladimir Putin's first presidency (2000–2008), the number of parties quickly decreased. From 2008 to 2012 there were only seven parties in Russia, and every new attempt to register new, independent parties was blocked.[by whom?] The last-registered party of this period was the government-organized Right Cause (now the Party of Growth) which was registered on 18 February 2009. Before the 2011 parliamentary election, about 10 opposition parties were denied registration. However, after a series of mass protests and a 2011 European Court decision on the case of the Republican Party of Russia (now the People's Freedom Party), the law changed and the number of registered parties quickly increased to more than 48 as of December 2012.

Party of powerEdit

A "party of power" refers to a political party that has a close relationship with the executive branch of government such that the party appears to function as an extension of the executive rather than as an autonomous political organization.[1][2] The concept resembles that of a cartel party.[2] These parties were specially established for support of the incumbent president or prime minister in the Russian parliament:

Social composition of votersEdit

According to studies, United Russia voters in 2007 were younger and more market-oriented than the average voter. The party's electorate includes a substantial share of government employees, pensioners and military personnel, who are dependent on the state for their livelihood.[3] Sixty-four percent of United Russia supporters are female. According to researchers[who?], this could be because women place a great value on stability. In the run-up to the 2011 Duma elections, it was reported that support for United Russia was growing among young people.[4]

Current partiesEdit

All parties registered by the Ministry of Justice have the right to participate in any elections all over the country. The list is placed on the Justice Ministry website. In December 2012, there were 48 registered parties in Russia; 6 of them are currently represented in the State Duma as of 2021.

Parties represented in the State Duma and the Federation CouncilEdit

Party Est. Leader Ideology Stance towards Vladimir Putin State Duma Federation Council Regional Political
position
Alliances
  ER
ЕР
United Russia
Единая Россия
2001 Dmitry Medvedev Statism
Russian conservatism
Russian nationalism
Supportive[5]
325 / 450
142 / 170
2,849 / 3,994
Big tent ONF
  KPRF
КПРФ
Communist Party of the Russian Federation
Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации
1993 Gennady Zyuganov Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Left-wing nationalism
Social conservatism
Soft Opposition[5]
57 / 450
3 / 170
449 / 3,994
Left-wing
to far-left
UCP–CPSU
International:
IMCWP
  SRZP
СРЗП
A Just Russia — For Truth
Справедливая Россия — За правду
2006 Sergey Mironov,
Zakhar Prilepin,
Gennady Semigin
Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Social conservatism
Russian nationalism
Supportive[5]
28 / 450
4 / 170
230 / 3,994
Centre to
centre-left
ONF
  LDPR
ЛДПР
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
Либерально-демократическая партия России
1992 Leonid Slutsky Pan-Slavism
Monarchism
Economic interventionism
Social conservatism
Right-wing populism
Ultranationalism
Soft Opposition/Supportive[5]
21 / 450
5 / 170
320 / 3,994
Right-wing
to far-right
  NL
НЛ
New People
Новые люди
2020 Alexey Nechayev Communitarianism
Regionalism
Direct democracy
Supportive[5]
15 / 450
0 / 170
7 / 3,994
Centre-right
  Rodina
Родина
Rodina
Родина
2003,
2012
Aleksey Zhuravlyov Russian nationalism
Russian conservatism
Social conservatism
Right-wing populism
Supportive[5]
1 / 450
0 / 170
6 / 3,994
Far-right ONF
  PR
ПР
Party of Growth
Партия роста
2016 Boris Titov Liberal conservatism
Conservative liberalism
Economic liberalism
Supportive[5]
1 / 450
0 / 170
8 / 3,994
Centre-right
  GP
ГП
Civic Platform
Гражданская платформа
2012 Rifat Shaykhutdinov Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
Supportive[5]
1 / 450
0 / 170
6 / 3,994
Centre-right

Parties represented in the regional parliamentsEdit

Name Founded Leader Ideology Stance towards Vladimir Putin Regional parliaments Position Alliances
RPPSJ
РППСС
Russian Party of Pensioners for Social Justice
Российская партия пенсионеров за социальную справедливость
1997, 2012 Vladimir Burakov Pensioners' interests
Elderly interests
Social justice
Single-issue politics
Supportive[5]
16 / 3,994
Centre
  Yabloko
Яблоко
Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko"
Российская объединённая демократическая партия «Яблоко»
1993 Nikolay Rybakov Social liberalism
Social democracy
Progressivism
Feminism
Pro-Europeanism
Hard Opposition[5]
13 / 3,994
Centre to centre-left International:
LI
European:
ALDE Party
EGP (associated faction)
  CPCR
КПКР
Communist Party "Communists of Russia"
Коммунистическая партия «Коммунисты России»
2012 Maxim Suraykin Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Stalinism
Anti-revisionism
7 / 3,994
Far-left International:
IMCWP (observer)
REP «The Greens»
РЭП «Зелёные»
Russian Ecological Party "The Greens"
Российская экологическая партия «Зелёные»
1992, 2012 Andrey Nagibin Green politics
Agrarianism
Supportive[5]
4 / 3,994
Centre to centre-left ONF
EAGP
  RPFJ
РПСС
Russian Party of Freedom and Justice
Российская партия свободы и справедливости
2012 Maksim Shevchenko Patriotism Supportive[5]
3 / 3,994
Centre-left
  PB
ПД
Party of Business
Партия дела
2010 Konstantin Babkin Social conservatism
Green politics
Protectionism
Economic nationalism
Left patriotism
2 / 3,994
Centre to centre-left
GA!
ЗА!
Green Alternative
Зелёная альтернатива
2020 Ruslan Khvostov Green politics
Environmentalism
Pro-Europeanism
2 / 3,994
Centre-left
  PDD
ППД
Party of the Direct Democracy[6]
Партия прямой демократии
2020 Oleg Artamonov Direct democracy
E-Democracy
1 / 3,994
Centre-right

List of registered partiesEdit

No.[7] Full name Short name Abbr. Ideology Position Leader(s) Created Registration Last federal elections results Free access to the
next legislative election
Note
Presidential Legislative
1   All-Russian political party "United Russia"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Единая Россия"
United Russia UR
ЕР
Statism
Russian conservatism
Russian nationalism
Big tent Dmitry Medvedev 2001 2003 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
49.82% (Party list)
45.86% (SMC)
(324 seats)
MJ profile
Website
2   Political party "Communist Party of the Russian Federation"
Политическая партия "Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации"
Communist Party CPRF
КПРФ
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Social conservatism
Soviet patriotism
Left-wing to far-left Gennady Zyuganov 1990 2002 11.77%
(Pavel Grudinin)
18.93% (Party list)
16.35% (SMC)
(57 seats)
MJ profile
Website
3   Political party LDPR — Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
Политическая партия ЛДПР – Либерально-демократическая партия Россия
Liberal Democratic Party LDPR
ЛДПР

Monarchism
Economic interventionism
Social conservatism
Right-wing populism
Russian ultranationalism
Right-wing to far-right Vladimir Zhirinovsky 1992 2002 5.65%
(Vladimir Zhirinovsky)
7.55% (Party list)
5.89% (SMC)
(21 seats)
MJ profile
Website
4   Political party "Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko""
Политическая партия "Российская объединенная демократическая партия "Яблоко"
Yabloko
Яблоко
Social liberalism
Social democracy
Progressivism
Feminism
Trade unionism
Pro-Europeanism
Centre to centre-left Nikolay Rybakov 1995 2003 1.05%
(Grigory Yavlinsky)
1.34% (Party list)
1.99% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
5   Socialist political party "A Just Russia — Patriots — For Truth"
Социалистическая политическая партия "Справедливая Россия — Патриоты — За Правду"
A Just Russia — For Truth SRZP
СРЗП
Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Social conservatism
Russian nationalism
Centre to Centre-left Sergey Mironov 2006 2006 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
7.46% (Party list)
8.78% (SMC)
(27 seats)
MJ profile
Website
6   All-Russian political party "Party of Growth"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Партия Роста"
Party of Growth PG
ПР

Conservatism
Liberal conservatism
Conservative liberalism
Economic liberalism
Centre-right Boris Titov 2016 2016 0.76%
(Boris Titov)
0.52% (Party list)
0.94% (SMC)
(1 seat)
MJ profile
Website
7   Political party "People's Freedom Party" (PARNAS)
Политическая партия "Партия народной свободы" (ПАРНАС)
People's Freedom Party PARNAS
ПАРНАС
Anti-Putinism
Republicanism
Liberalism
Classical liberalism
Federalism
Atlanticism
Anti-communism
Centre-right Mikhail Kasyanov 1990 2002 DNP
(endorsed Ksenia Sobchak and Grigory Yavlinsky)
DNP MJ profile
Website
8   Political party "Democratic Party of Russia"
Политическая партия "Демократическая партия России"
Democratic Party DPR
ДПР
Conservatism Centre-right to right-wing Timur Bogdanov 1990 2012 DNP DNP MJ profile
9 Political party "Party of Progress"
Политическая партия "Партия прогресса"
Party of Progress PP
ПП
Nikolay Pakin 2012 2012 DNP DNP MJ profile
10   Political party "Russian Party of Freedom and Justice"
Политическая партия "Российская партия свободы и справедливости"
Party of Freedom and Justice RPFJ
РПСС
Social democracy
Russian nationalism
Patriotism
Federalism
Centre-left Maksim Shevchenko 2012 2012 DNP 0.77% (Party list)
0.68% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
11 Political party "Russian Ecological Party "The Greens"
Политическая Партия "Российская экологическая партия «Зелёные»
REP "The Greens"
РЭП «Зелёные»
Putinism
Green politics
Agrarianism
Centre Andrey Nagibin 1993 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
0.91% (Party list)
0.98% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
12   Political party Communist Party Communists of Russia
Политическая Партия Коммунистическая партия Коммунисты России
Communists of Russia CPCR
КПКР
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Stalinism
Anti-revisionism
Far-left Maxim Suraykin 2009 2012 0.68%
(Maxim Suraykin)
1.27% (Party list)
2.98% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
13   Public organization — political party "Russian All-People's Union"
Общественная организация — политическая партия "Российский общенародный союз"
Russian All-People's Union ROS
РОС
Russian nationalism
Pochvennichestvo
Social conservatism
Right-wing socialism
Right-wing Sergey Baburin 1991 2012 0.65%
(Sergey Baburin)
DNP MJ profile
Website
14 All-Russian political party "Party for Fairness!"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Партия за справедливость!"
Party for Fairness! PARZAS!
ПАРЗАС!
Social democracy Centre-left Vladimir Ponomarenko 2012 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
DNP MJ profile
Website
15 Political party of Social Protection
Политическая партия социальной защиты
Party of Social Protection PSP
ПСЗ
Vladimir Mikhailov 2012 2012 DNP DNP MJ profile
Website
16 Public organization All-Russian political party "Civilian Power"
Общественная организация Всероссийская политическая партия "Гражданская сила"
Civilian Power CP
ГС
Green liberalism Centre to centre-left Kirill Bykanin 2002 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
0.14% (Party list)
0.16% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
17 Political party "Russian Party of Pensioners for Social Justice"
Политическая партия "Российская партия пенсионеров за социальную справедливость"
Party of Pensioners RPPSJ
РППСС
Pensioners' interests
Elderly interests
Social justice
Single-issue politics
Centre Vladimir Burakov 1997 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
2.45% (Party list)
3.58% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
18   Political party "Civic Platform"
Политическая партия "Гражданская платформа"
Civic Platform CP
ГП
Conservatism
Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
Right-wing Rifat Shaykhutdinov 2012 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
0.15% (Party list)
0.70% (SMC)
(1 seat)
MJ profile Website
19   All-Russian political party "Party of Business"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Партия дела"
Party of Business PB
ПД
Social conservatism
Green politics
Protectionism
Economic nationalism
Left patriotism
Centre to Centre-left Konstantin Babkin 2010 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
DNP MJ profile Website
20   All-Russian political party "Rodina"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Родина"
Rodina
Родина
Russian nationalism
Russian conservatism
National conservatism
Social conservatism
Right-wing populism
Far-right Aleksey Zhuravlyov 2003 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
0.80% (Party list)
1.51% (SMC)
(1 seat)
MJ profile Website
21 Political party "Cossack Party of the Russian Federation"
Политическая партия "Казачья партия Российской Федерации"
Cossack Party CosPRF
КаПРФ
Cossack interests Nikolay Konstantinov 2013 2013 DNP DNP MJ profile Website
22   All-Russian political party "Civic Initiative"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Гражданская инициатива"
Civic Initiative GRANI
ГРАНИ
Liberalism
Conservative liberalism
Centre-right Andrey Nechayev 2013 2013 1.68%
(Ksenia Sobchak)
DNP MJ profile Website
23   Political party "Party of Russia's Rebirth"
Политическая партия "Партия возрождения России"
Party of Russia's Rebirth PRR
ПВР
Democratic socialism Centre-left Igor Ashurbeyli 2002 2013 DNP DNP MJ profile Website
24 Political party "Alternative for Russia (Party of Socialist Choice)"
Политическая партия «Альтернатива для России (Партия Социалистического выбора)»
Alternative for Russia AFR
АДР
Socialism Left-wing Antonina Serova 2015 2015 DNP DNP MJ profile
25 Political party "Party of Small Business of Russia"
Политическая партия «Партия малого бизнеса России»
Party of Small Business PSBR
ПМБР
Yury Sidorov 2016 2016 DNP DNP MJ profile Website
26 Political party "People's Patriotic Party of Russia – Power to the People"
Политическая партия «Народно-патриотическая партия России – Власть Народу»
People's Patriotic Party PPPR
НППР
Vladimir Miloserdov 2018 2018 DNP New MJ profile Website
27   Political party "New People"
Политическая партия «Новые люди»
New People NP
НЛ
Communitarism
Regionalism
Centre-right Alexey Nechayev 2020 2020 New 5.32% (Party list)
4.88% (SMC)
(13 seats)
MJ profile Website
28 Political party "Green Alternative"
Политическая партия «Зелёная альтернатива»
Green Alternative GA
ЗА
Green politics
Environmentalism
Pro-Europeanism
Centre-left Ruslan Khvostov 2020 2020 New 0.64% (Party list)
0.22% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile Website
29   Political party "Party of Direct Democracy"
Политическая партия «Партия прямой демократии»
Party of Direct Democracy PDD
ППД
Direct democracy
E-democracy
Centre-right Oleg Artamonov 2020 2020 New DNP MJ profile Website
30 Political party "Russia of the Future"
Политическая партия «Россия будущего»
Russia of the Future RF
РБ
Mira Moiseeva 2021 2021 New New MJ profile

Historical parties (1992–present)Edit

Far-leftEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
  Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalists
Конфедерация анархо-синдикалистов
CAS
КАС
Andrey Isaev
Igor Podshivalov
Alexander Shubin
Vladlen Tupikin
Anarcho-syndicalism
Syndicalism
1988–1995
Committee for Workers' Democracy and International Socialism
Комитет за рабочую демократию и международный социализм
CWDIS
КРДМС
Sergei Biets Marxism
Trotskyism
1990–1999
Succeeded by RWP
Party of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat
Партия диктатуры пролетариата
PDP
ПДП
Grigory Isayev Communism
Proletarian internationalism
1990–2020
  Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Коммунистическая партия Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики
CP RSFSR
КП РСФСР
Ivan Polozkov
Valentin Kuptsov
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Left-wing nationalism
1990–1993
(banned in 1991)
Succeeded by CPRF
Russian Communist Workers Party
Российская коммунистическая рабочая партия
RCWP
РКРП
Viktor Anpilov
Viktor Tyulkin
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Anti-revisionism
Stalinism
1991–2001
Merged into RCWP-RPC
Russian Party of Сommunists
Российская партия коммунистов
Revolutionary Party of Сommunists
Революционная партия коммунистов
RPC
РПК
Anatoly Kryuchkov Communism
Marxism
1991–2001
Merged into RCWP-RPC
Communists — Labour Russia — For the Soviet Union
Коммунисты — Трудовая Россия — За Советский Союз
KTR
КТР
Viktor Tyulkin
Anatoly Kryuchkov
Viktor Anpilov
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Anti-revisionism
Soviet patriotism
1995–1999
Stalin Bloc – For the USSR
Сталинский блок — За СССР
SB
СБ
Yevgeny Dzhugashvili
Viktor Anpilov
Stanislav Terekhov
Communism
Stalinism
Marxism-Leninism
Anti-revisionism
Soviet patriotism
National Communism
1997–1999
  Socialist Resistance
Социалистическое сопротивление
SocSopr
СоцСопр
Collective leadership Socialism
Trotskyism
1998–2011
Successed by SA
  Russian Communist Workers' Party – Revolutionary Party of Communists
Российская коммунистическая рабочая партия – Революционная партия коммунистов
RCWP-RPC
РКРП-РПК
Viktor Tyulkin Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Anti-revisionism
2001–2007
(officially deregistered)
  Resistance Movement named after Petr Alexeev
Движение сопротивления имени Петра Алексеева
DSPA
ДСПА
Dmitry Zhvania Socialism
Self-management socialism
2004–2012
  All-Russian Communist Party of the Future
Всероссийская коммунистическая партия будущего
VKPB
ВКПБ
Vladimir Tikhonov
Aleksandr Kuvayev
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Soviet patriotism
2004–2009
  Socialist League "Forward"
Социалистическое движение «Вперёд»
SLV
СДВ
Collective leadership Trotskyism
Eco-socialism
Socialist feminism
2005–2011
Merged into RSM
  Interprofessional Workers' Union
Межпрофессиональный союз трудящихся
MPST
МПСТ
Collective leadership Anarcho-communism
Anarcho-syndicalism
2008–2019
Russian United Labour Front
Российский объединённый трудовой фронт
ROT FRONT
РОТ ФРОНТ
Viktor Tyulkin
Sergei Udaltsov
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Socialism
2010–2020
(officially deregistered)

Left-wingEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
Civil United Green Alternative
Гражданская объединённая зелёная альтернатива
GROZA
ГРОЗА
Oleg Mitvol (2009–2012) Green politics
Alter-globalism
Anti-fascism
Social justice
1991–2012
  Labour Party
Партия труда
PT
ПТ
Oleg Smolin Democratic socialism
Syndicalism
1992–1994
  Agrarian Party of Russia
Аграрная партия России
APR
АПР
Mikhail Lapshin
Vladimir Plotnikov
Agrarian socialism
Collectivist anarchism
1993–2008
Merged into United Russia
Re-founded in 2012
Spiritual Heritage
Духовное наследие
SH
ДН
Alexey Podberezkin Christian left
Russian nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Patriotism
Statism
Traditionalism
1995–2002
Party of Peace and Unity
Партия мира и единства
PME
ПМЕ
Sazhi Umalatova Internationalism
Democratic socialism
Eurasianism
Putinism
Anti-Americanism
Soviet nationalism
1996–2008
Merged into Patriots of Russia
Re-founded in 2012
People's Patriotic Union of Russia
Народно-патриотический союз России
NPSR
НПСР
Gennady Zyuganov
Gennady Semigin
Patriotism
Left-wing nationalism
Statism
Democratic socialism
Soviet patriotism
1996–2010
Merged into Patriots of Russia
Socialist United Party of Russia
Социалистическая единая партия России
SEPR
СЕПР
Alexey Podberezkin
Ivan Rybkin
Vasily Shestakov
Socialism
Socialist patriotism
Christian left
2002–2007
Merged into A Just Russia
  Patriots of Russia
Патриоты России
PR
ПР
Gennady Semigin Democratic socialism
Social democracy
Left-wing nationalism
Soviet patriotism
2005–2021
Merged into SRZP

Centre-leftEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
Social Democratic Party of Russia
Социал-демократическая партия России
SDPR
СДПР
Pavel Kudyukin
Oleg Rumyantsev
Alexander Obolensky
Social democracy
Social liberalism
Democratic socialism
1990–2011
Civic Union
Гражданский союз
CU
ГС
Arkady Volsky Social democracy
Anti-Yeltsinism
Federalism
1992–1994
Russian Ecological Party "The Greens"
Российская экологическая партия «Зелёные»
REP "The Greens"
РЭП «Зелёные»
Yevgeny Belyaev
Viktor Danilov-Danilyan
Anatoly Panfilov
Green politics
Environmentalism
1992–2008
Merged into A Just Russia
Re-founded in 2012
  Ivan Rybkin Bloc
Блок Ивана Рыбкина
Rybkin Bloc
Блок Рыбкина
Ivan Rybkin Social democracy
Agrarianism
1995–1995
Trade Unions and Industrialists – Union of Labour
Профсоюзы – Промышленники России – Союз труда
ST
СТ
Vladimir Shcherbakov Trade unionism
Industrialism
1995–1996
Party of Workers' Self-Government
Партия самоуправления трудящихся
PST
ПСТ
Svyatoslav Fyodorov Social democracy
Social liberalism
1995–2006
Russian United Social Democratic Party
Российская объединённая социал-демократическая партия
RUSDP
РОСДП
Mikhail Gorbachev Social democracy 2000–2001
Reorganized to SDPR
  Party of Russia's Rebirth
Партия возрождения России
PVR
ПВР
Gennady Seleznyov Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Humanism
Federalism
Civic nationalism
2000–2008
Merged into Patriots of Russia
Re-founded in 2012
Social Democratic Party of Russia
Социал-демократическая партия России
SDPR
СДПР
Mikhail Gorbachev
Konstantin Titov
Social democracy
Democratic socialism
2001–2007
Succeeded by USD
Party of Social Justice
Партия социальной справедливости
PSJ
ПСС
Vladimir Kishenin
Alexey Podberezkin
Democratic socialism
Progressivism
Social conservatism
2002–2008
Merged into A Just Russia
Union of Greens of Russia
Союз зелёных России
UGR
СЗР
Alexey Yablokov Green politics
Environmentalism
Civil rights
2004–2006
Merged into Yabloko
Union of Social Democrats
Союз социал-демократов
USD
ССД
Mikhail Gorbachev Social democracy 2007–2013
Green Alliance
Альянс зелёных
GA
АЗ
Oleg Mitvol
Gleb Fetisov
Grassroots democracy
Green politics
Social democracy
2012–2019
Social Democratic Party of Russia
Социал-демократическая партия России
SDPR
СДПР
Sirazhdin Ramazanov Social democracy 2012–2019

CentristEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
Russian Democratic Reform Movement
Российское движение демократических реформ
RDRM
РДДР
Gavriil Popov
Anatoly Sobchak
Liberal democracy
Pro-CIS
Federalism
1992–1995
Dignity and Charity
Достоинство и милосердие
DC
ДМ
Konstantin Frolov
Nikolai Gubenko
Vyacheslav Grishin
Disability rights
Federalism
1993–1993
Future of Russia — New Names
Будущее России — Новые имена
BRNI
БРНИ
Vyacheslav Laschevsky Youth politics
Social policies
1993–1994
Women of Russia
Женщины России
ZhR
ЖР
Alevtina Fedulova
Yekerina Lakhova
Feminism
Women's rights
1993–1999
Party of Russian Unity and Accord
Партия российского единства и согласия
PRES
ПРЕС
Sergey Shakhray Moderate liberalism
Conservatism
Regionalism
Federalism
Reformism
1993–1999
Merged into Unity
Russian Party of Social Democracy
Российская партия социальной демократии
RPSD
РПСД
Alexander Yakovlev
Konstantin Titov
Social liberalism
Right-wing social democracy
Liberal democracy
1994–2002
Merged into SDPR
Russian Party of Pensioners
Российская партия пенсионеров
RPP
РПП
Sergei Atroshenko
Igor Zotov
Pensioners' interests
Elderly interests
Social justice
Single-issue politics
Social conservatism
1997–2007
Merged into A Just Russia
Re-founded in 2012
Fatherland – All Russia
Отечество – Вся Россия
OVR
ОВР
Yury Luzhkov
Yevgeny Primakov
Liberal conservatism
Social liberalism
Regionalism
1998–2002
Merged into United Russia
People's Party of the Russian Federation
Народная партия Российской Федерации
NPRF
НПРФ
Gennady Raikov [ru]
Gennady Gudkov
Centrism
Lobbyism
1999–2007
Merged into A Just Russia
Russian Party of Life
Российская партия жизни
RPL
РПЖ
Sergey Mironov Centrism
Environmentalism
Economic liberalism
Third Way
Russian nationalism
2002–2006
Merged into A Just Russia
Union of People for Education and Science
Союз людей за образование и науку
UPES
СЛОН
Vyacheslav Igrunov Social liberalism
Social democracy
Support of science and education
2002–2007
Civilian Power
Гражданская сила
GS
ГС
Alexander Ryavkin
Mikhail Barshchevsky
Liberalism
Green liberalism
Green politics
Ecologism
2002–2008
Merged into Right Cause
Re-founded in 2012
  Committee 2008: A Free Choice
Комитет 2008: Свободный выбор
Committee 2008
Комитет 2008
Garry Kasparov Liberalism
Liberal democracy
2004–2005
Successed by The Other Russia
  Russian Democratic Party «Our Choice»
Российская демократическая партия «Наш выбор»
Our Choice
Наш выбор
Irina Khakamada Liberalism
Social liberalism
2004–2006
Merged into RNDS
  Yabloko-United Democrats
Яблоко — Объединённые демократы
Yabloko-UD
Яблоко-ОД
Ivan Novitsky Social liberalism
Liberal conservatism
Green politics
Pro-Europeanism
2005–2005
Russian People's Democratic Union
Российский народно-демократический союз
RNDS
РНДС
Mikhail Kasyanov Liberalism 2006–2012
Merged into RPR–PARNAS
  The Other Russia
Другая Россия
DR
ДР
Garry Kasparov
Eduard Limonov
Mikhail Kasyanov
Big tent
Liberal democracy
National democracy
Social democracy
Social liberalism
Civic nationalism
National bolshevism
2006–2010
  Independent Democratic Party of Russia
Независимая демократическая партия России
IDPR
НДПР
Mikhail Gorbachev
Alexander Lebedev
Liberalism
Social liberalism
2008–2014/16
People's Freedom Party "For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption"
Партия народной свободы «За Россию без произвола и коррупции»
PARNAS
ПАРНАС
Mikhail Kasyanov
Vladimir Milov
Boris Nemtsov
Vladimir Ryzhkov
Liberalism
Liberal democracy
Anti-corruption
2010–2012
Succeeded by RPR–PARNAS
  People's Party of Russia
Народная партия России
PPR
НПР
Andrei Bogdanov
Stanislav Aranovich
Centrism
Populism
Anarchism (factions)
2012–2019
  Agrarian Party of Russia
Аграрная партия России
APR
АПР
Olga Bashmachnikova Agrarianism
Agricultural policy
Centrism
2012–2019
Party of Pensioners of Russia
Партия пенсионеров России
PPR
ППР
Valery Ryazansky
Nikolay Chebotarev
Centrism
Social conservatism
Gerontocracy
2012–2019

Centre-rightEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
Democratic Union
Демократический союз
DU
ДС
Valeriya Novodvorskaya Classical liberalism
Neoliberalism
Laissez-faire
Anti-Sovietism
Anti-communism
Anti-fascism
Individualism
Atlanticism
1988–2014
Conservative Party of Russia
Консервативная партия России
CPR
КПР
Lev Ubozhko Conservatism
Liberal conservatism
Anti-communism
1989–2005
  Peasant Party of Russia
Крестьянская партия России
KPR
КПР
Yuri Chernichenko Liberalism
Agrarianism
Anti-communism
1990–1999
Russian Christian Democratic Party
Российская христианско-демократическая партия
RCDP
РХДП
Alexander Chuev Christian democracy
Conservatism
1990–2002
  Party of Economic Freedom
Партия экономической свободы
PEF
ПЭС
Konstantin Borovoy Liberalism
Neoconservatism
Economic liberalism
1992–2003
Merged into SPS
Democratic Choice of Russia
Демократический выбор России
DVR
ДВР
Yegor Gaidar Liberalism
Conservative liberalism
Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
1993–2001
Merged into SPS
  Forward, Russia!
Вперёд, Россия!
FR
ВР
Boris Fyodorov Liberal democracy
Liberal conservatism
Patriotism
Conservatism
1995–2002
Merged into RPR
  Our Home – Russia
Наш дом — Россия
NDR
НДР
Viktor Chernomyrdin Liberalism
Liberal conservatism
Fiscal conservatism
1995–2006
Merged into United Russia
  Democratic Choice of Russia – United Democrats
Демократический выбор России — Объединенные демократы
DVR-OD
ДВР-ОД
Yegor Gaidar Liberal conservatism
Anti-communism
1995–1995
  Union of Right Forces
Союз правых сил
SPS
СПС
Sergey Kiriyenko
Boris Nemtsov
Nikita Belykh
Leonid Gozman
Liberal conservatism
Conservative liberalism
Neoliberalism
Economic liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
1999–2008
Succeeded by Right Cause
Liberal Russia
Либеральная Россия
LR
ЛР
Boris Zolotukhin
Sergei Yushenkov
Boris Berezovsky
Liberalism
Liberal conservatism
2000–2004
New Course — Automobile Russia
Новый курс — Автомобильная Россия
NCAR
НКАР
Viktor Pokhmelkin
Boris Fyodorov
Leonid Olshansky
Liberalism
Liberal conservatism
Drivers' rights
Anti-militarism
2003–2003
People's Party "For Women of Russia"
Народная партия «За женщин России»
NPZZhR
НПЗЖР
Galina Latysheva
Galina Khavraeva
Women's rights
Conservatism
Neoconservatism
Single-issue party
2007–2019
  Right Cause
Правое дело
PD
ПД
Boris Titov
Mikhail Prokhorov
Leonid Gozman
Georgy Bovt
Liberal conservatism
Conservative liberalism
Economic liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
in 2012-2016:
National democracy
National patriotism
2008–2016
Succeeded by Party of Growth

Right-wingEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
Constitutional Democratic Party – Party of Popular Freedom
Конституционно-демократическая партия – Партия народной свободы
KDP-PNS
КДП-ПНС
Mikhail Astafyev
Sergei Rogozin
Russian nationalism
National conservatism
Constitutionalism
Anti-Yeltsinism
1991–2001
Merged into People's Will
Re-founded in 2008
  Russian All-People's Union
Народно-патриотическая партия
ROS
РОС
Sergey Baburin National conservatism
Russian nationalism
Pochvennichestvo
Right-wing socialism
Social conservatism
1991–2001
Merged into People's Will
Re-founded in 2008
Congress of Russian Communities
Конгресс русских общин
CRC
КРО
Dmitry Rogozin
Alexander Lebed
Yury Skokov
Russian nationalism
National conservatism
Traditionalism
1992–2004
Merged into Rodina in 2004
Re-founded in 2006
Merged into Rodina in 2012
Popular Patriotic Party
Народно-патриотическая партия
NPP
НПП
Alexander Kotenev
Anatoly Gil
Russian nationalism
Social conservatism
Veterans of Afghan war' interests
Yeltsinism
1992–1999
Merged into Unity
Social Patriotic Movement "Power"
Социал-патриотическое движение «Держава»
Derzhava
Держава
Alexander Rutskoy
Konstantin Zatulin
Russian nationalism
Social conservatism
Patriotism
Social patriotism
Right-wing populism
Pan-Slavism
1995–1999
Merged into OVR
Power to the People!
Власть — народу!
VN
ВН
Nikolai Ryzhkov
Sergey Baburin
Yelena Shuvalova
Patriotism
Social conservatism
Pochvennichestvo
Right-wing socialism
1995–1995
People's Republican Party of Russia
Народно-республиканская партия России
NRPR
НРПР
Alexander Lebed
Vladimir Kushnerenko
National conservatism
Social conservatism
Third way
Statism
1995–2007
Russian Socialist Party
Русская социалистическая партия
RSP
РСП
Vladimir Bryntsalov Moderate conservatism
Traditionalism
Social conservatism
1996–2001
Merged into United Russia
Inter-Regional Movement "Unity"
Межрегиональное движение "Единство"
Unity
Единство
Sergey Shoygu
Vladimir Putin
Conservatism
Fiscal conservatism
Russian nationalism
Centrism (officially)
1999–2001
Reorganized to United Russia
 

 
People's Union
Народный союз
Party of National Revival "People's Will"
Партия национального возрождения «Народная Воля»
NS
НС
Narodnaya Volya
Народная Воля
Sergey Baburin Russian nationalism
Conservatism
National conservatism
Social conservatism
Pochvennichestvo
Patriotism
2001–2008
Successed by ROS
For a Holy Russia
За Русь святую
ZRS
ЗРС
Sergei Popov Christian patriorism
Conservatism
Social conservatism
Right-wing socialism
Patriotism
2002–2005
  Monarchist Party of Russia
Монархическая партия России
MPR
МПР
Anton Bakov
Karl Emich of Leiningen
Restoration of the Russian monarchy
Constitutional monarchism
Russian conservatism
2012–Present
  Great Fatherland Party
Партия Великое Отечество
PVO
ПВО
Nikolai Starikov Conservatism
National conservatism
Russian nationalism
Centrism
2013–2020

Far-rightEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
National Patriotic Front "Memory"
Национально-патриотический фронт «Память»
Pamyat
Память
Dmitri Vasilyev Russian ultranationalism
Neo-fascism
Orthodox nationalism
Christian fundamentalism
Anti-communism
Anti-semitism
Anti-zionism
Anti-Masonry
Traditionalism
National conservatism
Monarchism
1980–2003
Re-founded in 2005
National Republican Party of Russia
Национально-республиканская партия России
NRPR
НРПР
Nikolay Lysenko Russian ultranationalism
Mono-national state
Anti-internationalism
Anti-cosmopolitanism
Anti-communism
1990–1998
  Russian National Unity
Русское национальное единство
RNU
РНЕ
Alexander Barkashov Neo-Nazism
Russian nationalism
Antisemitism
Islamophobia
Anti-immigration
Anti-communism
Third Position
1990–2000
(officially banned)
  Russian All-National Union
Русский общенациональный союз
RONS
РОНС
Igor Artemov Russian ultranationalism
Orthodox nationalism
Christian fundamentalism
National capitalism
White nationalism
Anti-communism
Anti-Sovietism
Antisemitism
Anti-LGBT
Pan-Slavism
1990–2011
People's Liberation Movement "Ours"
Народно-освободительное движение «Наши»
Nashi
Наши
Alexander Nevzorov Russian nationalism
Soviet nationalism
Statism
Chauvinism
1991–1993
Russian Party
Русская партия
RP
РП
Viktor Korchagin
Vladimir Miloserdov
Russian ultranationalism
Russian irredentism
Anti-semitism
Economic liberalism
Anti-Christianity
1991–1997
  Front of National Revolutionary Action
Фронт национал-революционного действия
FNRD
ФНРД
Ilya Lazarenko Russian ultranationalism
Revolutionary nationalism
Neo-Fascism
Neo-Nazism
Strasserism
Anti-semitism
Russian imperialism
Orthodox fundamentalism
1991–1999
  Oprichny Dvor
Опричный двор
National Socialist Russian Workers' Party
Национал-социалистическая русская рабочая партия
Oprichniks
Опричники
NSRWP
НСРРП
Mikhail Glukhov Russian ultranationalism
Neo-fascism
Neo-Nazism
Anti-Americanism
Anti-Turkism
Anti-communism
1993–1997
  Russian National Union
Русский национальный союз
Russian National Socialist Party
Русская национальная социалистическая партия
RNU
РНС
RNSP
РНСП
Konstantin Kasimovsky Neo-Nazism
White power
Racism
Antisemitism
Anti-caucasian
Orthodox nationalism
1993–1999 (RNU)
1999–2007 (RNSP)
Freedom Party
Партия свободы
PS
ПС
Yuri Belyaev Russian ultranationalism
Neo-nazism
Neo-fascism
White nationalism
Anti-immigration
Anti-democracy
Anti-semitism
Anti-communism
1994–2009
  People's National Party
Народная национальная партия
PNP
ННП
Aleksandr Ivanov-Sukharevsky Russian ultranationalism
Neo-fascism
Neo-Nazism
White nationalism
Racism
Antisemitism
Statism
1994–2009
  Slavic Union
Славянский союз
SS
СС
Dmitry Demushkin Neo-Nazism
White supremacism
Pan-Slavism
Anti-communism
Xenophobia
Anti-semitism
Anti-LGBT
1999–2010
Conceptual Party "Unity"
Концептуальная партия «Единение»
CPU
КПЕ
Konstantin Petrov Social Security Conception
of Dead Water

Conspiracy theory
Occultism
Neopaganism
Neo-Stalinism
Anti-semitism
Anti-communism
Anti-Christianity
Anti-Western sentiment
2000–2007
  New Russian National Unity
Новое Русское национальное единство
VOPD RNU
ВОПД РНЕ
Mikhail Lalochkin
Yevgeny Lalochkin
Neo-Nazism
Russian ultranationalism
Monarchism
Orthodox nationalism
Xenophobia
2000–2013
National Sovereignty Party of Russia
Национально-державная партия России
NDPR
НДПР
Alexander Sevastyanov
Stanislav Terekhov
Russian nationalism
Ethnic nationalism
Anti-semitism
2002–2017
  Movement Against Illegal Immigration
Движение против нелегальной иммиграции
DPNI
ДПНИ
Vladimir Basmanov [ru]
Alexander Belov
Vladimir Yermolayev
Russian nationalism
Ethnic nationalism
Anti-immigration
Xenophobia
Anti-Islam
2002–2011
  National Socialist Society
Национал-социалистическое общество
NSO
НСО
Political Council Neo-Nazism
Neo-fascism
Russian ultranationalism
2004–2010
Northern Brotherhood
Северное братство
NB
СБ
Pyotr Khomyakov [ru] Russian ultranationalism
Revolutionary nationalism
Ethnic nationalism
Russian separatism
Neo-Nazism
Anti-immigration
Anti-caucasian
Antisemitism
Nordicism
2006–2012
People's Militia named after Minin and Pozharsky
Народное ополчение имениМинина и Пожарского
NOMP
НОМП
Vladimir Kvachkov Russian nationalism
Ultranationalism
Antisemitism
Militarism
Orthodox nationalism
Soviet patriotism
2009–2015
  Ethno-political Association "Russians"
Этнополитическое объединение «Русские»
Russians
Русские
Dmitry Demushkin
Alexander Belov
Russian nationalism
Ethnic nationalism
Anti-immigration
2011–2015
  Nation and Freedom Committee
Комитет «Нация и свобода»
NFC
КНС
Vladimir Basmanov Russian ultranationalism
Anti-communism
Anti-immigration
European nationalism
Pan-Slavism
2014–2020
  Male State
Мужское государство
MG
МГ
Vladislav Pozdnyakov National patriarchy
Russian ultranationalism
Antifeminism
Homophobia
Anti-immigration
2016–2020

SyncreticEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
National Salvation Front
Фронт национального спасения
NSF
ФНС
Collective leadership Statism
National patriotism
Russian nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Soviet patriotism
Anti-Yeltsinism
1992–1994
(banned in 1993)
  National Bolshevik Party
Национал-большевистская партия
NBP
НБП
Eduard Limonov National Bolshevism
Russian nationalism
Neo-Sovietism
Russian irredentism
Anti-Western sentiment
1993–2007
Succeeded by The Other Russia
  Beer Lovers Party
Партия любителей пива
BLP
ПЛП
Dmitry Shestakov
Konstantin Kalachev [ru]
Joke party
Patriotism
Protectionism
Environmentalism
Anti-establishment
1993–1998
  People's Will Army
Армия воли народа
For Responsible Government
За ответственную власть
AVN
АВН
ZOV
ЗОВ
Yury Mukhin Delocracy
Russian nationalism
National democracy
Left-wing nationalism
Anti-Bureaucracy
Neo-Stalinism
Anti-semitism
1997–2011
2011–2015
  National Patriotic Union "Rodina"
Народно-патриотический союз «Родина»
NPS "Rodina"
НПС «Родина»
Dmitry Rogozin
Sergey Glazyev
Yury Skokov
Russian patriotism
Social democracy
Protectionism
Economic nationalism
2003–2006
Merged into A Just Russia
Re-founded in 2012
  National Bolshevik Front
Национал-большевистский фронт
NBF
НБФ
Alexei Golubovich
Maksim Shurkin
National Bolshevism
Eurasianism
Anti-Limonov tendency
Russian ultranationalism
Revolutionary socialism
Left-wing nationalism
Anti-liberalism
Factions:
Strasserism
Antisemitism
Ethnocentrism
2006–2016
  Interregional Social Movement "Artpodgotovka"
Межрегиональное общественное движение «Артподготовка»
Artpodgotovka
Артподготовка
Vyacheslav Maltsev Populism
National democracy
Russian nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
Anti-communism
Liberalism
Direct democracy
2013–2017
  For Truth
За правду
ZP
ЗП
Zakhar Prilepin National conservatism
Paternalistic conservatism
Russian nationalism
Anti-liberalism
Authoritarian capitalism
National patriotism
Hard euroscepticism
2020–2021
Merged into SRZP

Regionalist partiesEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Political position Years active
  Vainakh Democratic Party
Вайнахская демократическая партия
Вайнехан Демократан Цхьанкхетаралла
VDP
ВДП
ВДЦ
Zelimkhan Yandarbiev Chechen separatism
Chechen nationalism
Anti-communism
Big tent 1990–1993
Buryat-Mongol People's Party
Бурят-Монгольская народная партия
Буряад-Монгол Арадай Нам
BMPP
БМНП
БМАН
Mikhail Ochirov Conservative liberalism
Buryat-Mongol nationalism
Pan-Mongolism
Centre-right 1990–2001
  Communist Party of the Republic of Tatarstan
Коммунистическая партия Республики Татарстан
Татарстан Республикасы коммунистлар партиясе
CPRT
КПРТ
ТРКП
Robert Sadykov
Alexander Saliy
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Far-left 1991–2002
Merged into CPRF
  Baltic Republican Party
Балтийская республиканская партия
BRP
БРП
Sergei Pasko
Rustam Vasiliev
Kaliningrad independence
Kaliningrad autonomism
Social liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
Anti-communism
Centre-right 1993–2005
  Mari National Rebirth Party "Ushem"
Марийская партия национального возрождения "Ушем"
Ushem
Ушем
Vladimir Kozlov Mari nationalism Big tent 1994–?
  Russian Unity
Русское единство
Руська єдність
RE
РЕ
РЄ
Maksym Kovalenko
Sergey Aksyonov
Russian nationalism
Russian irredentism
Russophilia
Crimean regionalism
Right-wing 2008–2014
Merged into United Russia

Soviet parties, 1917–1992Edit

CPSU and factionsEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Political position Years active
Sole legal party (before 1990)
  Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза
CPSU
КПСС
Vladimir Lenin
Joseph Stalin
Georgy Malenkov
Nikita Khrushchev
Leonid Brezhnev
Yuri Andropov
Konstantin Chernenko
Mikhail Gorbachev
Vladimir Ivashko
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Far-left 1917–1991
Factions inside the RKP(b), VKP(b) and CPSU
Left Communists
Левые коммунисты
Nikolai Bukharin Left communism
World revolution
1918–1921
Group of Democratic Centralism
Группа демократического централизма
Valerian Osinsky
Timofei Sapronov
Vladimir Smirnov
Andrei Bubnov
Yakov Drobnis
Left communism
Democratic centralism
1919–1923
Workers' Opposition
Рабочая оппозиция
Alexander Shlyapnikov
Sergei Medvedev
Alexandra Kollontai
Yuri Lutovinov
Trade unionism
Council communism
Anti-bureaucratism
1920–1922
Workers' Truth
Рабочая правда
Fanya Shutskever
Efim Shulman
Vladimir Khaikevich
Yakov Budnitsky
Pauline Lass-Kozlova
Oleg Vikman-Beleev
Nellie Krym
Anti-bureaucratism 1921–1923
Right Opposition
Правая оппозиция
Nikolai Bukharin
Alexei Rykov
Mikhail Tomsky
Agrarian socialism
Anti-Stalinism
New Economic Policy
Anti-Collectivization
1921–1933
Left Opposition
Левая оппозиция
Leon Trotsky Trotskyism
Anti-Stalinism
Industrialism
1923–1927
Workers Group of the Russian Communist Party
Рабочая группа Российской коммунистической партии
Gavril Myasnikov Left communism
Anti-bureaucratism
Workplace democracy
1923–1930
United Opposition
Объединённая оппозиция
Leon Trotsky
Grigory Zinoviev
Lev Kamenev
Anti-New Economic Policy
Anti-Stalinism
Industrialism
1926–1933
Left-Right Bloc
Право-левый блок
Vissarion Lominadze
Sergey Syrtsov
Jan Sten
Anti-Stalinism
Anti-Collectivization
1929–1933
Union of Marxist-Leninists
Союз марксистов-ленинцев
Martemyan Ryutin
Vasily Kayurov
Anti-Stalinism 1932–1932
Anti-Party Group of Malenkov, Kaganovich, Molotov and Shepilov, who joined them
Антипартийная группа Маленкова, Кагановича, Молотова и примкнувшего к ним Шепилова
Georgy Malenkov
Lazar Kaganovich
Vyacheslav Molotov
Dmitri Shepilov
Anti-Khrushchevism
Anti-De-Stalinization
1957–1957
Bolshevik Platform
Большевистская платформа
Nina Andreyeva Anti-Perestroika
Neo-Stalinism
Anti-liberalism
1988–1991
Succeeded by VKPB
United Workers' Front
Объединённый фронт трудящихся
Viktor Stepanov
Mikhail Popov
Igor Malyarov
Soviet patriotism
Proletarian internationalism
Anti-separatism
1989–1991
Succeeded by RCWP
Democratic Platform
Демократическая платформа
Yuri Afanasiev
Boris Yeltsin
Telman Gdlyan
Nikolay Ivanov
Nikolay Travkin
Igor Chubais
Vyacheslav Shostakovsky
Alexander Minzhurenko
Perestroika
Democratization
Social liberalism
1989–1991
Succeeded by RPRF
Communist Initiative Movement
Движение коммунистической инициативы
Viktor Tyulkin
Albert Makashov
Foundation of the Russian Communist Party
Anti-capitalism
Left-wing nationalism
1989–1991
Succeeded by RCWP
Marxist Platform
Марксистская платформа
Alexander Buzgalin
Sergey Skvortsov
Alexey Prigarin
Andrey Kolganov
Anatoly Kryuchkov
Orthodox Marxism
Marxism-Leninism
1990–1992
Succeeded by RCWP, RPC and SK
Democratic Movement
Демократическое движение
Anatoly Sobchak
Gavriil Popov
Vladimir Lysenko
Vyacheslav Shostakovsky
Alexander Rutskoy
Social democracy
Democratization
1990–1992
Succeeded by NPSR
State Committee on the State of Emergency
Государственный комитет по чрезвычайному положению
Gennady Yanayev
Valentin Pavlov
Boris Pugo
Dmitry Yazov
Vladimir Kryuchkov
Oleg Baklanov
Vasily Starodubtsev
Aleksandr Tizyakov
Anti-Perestroika
Anti-New Union Treaty
1991–1991

Clandestine and illegal partiesEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Political position Years active
  Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries
Партия левых социалистов-революционеров
Left SRs
Левые эсеры
Boris Kamkov
Mark Natanson
Maria Spiridonova
Agrarian socialism
Anti-Bolshevism
Revolutionary socialism
Narodism
Left-wing to far-left 1917–1921
Clandestine since 1918
True Communists
Истинные коммунисты
TC
ИК
Ivan Yatsuk
Yuri Shokk
Alexander Elin
Shamil Gubaidulin
Kamil Salakhutdinov
Marxism
Anti-Stalinism
Left communism
Far-left 1940–1940
Lithuanian Activist Front
Литовский фронт активистов
Lietuvių Aktyvistų Frontas
LAF
ЛФА
Kazys Škirpa Lithuanian independence
Nazism
Anti-communism
Anti-semitism
Anti-polonism
Far-right 1940–1941
  People's Socialist Party of Russia "Viking"
Народная социалистическая партия России «Викинг»
NSPR
НСПР
Konstantin Voskoboinik
Bronislav Kaminski
Nazism
Russian nationalism
Russian collaborationism
Anti-semitism
Anti-communism
Far-right 1941–1943
Communist Party of Youth
Коммунистическая партия молодёжи
CPM
КПМ
Anatoly Zhigulin Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Anti-Stalinism
Left-wing to far-left 1946–1949
All-Union Democratic Party
Всесоюзная демократическая партия
VDP
ВДП
Alexander Tarasov
Viktor Belkin
Anti-Stalinism
Socialism
Left-wing 1948–1948
Union of Struggle for the Cause of the Revolution
Союз борьбы за дело революции
SBDR
СБДР
Boris Slutsky
Evgeny Gurevich
Vladilen Furman
Anti-Stalinism
Revolutionary socialism
Far-left 1950–1951
Baltic Federation
Балтийская федерация
Baltijas federācija
BF
БФ
Gunārs Rode
Dailis Rijnieks
Jānis Rijnieks
Aina Zābaka
Ziedonis Rozenbergs
Viktors Kalniņš
Uldis Ofkants
Anti-Sovietism
Latvian nationalism
Latvian independence
Right-wing 1957–1962
National United Party
Национальная объединённая партия
Ազգային Միացյալ Կուսակցություն
NUP
НОП
ԱՄԿ
Haykaz Khachatryan
Paruyr Hayrikyan
Armenian nationalism
Armenian independence
National democracy
Liberalism
Anti-communism
Big tent 1966–1987
Succeeded by UNSD
Free Russia Party
Партия свободной России
Revolutionary Workers' Party
Революционная рабочая партия
PSR
ПСР
RWP
РРП
Victor Pestov
Nikolay Shaburov
Anti-communism
Anti-Sovietism
1968–1970
Group of Revolutionary Communism
Группа революционного коммунизма
GRK
ГРК
Alexander Romanov
Oleg Senin
Valentin Kirikov
Marxism
Social democracy
Left-wing 1972–1972
All-Russian Social-Christian Union for the Liberation of the People
Всероссийский социал-христианский союз освобождения народа
VSKhSON
ВСХСОН
Igor Ogurtsov Anti-communism
Russian nationalism
Social Christianity
Third position
Right-wing to far-right 1972–1972
Socialist Party of Soviet Union
Социалистическая партия Советского Союза
SPSU
СПСС
Alexander Ganyushkin Democratic socialism
Self-governing socialism
Left-wing 1972–1972
Left School
Левая школа
LS
ЛШ
Natalia Magnat
Olga Barash
Inna Okup
Marxism-Leninism
Trotskyism
Atheist existentialism
New Left
Far-left 1972/73–1977
Party of New Communists
Партия новых коммунистов
PNC
РНК
Alexander Tarasov
Vasily Minorsky
Neo-communism
Orthodox Marxism
Marxism-Leninism
Revolutionary socialism
Direct democracy
Trotskyism
Neo-anarchism
Anti-Stalinism
Far-left 1972/73–1977
Neo-Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Неокоммунистическая партия Советского Союза
NCPSU
НКПСС
Alexander Tarasov
Natalia Magnat
Vasily Minorsky
Olga Barash
Igor Dukhanov
Neo-communism
Atheist existentialism
Communism
Guevarism
Neo-Marxism
Anti-clericalism
Trotskyism
New Left
Far-left 1974–1985
Democratic Union
Демократический союз
DU
ДС
Valeriya Novodvorskaya Classical liberalism
Neoliberalism
Laissez-faire
Anti-Sovietism
Anti-communism
Anti-fascism
Individualism
Atlanticism
Centre-right 1988–2014

Parties of the multi-party periodEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Political position Years active
Democratic Union
Демократический союз
DU
ДС
Valeriya Novodvorskaya Classical liberalism
Neoliberalism
Laissez-faire
Anti-Sovietism
Anti-communism
Anti-fascism
Individualism
Atlanticism
Centre-right 1988–2014
  Liberal Democratic Party of the Soviet Union
Либерально-демократическая партия Советского Союза
LDPSU
ЛДПСС
Vladimir Bogachov
Vladimir Zhirinovsky
Russian nationalism
Ultranationalism
Right-wing populism
Monarchism
Before 1990:
Liberalism
Liberal conservatism
Right-wing to far-right
Before 1990:
Centre-right
1989–1992
  Democratic Party of Russia
Демократическая партия России
DPR
ДПР
Nikolay Travkin Anti-communism
Centrism
Liberalism
Centre-right 1990–1992
Socialist Party
Социалистическая партия
SP
СП
Boris Kagarlitsky
Anatoliy Baranov
Alexander Kolpakidi
Vladimir Kondratov
Democratic socialism
Self-governing socialism
Left-wing 1990–1992
Social Democratic Party of Russia
Социал-демократическая партия России
SDPR
СДПР
Pavel Kudyukin
Oleg Rumyantsev
Alexander Obolensky
Social democracy
Social liberalism
Democratic socialism
Centre-left 1990–2011
All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks
Всесоюзная Коммунистическая партия большевиков
VKPB
ВКПБ
Nina Andreyeva Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Bolshevism
Anti-revisionism
Stalinism
Far-left 1991–

Parties of the Russian Empire, 1721–1917Edit

Pre-revolutionary organizationsEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
  Decembrist Societies
Общества декабристов
Decembrists
Декабристы
Sergei Trubetskoy
Nikita Muravyov
Pavel Pestel
Sergey Muravyov-Apostol
and others
Constitutional monarchism
Anti-Tsarist autocracy
Anti-Serfdom
Republicanism (factions)
1816-1825
Petrashevsky Circle
Кружок Петрашевского
Petrashevtsy
Петрашевцы
Mikhail Petrashevsky Utopian socialism
Agrarian socialism
1844-1849
  Land and Liberty
Земля и воля
Zemlevolists
Землевольцы
Collective leadership Narodism
Agrarianism
Agrarian socialism (1860–64)
Anarcho-collectivism (1876-1879)
1860–1864,
1876-1879
Party of Return to Serfdom
Партия возвращения к крепостному праву
Kryepostniki
Крепостники
Collective leadership Reactionary
Serfdom
1861-1890s
Committee of Russian Officers in Poland
Комитет русских офицеров в Польше
KROP
КРОП
Vasily Kaplinski
Jarosław Dąbrowski
Andrey Potebnya
Zygmunt Padlewski
Narodism
Republicanism
1861-1863
Grand Propaganda Society
Большое общество пропаганды
Tchaikovtsy
Чайковцы
Nikolai Tchaikovsky
Sophia Perovskaya
Mark Natanson
Narodism
Revolutionary socialism
1871-1874
Bashenists
Башенцы
Grigory Popko
Innokenty Voloshenko
Fedor Shcherbina
Radical Narodism
Republicanism
1874-1877
  Narodnaya Volya
Народная воля
Narodovolists
Народовольцы
Collective leadership Narodism
Agrarian socialism
Left-wing terrorism
Revolutionary socialism
1879-1884
Black Repartition
Чёрный передел
BR
ЧП
Georgi Plekhanov
Pavel Axelrod
Osip Aptekman
Leo Deutsch
Vera Zasulich
Narodism
Agrarian socialism
Revolutionary socialism
Federalism
1879-1881
Emancipation of Labour
Освобождение труда
OT
ОТ
Georgi Plekhanov
Pavel Axelrod
Marxism
Scientific socialism
1883-1903
merged into RSDLP
Social Revolutionary Party of People's Right
Социально-революционная партия Народного права
People's Right
Народное право
Mark Natanson
Nikolay Tyutchev
Narodism
Revolutionary democracy
1893-1894
League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class
Союз борьбы за освобождение рабочего класса
SBORK
СБОРК
Vladimir Ulyanov Marxism
Social democracy
1895-1897
merged into RSDLP
Workers' Party for the Political Liberation of Russia
Рабочая партия политического освобождения России
RPPOR
РППОР
Grigory Gershuni
Catherine Breshkovsky
Narodism
Revolutionary socialism
1897-1900
Workers' Banner
Рабочее знамя
WB
РЗ
Sergey Andropov
Lydia Dan
Viktor Nogin
Social democracy
Anti-Economism
1897-1902

After-revolutionary partiesEdit

Left-wingEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
  General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia
Всеобщий еврейский рабочий союз в Литве, Польше и России
אַלגעמײנער ייִדישער אַרבעטער־בונד אין ליטע, פּױלן און רוסלאַנד
Bund
Бунд
בונד
Victor Alter Bundism
Socialism
Jewish Autonomism
Non-Zionism
Secularism
1897-1921
  Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
Российская социал-демократическая рабочая партия
RSDLP
РСДРП
Vladimir Ulyanov (Bolsheviks)
Julius Martov (Mensheviks)
Marxist socialism
Revolutionary socialism
Social democracy
1898-1912
  Socialist Revolutionary Party
Партия социалистов-революционеров
Esers
Эсеры
Viktor Chernov Agrarian socialism
Revolutionary socialism
Democratic socialism
Federalism
Neo-Narodism
1902-1921
Zionist Socialist Workers Party
Сионистско-социалистическая рабочая партия
ציוניסטישע סאציאליסטישע ארבעטער פארטיי
SS
СС
צס
Naum Syrkin
Ber Borochov
Socialism
Zionism
Territorialism
1905-1917
merged into UJSWP
Jewish Socialist Workers Party
Социалистическая еврейская рабочая партия
‏סאָציִאַליסטישע ייִדישע אַרבעטער פּאַרטײ‏‎
SEPR
СЕРП
‏סיאַפּ
Chaim Zhitlowsky Socialism
National personal autonomism
1905/6-1917
merged into UJSWP
  Labour Popular-Socialist Party
Трудовая народно-социалистическая партия
Enes's
Энесы
Alexey Peshekhonov
Nikolai Annensky
Venedikt Miakotin
Neo-Narodism
Popular socialism
Agrarian socialism
Social democracy
Left-wing nationalism
1906-1921
  Jewish Social Democratic Labour Party (Poalei Zion)
Еврейская социал-демократическая партия (Поалей Цион)
יידישע סאציאל דעמאָקראטישער ארבעטער פארטיי (פּאָלעי ציון)
JSDLP(PZ)
ЕСДРП(ПЦ)
יסדאפ (פּצ)
Ber Borochov
Yitzhak Ben-Zvi
Marxism
Socialist Zionism
Socialism
Centrist Marxism
1906-1928
Union of Socialists-Revolutionaries Maximalists
Союз социалистов-революционеров-максималистов
Maximalists
Максималисты
Mikhail Sokolov
Vladimir Mazurin
Revolutionary socialism
Neo-Narodism
Left-wing terrorism
Anti-capitalism
1906–1911,
1917-1919
Labour Group
Трудовая группа
Trudoviks
Трудовики
Alexey Aladyin
Alexander Kerensky
Social democracy
Neo-Narodism
Agrarian socialism
1906-1921
  Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks)
Российская социал-демократическая рабочая партия (большевиков)
RSDLP(b)
РСДРП(б)
Vladimir Lenin
Grigory Zinoviev
Communism
Bolshevism
1912-1918
Successed by RCP(b)
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Mensheviks)
Российская социал-демократическая рабочая партия (меньшевиков)
RSDLP(m)
РСДРП(м)
Julius Martov
Pavel Axelrod
Fyodor Dan
Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Menshevism
1912-1918
Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (Internationalists)
Российская социал-демократическая рабочая партия (интернационалистов)
Mezhraiontsy
Межрайонцы
Leon Trotsky
Moisei Uritsky
Adolph Joffe
V. Volodarsky
Marxist socialism
Proletarian internationalism
Bolshevism-Menshevism
1913-1917
Merged into RSDLP(b)
  Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries
Партия левых социалистов-революционеров
Left SRs
Левые эсеры
Boris Kamkov
Mark Natanson
Maria Spiridonova
Agrarian socialism
Anti-Bolshevism (since 1918)
Revolutionary socialism
Neo-Narodism
1917-1921
Russian Socialist Labour Party of Internationalists
Российская социалистическая рабочая партия интернационалистов
RSLPI
РСРПИ
Boris Avilov
Vladimir Bazarov
Viacheslav Volgin
Nikolai Sukhanov
Marxist socialism
Proletarian internationalism
1917-1920
Merged into RCP(b)
Party of Narodnik Communists
Партия народников-коммунистов
PNC
ПНК
Grigoriy Zaks Communism
Neo-Narodism
1918-1918
Merged into RCP(b)
Party of Revolutionary Communism
Партия революционного коммунизма
PRC
ПРК
Mark Natanson
Alexei Ustinov
Andrei Kolegayev
Integral socialism
Neo-Narodism
1918-1920
Merged into RCP(b)
  Jewish Communist Party (Poalei Zion)
Еврейская коммунистическая партия (Поалей Цион)
יידישע קאָמוניסטישע פארטיי (פּאָאַלעי ציון)
JСP(PZ)
ЕКП (ПЦ)
יקפ (פּצ)
Central Committee Communism
Marxism
Proletarian internationalism
Socialist Zionism
1919-1922
Merged into RCP(b)
  Union of Working Peasants
Союз трудового крестьянства
STK
СТК
Alexander Antonov
Pyotr Tokmakov
Anti-communism
Neo-Narodism
Agrarian socialism
Revolutionary socialism
1920-1921

Centrist and moderate rightEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
Progressive Economic Party of the Russian Empire
Прогрессивно-экономическая партия Российской империи
Commercial and Industrial Union of the Russian Empire
Торгово-промышленный союз Российской империи
Commercial and Industrial Party of the Russian Empire
Торгово-промышленная партия Российской империи
PEP
ПЭП
TPS
ТПС
TPP
ТПП
Grigory Krestovnikov Anti-socialism
Bourgeoisie interests
1905-1905
Party of the Legal Order
Партия правового порядка
PPP
ППП
Anatoly Savenko Constitutional monarchism
Russian nationalism
1905-1917
Ittifaq al-Muslimin
Иттифак аль-Муслимин
İttifaqi-Müslimin
اتفاق المسلمين
Ittifaq
Иттифак
اتفاق
Alimardan bey Topchubashov
Khalil bey Khasmammadov
Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev
Islamic liberalism
Jadidism
Constitutional monarchism
1905-1917
  Constitutional Democratic Party
Конституционно-демократическая партия
Kadets
Кадеты
Pavel Miliukov Constitutionalism
Constitutional monarchism
Liberal democracy
Parliamentarism
Political pluralism
Social liberalism
1905-1917
Union of October 17
Союз 17 октября
Octoberists
Октябристы
Alexander Guchkov Reformism
Liberal conservatism
Constitutional monarchism
1905-1917
Union of freedom, Truth and Peace
Союз свободы, истины и мира
UFTP
ССИМ
Ivan Prokhanov
Nikolay Odintsov
Pyotr Frizen
Christian democracy
Mennonism
Evangelical Christianity
Left Baptism
Constitutional monarchism
1905-1906
Party of Democratic Reform
Партия демократических реформ
PDR
ПДР
Maksim Kovalevsky Classical liberalism 1906-1907
Merged into Progressive Party
Party of Peaceful Renovation
Партия мирного обновления
PMO
ПМО
Pyotr Heiden
Nikolay Lvov
Liberal conservatism
Classical liberalism
1906-1907
Merged into Progressive Party
Progressive Party
Прогрессивная партия
Progressists
Прогрессисты
Aleksandr Konovalov
Ivan Yefryemov
Classical liberalism
Conservative liberalism
Constitutional monarchism
1907-1917

Right-wingEdit

Name Abbr. Leader (s) Ideology Years active
Russian Assembly
Русское собрание
RS
РС
Dmitri Golitsyn
Nikolai Engelhardt
Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality
Monarchism
Conservatism
Russian nationalism
1900-1917
Russian Brotherhood
Русское братство
RB
РБ
major Protsenko
Pyotr Zhukov
Black Hundreds
Tsarist monarchism
Great Russian nationalism
National conservatism
Christian fundamentalism
Anti-Semitism
1904-1913
  Union of the Russian People
Союз русского народа
URP
СРН
Alexander Dubrovin
Nikolai Markov
Black Hundreds
Tsarist monarchism
Russia for Russians
Triune Russian nation
Great Russian nationalism
Conservatism
Orthodox fundamentalism
Right-wing populism
Anti-Ukrainian sentiment
Pochvennichestvo
Anti-Semitism
1905-1917
Union of the Russian Men
Союз русских людей
URM
СРЛ
Alexander Shcherbatov
Pavel Sheremetev
Pyotr Sheremetev
Black Hundreds
Tsarist monarchism
Great Russian nationalism
Conservatism
Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality
Anti-Semitism
1905-1910/11
  Russian Monarchist Union
Русский монархический союз
RMU
РМС
Vladimir Gringmut
Mihail Hutorov
Black Hundreds
Tsarist monarchism
Great Russian nationalism
Conservatism
1905-1917
United Nobility
Объединённое дворянство
OD
ОД
Aleksei Bobrinsky
Alexander Naryshkin
Ananiy Strukov
Alexander Samarin
Tsarist monarchism
Russian nationalism
Nobility interests
1906-1917
  Union of the Archangel Michael
Союз имени Михаила Архангела
SMA
СМА
Vladimir Purishkevich Black Hundreds
Tsarist monarchism
Russian ultranationalism
National conservatism
Anti-semitism
1908-1917
All-Russian National Union
Всероссийский национальный союз
VNS
ВНС
Pyotr Balashov
Vasily Shulgin
Russian nationalism
Tsarist monarchism
National liberalism
National conservatism
1908-1917
Party of Moderate Right
Партия умеренно-правых
PMR
ПУП
Pyotr Balashov Russian nationalism
Tsarist monarchism
Orthodox fundamentalism
Anti-liberalism
1909-1910
merged into VNS
  All-Russian Dubrovinist Union of the Russian People
Всероссийский дубровинский союз русского народа
ARDURP
ВДСРН
Alexander Dubrovin Black Hundreds
Anti-Stolypin reform
Great Russian ultranationalism
National conservatism
Orthodox fundamentalism
Agrarianism
Anti-Semitism
1912-1917
Domestic Patriotic Union
Отечественный патриотический союз
OPS
ОПС
Vasiliy Orlov
Vasiliy Skvortsov
Tsarist monarchism
Conservatism
Orthodox fundamentalism
Anti-socialism
1915-1917

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Compare: Isaacs, Rico (2011). Party System Formation in Kazakhstan: Between Formal and Informal Politics. Central Asian Studies. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 9781136791079. Retrieved 2018-03-07. A central principle behind the party of power is a party's relationship with the state (Knox et al., 2006). Parties of power have a close relationship with the executive branch which is seen to co-opt parties of power for their own political purposes (Hale, 2004). Thus, parties of power are an extension of the executive where the party 'is the actual group whose members wield power in and through the executive branch of government' (Oversloot and Verheul, 2006: 394).
  2. ^ a b Isaacs, Rico (2011). Party System Formation in Kazakhstan: Between Formal and Informal Politics. Routledge. p. 38.
  3. ^ "Russia Analytical Digest" (PDF) (102). University of Basel, Center for Security Studies Zürich, Forschungsstelle Osteuropa Bremen. 26 November 2011: 2–6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2012. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Yevgeny Utkin. Seven parties, one virtually certain outcome Russia Beyond the Headlines. (2011-11-23)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Russia". Europe Elects. Retrieved 2022-06-24.
  6. ^ https://digitaldem.ru/2021/09/20/partiya-prjamoj-demokratii-proshla-v-zaksobranije-eao/ Партия прямой демократии прошла в заксобрание Еврейской автономной области
  7. ^ "Список зарегистрированных политических партий - Минюст России". minjust.ru.

Further readingEdit

  • Gel′man, Vladimir (2013). Party Politics in Russia: From Competition to Hierarchy. Politics In Russia: A Reader. CQ Press. pp. 273–289.
  • Hale, Henry E. (2006). Why Not Parties in Russia?: Democracy, Federalism, and the State. Cambridge University Press.
  • Smyth, Regina (2012). Political parties. Routledge Handbook of Russian Politics and Society. Routledge. pp. 115–128.
  • White, Stephen (2013). Russia's Client Party System. Politics In Russia: A Reader. CQ Press. pp. 306–330.

External linksEdit