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Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko (Russian: Влади́мир Анто́нович Ива́шко; Ukrainian: Володимир Антонович Івашко, Volodymyr Antonovych Ivashko; 28 October 1932 – 13 November 1994) was a Soviet Ukrainian politician, briefly acting as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) during the period from 24 to 29 August 1991. On 24 August Mikhail Gorbachev resigned from the post, and on 29 August the CPSU was suspended by the Supreme Soviet. Before becoming General Secretary he had been voted Gorbachev's Deputy General Secretary within the Party on 12 July 1990, a newly created position as a result of the 28th Congress of the Communist Party.
Владимир Ивашко (in Russian)
Володимир Івашко (in Ukrainian)
|Acting General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union|
24 August 1991 – 29 August 1991
|Preceded by||Mikhail Gorbachev|
|Succeeded by||Office abolished|
|Deputy General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union|
12 July 1990 – 29 August 1991
|General Secretary||Mikhail Gorbachev|
|Preceded by||Yegor Ligachev|
|Succeeded by||Office abolished|
|First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine|
28 September 1989 – 22 June 1990
|Preceded by||Volodymyr Shcherbytsky|
|Succeeded by||Stanislav Hurenko|
|Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR|
4 June 1990 – 9 July 1990
|Preceded by||Platon Kostiuk|
|Succeeded by||Leonid Kravchuk|
|Full member of the 27th, 28th Politburo|
9 December 1989 – 29 August 1991
|Member of the 28th Secretariat|
14 July 1990 – 29 August 1991
|Born||28 October 1932|
Poltava, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union
|Died||13 November 1994 (aged 62)|
Moscow, Russian Federation
|Political party||Communist Party of the Soviet Union|
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) during the time between Mikhail Gorbachev's resignation and its suspension was politically impotent. By the time of the 28th Congress in July 1990, the party was largely regarded as being unable to lead the country and had, across the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union, split into opposing factions favouring either independent republics or the continuation of the Soviet state. Stripped of its leading role in society, the party lost its authority to lead the nation or the cohesion that kept the party united. Actual political power lay in the positions of President of the Soviet Union (held by Gorbachev) and President of the Russian SFSR (held by Boris Yeltsin). During the August Coup he did not make public statements but on behalf of the Secretariat distributed letters to local party organizations calling on them to uphold the CPSU.
Gorbachev brought in his ally Ivashko in to replace the long-serving Volodymyr Shcherbytsky as First Secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party on 28 September 1989. Ivashko led the Communists to victory in the first relatively free parliamentary election held in the Ukrainian SSR, which took place from 4 March to 18 March 1990, the Communists winning 331 seats to the Democratic Bloc's 111 seats. Ivashko was elected by the communist majority to the post of the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR on 4 June 1990. Since the abandonment by the Communists of their "leading role" in early 1990 this position now superseded that of First Secretary of the Communist Party as the most powerful position in Ukraine.
He resigned his position as First Secretary on 22 June 1990 following opposition demonstrations against his simultaneous occupation of both the posts of First Secretary of the ruling party and Chairman of the legislature. However, on 9 July 1990 he too resigned as Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR after declining to be recalled to Kyiv during the 28th Congress of the Communist Party in Moscow, and a few days later successfully secured the position of Deputy General Secretary of the CPSU.
On August 23, 1990, a secret memorandum from Ivashko outlined strategies to hide the Communist Party's assets through Russian and international joint ventures because Boris Yeltsin, who was the new president of the Russian Republic in the Soviet Union, wanted to levy taxes on the Communist Party's vast administrative property holdings and on the Party itself. The memorandum was to organize the transfer of CPSU funds, CPSU financing and support of its operations through associations, ventures, foundations, etc. which are to act as invisible economics.[a] In November 1990, the offshore structure Fimaco was formed by the Russian Central Bank, then known as Gosbank, to hide these funds. According to Sergei Tretyakov, KGB chief Vladimir Kryuchkov sent US$50 billion worth of funds of the Communist Party to an unknown location in the lead-up to the collapse of the USSR.[b]
Ivashko retired in 1992 and died on 13 November 1994, at the age of 62, after an undetermined long illness.
- Dobbs, Michael; Coll, Steve (1 February 1993). "Ex-Communists are scrambling for quick cash". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
- Palmer, Richard L. (21 September 1999). "Statement of Richard L. Palmer, president of Cachet International, Inc. on the Infiltration of the Western Financial System by Elements of Russian Organized Crime before the House Committee on Banking and Financial Services". House Committee on Banking and Financial Services. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
- Foer, Franklin (1 March 2019). "Russian-Style Kleptocracy Is Infiltrating America: When the U.S.S.R. collapsed, Washington bet on the global spread of democratic capitalist values—and lost". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 7 December 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
- Belton 2020, p. 94.
- Leach, James A., ed. (21 September 1999). Russian Money Laudering: United States Congressional Hearing (serial number 106-38). Diane Publishing. p. 316. ISBN 9780756712556. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
- Wise, David (27 January 2008). "Spy vs. Spy: They had Robert Hanssen. We had Sergei Tretyakov". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
- Earley 2008.
- Steigerwald, Bill (31 March 2008). "Comrade J by Pete Earley". Townhall.com. Retrieved 8 December 2020.