Ultranationalism or extreme nationalism is an extreme form of nationalism in which a country asserts or maintains detrimental hegemony, supremacy, or other forms of control over other nations (usually through violent coercion) to pursue its specific interests.[1][2][3] Ultranationalist entities have been associated with the engagement of political violence even during peacetime.[4] The belief system has also been cited as the inspiration for acts of organized mass murder in the context of international conflicts, with the Cambodian genocide being cited as an example.[5]

In ideological terms, scholars such as the British political theorist Roger Griffin have found that ultranationalism arises from seeing modern nation-states as living organisms which are directly akin to physical people because they can decay, grow, and die, and additionally, they can experience rebirth. In stark mythological ways, political campaigners have divided societies into those societies which are perceived as being degenerately inferior and those societies which are perceived as having great cultural destinies. Ultranationalism is an aspect of fascism, with historic governments such as the regimes of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany building on ultranationalist foundations by using specific plans for supposed widespread national renewal.[3]

Ultranationalist characters have served as villains in multiple works of fictional media with popular acclaim as well. Examples include the dramatic productions Air Force One and Incitement, both being action films.[6][7]

Background concepts and broader context edit

 
Monarchist ultranationalists within the Black Hundreds movement marched in Odesa, then inside of Russia, after the October Manifesto came out in 1905.
 
Italian far-right figure Benito Mussolini (left) greatly influenced Oswald Mosley (right) and contributed to the evolution of his ultranationalist faction called the British Union of Fascists, with them appearing together on this occasion in Italy itself.

British political theorist Roger Griffin has stated that ultranationalism is essentially founded on xenophobia in a way that finds supposed legitimacy "through deeply mythicized narratives of past cultural or political periods of historical greatness or of old scores to settle against alleged enemies". It can also draw on "vulgarized forms" of different aspects of the natural sciences such as anthropology and genetics, eugenics specifically playing a role, in order "to rationalize ideas of national superiority and destiny, of degeneracy and subhumanness" in Griffin's opinion. Ultranationalists view the modern nation-state as, according to Griffin, a living organism directly akin to a physical person such that it can decay, grow, die, and additionally experience rebirth. He has highlighted Nazi Germany as a regime which was founded on ultranationalism.[3]

Ultranationalist activism can adopt varying attitudes towards historical traditions within the populace. For instance, the British Union of Fascists inside the United Kingdom adopted a secularist-minded platform centered on perceived technological progress. In contrast, the Iron Guard inside Romania utilized a hardline form of mysticism-driven religion to encourage determination among the nation's ultranationalists. Nonetheless, obsessive views on ethnicity and other divisions as well as connecting politics to motifs of sacrifice generally constitute the psychological framework behind these movements.[3]

According to American scholar Janusz Bugajski, summing up the doctrine in practical terms, "in its most extreme or developed forms, ultra-nationalism resembles fascism, marked by a xenophobic disdain of other nations, support for authoritarian political arrangements verging on totalitarianism, and a mythical emphasis on the 'organic unity' between a charismatic leader, an organizationally amorphous movement-type party, and the nation". Bugajski believes that civic nationalism and the related concept of patriotism both can contain significantly positive elements, contributing to the common social good at times such as during national calamities. These doctrines stand in contrast, in his opinion, to the extreme approach of certain ideologies with more irrational actions.[8]

Historical movements and analysis edit

 
In 1930s and 1940s era ultranationalist Japan, the state routinely distributed political propaganda preaching the virtues of domination and expansion, with this photograph showing efforts in Manchukuo.

American historian Walter Skya has written in Japan's Holy War: The Ideology of Radical Shinto Ultranationalism that ultranationalism in Japan drew upon traditional Shinto spiritual beliefs and militaristic attitudes regarding the nation's racial identity. By the early twentieth century, fanaticism arising from this combination of ethnic nationalism and religious nationalism caused opposition to democratic governance and support for Japanese territorial expansion. Skya particularly noted in his work the connection between ultranationalism and political violence by citing how, between 1921 and 1936, three serving and two former Prime Ministers of Japan were assassinated. The totalitarian Japanese government of the 1930s and 1940s did not just rely on encouragement by the country's military; it also received widespread popular support.[4]

The Cambodian historian Sambo Manara has found that the belief system sets forth a vision of supremacism in terms of international relations whereby xenophobia or hatred of foreigners to the point of extremism leads to policies of social separation and segregation. He has argued that the Cambodian genocide is a specific example of this ideology when it is applied in practice. "Obviously, it was ultranationalism, combined with the notion of class struggle in communism and a group of politicians, which lead to the establishment of Democratic Kampuchea, a ruthless regime which claimed approximately three million lives", he has remarked, with militant leaders finally deciding to "cut all diplomatic and economic ties with almost all countries" due to a "narrow-minded doctrine without taking into account all the losses they would face". In Manara's opinion, "this effectively destroyed the nation."[5]

The absolute dictatorship of the Romanian leader Nicolae Ceausescu has also been described as an example of communism taking an ultranationalist approach by Haaretz. The Israeli publication cited the antisemitism of the dictator in terms of actions such as his historical denialism of the Holocaust. Ceausescu also made efforts to purge Romanians who had Jewish backgrounds from positions of political authority.[9]

Haaretz has also labeled the Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban an ultranationalist, due to his views on autocratic rule and racial identity, particularly, Orban's public condemnation of "race-mixing".[9] He has also been called an ultranationalist by NPR, an American news agency, citing his opposition to democratic liberalism.[10]

In late 2015, the Israeli political journalist Gideon Levy wrote that the Israeli–Palestinian conflict has led to the decay of the civil society within Israel, with an ultranationalist movement that "bases its power on incitement to hatred" using "folkloric religion" gaining ground over decades so that:

"They were the only ones willing to fight for a collective goal. They did not rule out any means. They extorted and exploited the weaknesses of government, the guilt feelings and confusion of the secular camp, and they won. They did so systematically and smartly: First they established the foundation of their existence, the settlement enterprise. After they achieved their goal– the killing off of any diplomatic agreement and destruction of the two-state solution– they were free to turn to their next target: taking control of the public debate in Israel on the road to changing its power structure, character and substance."[11]

 
The Iron Guard, a Romanian ultranationalist movement, centered its mass appeal on communal religious mysticism, with its militant leader Corneliu Zelea Codreanu being photographed amidst his followers in Bucharest during a 1937 event.

Russian irredentism, in which a militant imperial state that stretches across both Asia and Europe without regard for current international borders is proposed, has been described as ultranationalism by the U.S. publication the Los Angeles Times, with the aggressive actions of Russian President Vladimir Putin being credited as an evolution of political arguments which were made by multiple figures in the past. Examples include Nikolai Berdyaev, Aleksandr Dugin (the author of 1997's The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia), Lev Gumilyov, and Ivan Ilyin. The newspaper highlighted the justifications which were given in support of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, quoting Putin's declaration that he must militarily combat an "empire of lies" which was created by the U.S. in order to justify its desire to suffocate Russia.[12]

In a 2021 story, the business-centered publication Bloomberg News stated that the rise of ultranationalist viewpoints in China, particularly in terms of those who advocate extremism on social media, presents a direct challenge to the current government of the nation, with General Secretary Xi Jinping facing opposition to his attempts to set forth climate change based economic reforms in relation to greenhouse gases. Chinese political activists have asserted, according to the publication, a conspiracy theory that said that the reforms represent some kind of capitulation to foreign interests at the expense of individual Chinese people. Environmentalist policies have come into being in a complex fashion inside China, facing complicated opinions among many.[13]

Under the rule of Mohammed bin Salman, who formally serves as a Crown Prince, Saudi Arabia has been described by multiple analysts as embracing ultranationalism in a shift away from the government's previous reliance on Islamist political arguments.[14][15][16] For instance, the news agency France 24 stated in a 2019 report that while "promoting ultra-nationalism" the Crown Prince "has introduced glitzy concerts, magic shows and sporting extravaganzas with thumping after parties."[16]

Ultranationalist political parties edit

Currently represented in national governments or legislatures edit

The following political parties have been characterised as ultranationalist.

The following political parties have been described as having ultranationalist factions.

Represented parties with former ultranationalist tendencies or factions edit

The following political parties historically had ultranationalist tendencies or factions.

Formerly represented in national governments or legislatures edit

Ultranationalist organizations edit

Ultranationalist terrorism edit

 
A group of bicycle infantry militants that fought in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) travel just north of Kilinochchi inside of Sri Lanka in June 2004.

Arising out of strident Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism, with differing ethnic and religious groups placed at odds, the militant faction known as the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) orchestrated a decades long campaign of terrorism in the country of Sri Lanka, which is inside of the Indian Ocean and has been influenced by broader socio-political trends. Both ultranationalism as well as revolutionary ideologies aligned against capitalist policies influencing Sri Lankan life motivated the organization as it undertook a series of violent actions against both the national government and the supporters of the state. These attacks have collectively caused a large number of civilian deaths. For example, the Anuradhapura massacre committed by the LTTE on May 14, 1985 resulted in the killing of over one-hundred individuals inside of a holy city associated with local Buddhist worshippers. The militants deliberately targeted civilians socializing outdoors, such as by executing an elderly florist serving religious travelers.[223][224][225]

In the context of the LTTE's militant campaign, the academic publication Journal of Hate Studies found in a 2006 analysis that "ultranationalism subordinates all other claims for loyalty and allegiance" given that "[l]oyalty to the nation transcends loyalty to the family." Thus, "this notion explains the commitment of Tamil Tiger nationalists to [even] engage in suicide missions", since the journal stated that "[u]ltranationalist loyalty demands the willingness to sacrifice the self." In conclusion, the publication reported that an "extremist nationalist claim not only is understood as supreme, but [it] also is presented as urgent" and then demands political activists "must engage in preventive measures, such as ethnic cleansing or deportation".[225]

 
Golden Dawn activists rally in Athens during a March 2015 event.

The assassination of Pavlos Fyssas in September 2013, a hip-hop musician with left-wing views, from stabbing wounds to the heart and ribs that occurred after his surrounding by multiple dozen Golden Dawn militants triggered widespread outrage at the Greek political organization. The ultranationalist attack occurred in an Athens suburb and resulted in a police crackdown with several arrests. The then Ministry of Public Order and Citizen Protection, Nikos Dendias, remarked that the "abominable murder" done "by an attacker sympathizing with Golden Dawn" publicly "illustrates, in the clearest way, the intentions of neo-Nazism".[226][227][228]

The organization held, at the time, 18 of the 300 seats in the Hellenic Parliament. Characterized as an extremist political party directly adapting the beliefs of Adolf Hitler, support for its ultranationalism increased in the context of the debate over spiking immigration to Greece. However, the Greek legal system ultimately investigated the assassination and other acts of violence with the outcome of an October 2020 verdict by the Athens Court of Appeals wiping out the party's leadership through prison sentences. Looking back, the British publication The Guardian reported in 2021, "Golden Dawn hit squads sowed terror on the streets, targeting immigrants, left[-]wing trade unionists[,] and other perceived opponents before a party operative ultimately confessed to the killing of Fyssas."[226][227][228]

Portrayals of ultranationalism in fiction edit

The action film Air Force One features a terrorist mastermind named Egor Korshunov, played by actor Gary Oldman, who kidnaps a set of hostages including the U.S. President by hijacking the leader's plane. Korshunov seeks revenge due to the arrest of Kazakh dictator Ivan Radek, played by actor Jürgen Prochnow, and the militant became an ultranationalist radical after having formerly served as a Soviet soldier. In February 2022, the U.S. armed forces related website Military.com published a story labeling the character as one of the best "Russian Movie Villains" in American cinematic history.[6] As well, writer Todd McCarthy of Variety lauded the nature of Oldman's "fanatical" character, McCarthy stating that "in his second malevolent lead of the summer, after The Fifth Element, [he] registers strongly as a veteran of the Afghan campaign pushed to desperate lengths to newly ennoble his country."[229]

The Israeli movie Incitement portrayals a fictionalized account of ultranationalist activist and murderer Yigal Amir. The production details his personal life prior to his assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. Film critic Nell Minow stated that the killer, played by actor Yehuda Nahari, projects a superficial charm and skill at persuasion while at the same time failing to generate audience sympathy due to his true nature still coming out. Amir seeing himself in a callous, "instrumentalist" way as a living weapon up to and including Rabin's assassination feeds into, in Minow's opinion, the movie's "chillingly" thriller-type quality.[7] Writer Carla Hay of CultureMixOnline.com also found Nahari's performance to be a compelling portrayal of a sociopath in film, with much left to audience interpretations.[230]

The video game Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare has gained notice for its depiction of a civil war in Russia between the country's government and an ultranationalist faction, with the entertainment production being released in 2007. Its sequels, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 (2009) and Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3 (2011), were set in the aftermath of an ultranationalist coup d'état in Russia and a subsequent war involving the American military. Militant leader Vladimir Makarov, a character in multiple games, notably declares at one point, "Russia will take all of Europe, even if it must stand upon a pile of ashes."[231][232]

See also edit

References edit

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