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Russophilia (literally love of Russia or Russians) is individual or collective admiration and fondness of Russia, Russian history and Russian culture, especially someone who is sympathetic to the political system and customs of the former Soviet Union or who exhibits Russian nationalism in spite of not even being either an ethnic Russian or a Russian citizen. The opposite of Russophilia is Russophobia.

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Russophilia in EuropeEdit

Russophilia in other European countries may be based on stereotypes produced by mass culture ("traditional Russian hospitality", "Russian tenderness" etc.),[citation needed] as well as on in-depth study of Russian mentality, as expressed, e.g., by American author Robert Alexander: "I love Russians for their dramatic, emotional nature. They're not afraid to love, not afraid to get hurt, not afraid to exaggerate or act impulsively."[1]

In October 2004, the International Gallup Organization announced the results of its poll,[2] according to which approximately 20% of the residents of Western Europe viewed Russia positively, with the most positive view coming from Iceland, Germany, Greece, and Britain. The percentage of respondents expressing a positive attitude towards Russia was 9% in Finland, Turkey, and Japan, 38% in Lithuania, 36% in Latvia, and 34% in Estonia.[citation needed] Estonia and especially Latvia have a large number of ethnic Russians, which likely affected the result.

Russophilia in Serbia and MontenegroEdit

Russophilia in SerbiaEdit

Russia is hugely popular in Serbia, and Serbs have always traditionally seen Russia as a close ally due to shared Slavic culture and Orthodox faith.[3] In Serbia and Montenegro, whose nations are both predominately Eastern Orthodox, the faith expressed by a vast majority of Russians, there was no Soviet influence and Russians were always seen as friendly brotherly people.[citation needed] About 83% of Serbs see Russia as their first ally on the international scene.[citation needed] In both Serbia and Montenegro, there are neighbourhoods, streets, buildings and statues named after something Russian.[citation needed] In Serbia there is the Russian Centre of Science and Culture and Hotel Moskva.

Russophilia in MontenegroEdit

Montenegro is also an Eastern Orthodox and Slavic country. There is the Moscow Bridge[4] in Podgorica, and a statue of Russian singer and actor Vladimir Vysotsky next to the bridge.

Russophilia in UkraineEdit

Following Ukrainian independence in 1991 Ukrainians, mostly in the east and south of the country, voted to a see a more Russophile attitude of the government, ranging from closer economic partnership to full national union.[5] Since the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine the overall attitude of Ukrainians towards Russia and Russians has become much more negative.[6]

Western UkraineEdit

Russophilia (Moscophilia, Ukrainian: москвофільство, moskvofil’stvo) was a linguistic, literary and socio-political movement in the Western Ukrainian territories of Galicia, Transcarpathia, and Bukovyna in the 18th - 20th centuries. Proponents of this movement believed in linguistic, cultural, social union with Russian people and later in state union with Russia. Among the causes for the emergence of this phenomenon were the absence of Ukrainian statehood, centuries of foreign oppression, fragmented Ukrainian territories and dispersed population, as well as the defection of national elite to neighbouring cultures and a weak sense of national identity.[citation needed]

Russophile Movement in TranscarpathiaEdit

The first instances of Russophilia in Transcarpathia date back as far as late 18th early 19th centuries when several famous Russians with ties to the government and the court of the tsar settled there. Such famous scientists and social activists as I. Orlai, M. Baludiansky, P. Lodiy and others lived in Transcarpathia and maintained close ties with the country of their birth and thereby promoted interest towards Russia, especially towards its cultural life, its language and literature.[citation needed]

Russophile Movement in Galicia and BukovynaEdit

When Galicia and Bukovyna were incorporated into the Habsburg Empire in 1772 the Austrian government treated the Ukrainian population of these territories with suspicion as it was afraid it was susceptible to Russian influence due to the closeness of Ukrainian and Russian languages and cultures. This mistrust of the authorities was cultivated by influential Polish politicians and activists in an effort to forestall the growth of national consciousness on territories where Poles traditionally had influence. Any attempt at cultural revival was met with hostility from the Austrian government which regarded them as an influence from Moscow. In spite of this atmosphere of mistrust and suspicion the first educational establishment "The Fellowship of Priests" was founded in Przemyśl. Metropolitan M. Levytsky began to introduce the Ruthenian language in elementary schools, developed grammar books, insisted on instruction in University in Ruthenian and founded "Ruska Troyka" Society. The Lemko-Rusyn Republic, after World War I, attempted to join Lemko territories to Russia, and later to similar areas of the newly formed Czechoslovakia.[citation needed]

Notable RussophilesEdit

Pro-Russian political partiesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Book Group Guide - Rusoff Agency". Rusoffagency.com. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  2. ^ Helsingin Sanomat, October 11, 2004, International poll: Anti-Russian sentiment runs very strong in Finland. Only Kosovo has more negative attitude
  3. ^ "Зашто је Путин толико популаран у Србији? – Центар за развој међународне сарадње". crms.org.rs. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Moscow bridge in Podgorica". Androidvodic.com. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  5. ^ Rapawy, Stephen (1997). Ethnic Reidentification in Ukraine (page 17) (PDF). Washington, D.C.: United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2012.
  6. ^ How Ukraine views Russia and the West, Brookings Institution (October 18, 2017)
  7. ^ "Ja sam rusofil! Rusija je moja druga zemlja!". Kurir.rs.
  8. ^ "RUSOFIL VUJOŠEVIĆ: Kačket menjam, ali ostajem isti!".
  9. ^ "Tim Key Delves Into Daniil Kharms And That's All". Radio Times.
  10. ^ "Pro-Russian Alliance of Patriots Demand More Seats in Parliament". Georgia Today on the Web. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  11. ^ Sofia, Agence France-Presse in (26 March 2017). "Borisov's pro-EU party beats Socialists in Bulgaria's snap election". the Guardian. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  12. ^ Moldova election: Pro-EU parties edge pro-Russian rivals BBC News 1 December 2014
  13. ^ [1][dead link]
  14. ^ "Прогрессивная социалистическая партия Украины присоединилась к". Regnum.ru. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  15. ^ Foer, Franklin. "It's Putin's World". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
  16. ^ "Austrian far right signs deal with Putin's party, touts Trump ties". Reuters. 2016-12-19. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
  17. ^ a b "Putin's friends in Europe". European Council on Foreign Relations. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  18. ^ "L'accordo tra la Lega Nord e il partito di Putin". il Post. March 7, 2017.
  19. ^ Matteo Carnieletto; Elena Barlozzari (July 13, 2017). "Ecco l'accordo tra Lega Nord e Russia Unita". il Giornale.
  20. ^ "CasaPound, l'orgoglio di Di Stefano: "Siamo fascisti, ammiro Putin"". Libero. 16 November 2017.
  21. ^ Leonardo Bianchi (March 2, 2015). "Ho passato un pomeriggio con la Lega Nord e CasaPound a Roma". Vice.
  22. ^ "Whither the Alternative for Germany?". Intersectionproject.eu. 12 October 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  23. ^ "Ultranationalism and Russia colour Serbia's election". Irishtimes.com. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  24. ^ "SNS-suppported gathering planned for Putin visit to Serbia". rs.n1info.com. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  25. ^ "Czech centre-left party approves joining coalition, new government close". Channelnewsasia.com. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  26. ^ Schulze, Jennie L. (2018). Strategic Frames: Europe, Russia, and Minority Inclusion in Estonia and Latvia. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 978-0-82296-511-4. In 2014, the party changed its name to the Latvian Russian Union, and adopted a pro-Russia stance by signing a cooperation agreement with the pro-Russia regional party Russian Unity in Crimea in order to “strengthen the unity of the Russian World.”
  27. ^ "Stirring the pot". The Economist. 3 March 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  28. ^ "NAKA preverovala Kotlebu kvôli peniazom z Ruska". Aktuality.sk. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  29. ^ "New pro-Russia party stumbles in Lithuanian elections - Lewiston Sun Journal". Sunjournal.com. 25 October 2004. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  30. ^ "Order and Justice - The Democratic Society". Demsoc.org. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  31. ^ "Pro-Russia party wins Latvia election". Bbc.com. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.