Definition and usageEdit
In many modern cases, anti-Western sentiment is fueled by anti-imperialism, particularly against countries that are "all are deemed guilty for the colonial crimes of the past and present" such as Germany, the UK and the Netherlands. Anti-Western sentiment occurs in many countries, even from the West itself–especially European countries. Broad anti-Western sentiment also exists in the Muslim world against Europeans and the United States. The hatred against the United States stems from their support for Israel, the seizure of Iraq and the numerous sanctions on Iran.
After the end of the Cold War, Samuel P. Huntington argued that international conflict over economic ideology would be replaced with conflict over cultural differences. He argues that economic and political regionalism will increasingly shift non-Western countries towards geopolitical engagement with countries that share their values. Huntington argues that the Islamic world experiencing a population explosion at the same time as a growth in Islamic fanaticism, leading to rejection of Westernization.
Anti-Western sentiment in mainland China has been increasing since the early 1990s, particularly amongst the Chinese youth. Notable incidents which have resulted in a significant anti-Western backlash have included the 1999 NATO bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, the 2008 demonstrations during the Olympic torch relay and alleged Western media bias, especially in relation to the 2008 Tibetan unrest. Whilst available public opinion polls show that the Chinese hold generally favourable views towards the United States, there remains suspicion over the West's motives towards China stemming largely from historical experiences and specifically the 'century of humiliation'. These suspicions have been increased by the Chinese Communist Party's "Patriotic Education Campaign".
Lee Kuan Yew, the former Prime Minister of Singapore, argued that East Asian countries such as China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam should be based on "Asian values". Countries such as the Four Asian Tigers should aspire to have Western-style standards of living, but without accepting liberal democratic social institutions and principles.
Together with political salafists, jihadists (also called militant salafists) view Europe as lands inhabited by infidels (Dar al-Kufr). For jihadists this also legitimizes Europe as a target for armed jihad in terms of acts of war or terrorist attacks. Such lands go under the name of Dar al-Harb (lands of war). Jihadists themselves motivate their attacks in two prominent ways: as a way to resist and discourage Western military intervention in Muslim countries and what is called "insults against Islam" such as Muhammad Cartoons.
Within the WestEdit
In Amsterdam's secondary schools, about half the students of Moroccan descent do not identify with the Netherlands: they see their identity as 'Muslim', and regularly express anti-Western views but, nevertheless, do not want to return to their ancestral homeland.
Anti-Western sentiment in Russia dates back to 19th century from an intellectual debate between Westernists and Slavophiles. While the former deemed Russia to be a lagging Western country, the latter rejected these claims outright and dubbed West to be 'rotten'. An important figure in Western criticism under reign of Alexander the Third was Konstantin Pobedonostsev, a former liberal who eventually denounced and thoroughly criticised his former views.
Vladimir Putin has promoted explicitly conservative policies in social, cultural and political matters, both at home and abroad. Putin has attacked globalism and neoliberalism, and promoted new think tanks that stress Russian nationalism, the restoration of Russia's historical greatness, and systematic opposition to liberal ideas and policies. Putin has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church. Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, head of the Church, endorsed his election in 2012 stating Putin's terms were like "a miracle of God." The Russian Orthodox Church sometimes is host to groups that promote nationalist and anti-Western tendencies.
The Russian government has restricted foreign funding of some pro-liberal Non Governmental Organizations. Pro-Russian activists in the former Soviet Union frequently equate the West with homosexuality and the gay agenda, and Russian gay propaganda law was welcomed by nationalist and religious political figures in Russia as a bulwark against Western influence.
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