Liberal International

Liberal International (LI) is the political international federation for liberal political parties. It was founded in Oxford in 1947, and has become the pre-eminent network for liberal parties and for the strengthening of liberalism around the world. Its headquarters are at 1 Whitehall Place, London, SW1A 2HD within the National Liberal Club. The Oxford Manifesto describes the basic political principles of the Liberal International.

Liberal International
Liberal International logo.png
National Liberal Club, Whitehall Place (geograph 4771434).jpg
Headquarters of Liberal International, London
FormationApril 1947, constituted with the Oxford Manifesto
PurposeWorld federation of liberal political parties and organisations
HeadquartersNational Liberal Club
Region served
106 political parties (as of December 2018)
Hakima El Haite
Main organ
Congress of Liberal International


The Liberal International Constitution (2005) gives its purposes as

to win general acceptance of Liberal principles which are international in their nature throughout the world, and to foster the growth of a free society based on personal liberty, personal responsibility and social justice, and to provide the means of co-operation and interchange of information between the member organisations, and between men and women of all countries who accept these principles.

The principles that unite member parties from Africa, America, Asia and Europe are respect for human rights, free and fair elections and multi-party democracy, social justice, tolerance, market economy, free trade, environmental sustainability and a strong sense of international solidarity.

The aims of Liberal International are also set out in a series of seven manifestos, written between 1946 and 1997, and are furthered by a variety of bodies including a near yearly conference for liberal parties and individuals from around the world.[1]


The bureau[2] of Liberal International is elected every 18 months by the delegates of the congress.

The 14th president of Liberal International is Hakima el Haite of the Mouvement Populaire (Morocco), is former a Minister of Environment, UN climate champion, and climate scientist. Madam El Haite succeeded Dr Juli Minoves, formerly Andorra's foreign minister and representative to the United Nations.

Former Presidents include Hans Van Baalen MEP, John, Lord Alderdice, Dutch politician and former European Commissioner Frits Bolkestein, German politician Otto Graf Lambsdorff, and Spain's first democratically elected prime minister after Francoist Spain, Adolfo Suárez.

Other members of the bureau include Deputy President Prof. Karl-Heinz Paque, and Vice Presidents Cellou Dalein Diallo [Guinea]; Kitty Monterrey [Nicaragua]; Abir al-Sahlani [Sweden]; Kiat Sittheamorn [Thailand]; and Robert Woodthorpe Browne MBE [United Kingdom]. There are two elected treasurers, Judith Pallares MP [Andorra] and Minister Omar Youm [Senegal]. The secretary general is Gordon Mackay, a former Member of Parliament from South Africa.


Liberal International awards prizes to worthy individuals in the fields of human rights and liberalism.

Prize for Freedom:

The Liberal International Prize for Freedom is LI's most prestigious human rights award. Conveyed annually since 1984 to an individual of liberal conviction who has made outstanding efforts for the defence of freedom and human rights, recipients include Maria Corina Machado [Venezuela], Senator Leila de Lima [Philippines], Raif Badawi [Saudi Arabia], Waris Dirie [Somalia], and Vaclav Havel [Czechoslovakia/Czech Republic].

Medal of Liberalism:

The Liberal International Medal of Liberalism is awarded to individuals who have worked to advance liberal values on a local, national and international level. Recipients include President Alassane Ouattara [Côte d'Ivoire]; Prime Minister Xavier Bettel [Luxembourg]; President Tsai, Ing-wen [Republic of China]; Sir Graham Watson [United Kingdom].


The LI Human Rights Bulletin is published three times per year and consists of opinion articles, video interviews and digest of the work of the LI human rights committee.

Thematic publications are published online and in print on an ad hoc basis. Recent texts have offered a liberal perspective on issues ranging from freedom of belief to the responsibility to protect. ʒ

Oxford ManifestoEdit

The Oxford Manifesto, drawn up in April 1947 at Wadham College in Oxford by representatives from 19 liberal political parties, led by Salvador de Madariaga, is a document describing the basic political principles of the Liberal International.[3]

The Oxford Manifesto was inspired by the ideas of William Beveridge[citation needed] and is regarded as one of the defining political documents of the 20 century.[citation needed]

Fifty years on, in 1997, Liberal International returned to Oxford and issued a supplement to the original manifesto, The Liberal Agenda for the 21st century, describing Liberal policies in greater detail. The second Oxford Manifesto was adopted by the 48th Congress of Liberal International, which was held on 27–30 November 1997 in the Oxford Town Hall.[4] In 2017, the global federation marked its 70th anniversary with the adoption of the Andorra Liberal Manifesto for the twenty-first century (ALM). A three-year project across numerous continents initiated by then president Juli Minoves, the ALM embodied the widest consultation of views undertaken by Liberal International in order to compile a policy document.[5]



Portrait Name
Country Presidency Membership
1   Salvador de Madariaga
  United Kingdom
  Spain (exiled)
20 April 1948 18 April 1952 Association
Mont Pelerin Society
2   Roger Motz
  Belgium 18 April 1952 20 April 1958 Liberal Party
3   Giovanni Malagodi
  Italy 20 April 1958 15 April 1966 Italian Liberal Party
4   Edzo Toxopeus
  Netherlands 15 April 1966 25 April 1970 People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
5   Gaston Thorn
  Luxembourg 25 April 1970 18 April 1982 Democratic Party
(3)   Giovanni Malagodi
  Italy 18 April 1982 26 April 1989 Italian Liberal Party
6   Adolfo Suárez
  Spain 26 April 1989 22 April 1992 Democratic and Social Centre
7   Otto Graf Lambsdorff
  Germany 22 April 1992 25 April 1994 Free Democratic Party
8   David Steel
  United Kingdom 25 April 1994 15 April 1996 Liberal Democrats
9   Frits Bolkestein
  Netherlands 15 April 1996 18 April 2000 People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
10   Annemie Neyts-Uyttebroeck
  Belgium 18 April 2000 25 April 2005 Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten
11   John Alderdice
  United Kingdom 25 April 2005 20 April 2009 Liberal Democrats
Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
12   Hans van Baalen
  Netherlands 20 April 2009 26 April 2014 People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
13   Juli Minoves
  Andorra 26 April 2014 30 November 2018 Liberal Party of Andorra
14   Hakima El Haite
  Morocco 30 November 2018 Incumbent Popular Movement


Incumbent heads of state and governmentEdit

Full membersEdit

Country Name Government
  Andorra Liberal Party of Andorra[6] junior party in government coalition
  Belgium Reform Movement[6] in government coalition
Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats[6] in government coalition
  Bulgaria Movement for Rights and Freedoms in opposition
  Burkina Faso Alliance for Democracy and Federation – African Democratic Rally in opposition
  Burundi Alliance démocratique pour le renouveau [fr] in opposition
  Cambodia Cambodia National Rescue Movement extraparliamentary opposition
  Canada Liberal Party of Canada[7][8] in government
  Chile Liberal Party of Chile in opposition
  Democratic Republic of the Congo Alliance pour le renouveau au Congo [fr] in opposition
  Côte d'Ivoire Rally of the Republicans in government
  Croatia Istrian Democratic Assembly in opposition
  Cuba Cuban Liberal Union in exile
Democratic Solidarity Party in opposition
National Liberal Party in opposition
  Denmark Danish Social Liberal Party support party to government
Liberal Party in opposition
  Estonia Estonian Reform Party senior party in government coalition
  EU ALDE Group N/A
ALDE Party N/A
  Finland Centre Party junior party in government coalition
Swedish People's Party junior party in government coalition
  Georgia Republican Party of Georgia in opposition
  Germany German Group of the LI N/A
Free Democratic Party in opposition
  Gibraltar Liberal Party[6] junior party in government coalition
  Guinea Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea in opposition
Union of Republican Forces in opposition
  Honduras Liberal Party in opposition
  Iceland Progressive Party junior party in government coalition
  Ireland Fianna Fáil[6] senior party in government coalition
  Israel Israeli Liberal Group N/A
  Kenya Orange Democratic Movement in opposition
  Kosovo Independent Liberal Party in opposition
  Lebanon Future Movement senior party in government coalition
  Luxembourg Democratic Party senior party in government coalition
  Madagascar Movement for the Progress of Madagascar in opposition
  Mexico New Alliance Party in opposition
  Mongolia Civil Will-Green Party extraparliamentary opposition
  Montenegro Liberal Party of Montenegro junior party in government coalition
  Morocco Constitutional Union in opposition
Popular Movement junior party in government coalition
  Netherlands Democrats 66 junior party in government coalition
Dutch Group of LI N/A
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy[9] senior party in government coalition
  Nicaragua Ciudadanos por la Libertad in opposition
  North Macedonia Liberal Democratic Party junior party in government coalition
  Norway Liberal Party junior party in government coalition
  Paraguay Authentic Radical Liberal Party in opposition
  Philippines Liberal Party in opposition
  Russia Yabloko extraparliamentary opposition
  Senegal Alliance pour la République in government
Rewmi [fr] junior party in government coalition
Senegalese Democratic Party in opposition
  Slovenia Modern Centre Party junior party in government coalition
  Somalia CAHDI Party in opposition
  South Africa Democratic Alliance in opposition
  Spain Democràcia i Llibertat N/A
  Sweden Liberals in opposition
Centre Party support party to government
   Switzerland FDP.The Liberals party in government coalition
  Taiwan (Republic of China) Democratic Progressive Party in government
  Tanzania Civic United Front in opposition / in coalition in autonomous region of Zanzibar
  Thailand Democrat Party in government coalition
  United Kingdom Alliance Party of Northern Ireland in coalition government in Northern Irish Assembly, in opposition at national level
Liberal International British Group N/A
Liberal Democrats in opposition
Worldwide International Federation of Liberal Youth N/A
International Network of Liberal Women N/A

Observer partiesEdit

Country Name Government
  Austria NEOS – The New Austria and Liberal Forum in opposition
  Brazil Partido Novo officially in opposition, MPs in government
  Burkina Faso Union pour le Progrès et le Changement in opposition
  Comoros Alliance Nationale pour les Comores extraparliamentary opposition
  Democratic Republic of the Congo Union pour la reconstruction du Congo [fr] in opposition
  Republic of the Congo Union des Democrates Humanistes (UDH-YUKI) N/A
  Cyprus United Democrats extraparliamentary opposition
  Ghana Progressive People's Party in opposition
  Italy Italian Group of Liberal International N/A
  Madagascar Arche de la Nation in opposition
  Malaysia Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia in opposition
People's Justice Party in opposition
  Mali Citizens' Party for the Renewal of Mali extraparliamentary opposition
Union pour la République et la Démocratie (URD) N/A
  Mauritania Rally for Mauritania in opposition
  Moldova Liberal Reformist Party extraparliamentary opposition
  Romania Alliance of Liberals and Democrats extraparliamentary opposition
  Singapore Singapore Democratic Party extraparliamentary opposition

Individual memberEdit

Country Name Government
  Hong Kong Mr Martin Lee – founding chairman of Democratic Party in opposition

Cooperating organizationsEdit

Cooperating and regional organisations are groups with a recognised status in the constitution of Liberal International as bodies that share the values and objectives of LI but do not operate as a political party. Co-operating organisations have the right of representation but in no case the right to vote at statutory events.

Organization Region
Africa Liberal Network Africa
Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats Asia
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (ALDE-PACE) Europe
Friedrich Naumann Stiftung
Fondazione Libro Aperto
Fondazione Luigi Einaudi
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Swedish International Liberal Centre
Red Liberal de América Latina Latin America
Arab Liberal Federation MENA
National Democratic Institute North America

Liberal think tanks and foundationsEdit

The International is also in a loose association with the following organisations:

Organization Country
Centre Jean Gol Belgium
Fondazione Luigi Einaudi Italy
Fondazione Critica Liberale
Liberal Institute Germany
Teldersstichting Netherlands
The Bertil Ohlin Institute Sweden
Education Policy Institute United Kingdom
European Liberal Forum Europe

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Constitution – Politics – Liberalism". Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  2. ^ "Bureau Members". Liberal International. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  3. ^ "Oxford Manifesto 1947 – Manifesto – Politics – Liberalism". Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  4. ^ "Oxford Manifesto 1997 – Manifesto – Politics – Liberalism". 30 November 1997. Archived from the original on 7 February 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  5. ^ "Andorra Liberal Manifesto - 2017". Liberal International. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Europe - Liberal International". Liberal International. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  7. ^ "Liberal Party of Canada Welcomes Liberal International to 2009 Convention". Liberal Party of Canada. 6 March 2009. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  8. ^ "North America - Liberal International". Liberal International. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  9. ^ "VVD is a member of LI". Archived from the original on 28 September 2011.

External linksEdit