Yegor Timurovich Gaidar (Russian: Его́р Тиму́рович Гайда́р; pronounced [jɪˈɡor tʲɪˈmurəvʲɪtɕ ɡɐjˈdar]; 19 March 1956 – 16 December 2009) was a Soviet and Russian economist, politician, and author, and was the Acting Prime Minister of Russia from 15 June 1992 to 14 December 1992.
Gaidar in 2008
|Prime Minister of Russia|
15 June 1992 – 15 December 1992
|First Deputy||Vladimir Shumeyko|
|Preceded by||Boris Yeltsin (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Viktor Chernomyrdin|
|First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia|
18 September 1993 – 20 January 1994
|Prime Minister||Viktor Chernomyrdin|
2 March 1992 – 15 December 1992
|Minister of Finance|
11 November 1991 – 2 April 1992
|Preceded by||Igor Lazarev|
|Succeeded by||Vasily Barchuk|
Yegor Timurovich Gaidar
19 March 1956
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Died||16 December 2009 (aged 53)|
|Political party||Union of Rightist Forces (2001–2008)|
Democratic Choice (1994–2001)
|Spouse(s)||Irina Smirnova (div.) |
|Children||3; including Maria|
|Alma mater||Lomonosov Moscow State University|
He was the architect of the controversial shock therapy reforms administered in Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which brought him both praise and harsh criticism. He participated in the preparation of the Bialowieza agreements. Many Russians held him responsible for the economic hardships that plagued the country in the 1990s that resulted in mass poverty and hyperinflation among other things, although liberals praised him as a man who did what had to be done to save the country from complete collapse. Jeffrey Sachs, director of Columbia University's Earth Institute, who advised the Russian government in the early 1990s, called Gaidar "the intellectual leader of many of Russia's political and economic reforms" and "one of the few pivotal actors" of the period.
Gaidar was born in 1956 in Moscow, RSFSR, Soviet Union, the son of Ariadna Bazhova and Pravda military correspondent Timur Gaidar, who fought in the Bay of Pigs Invasion and was a friend of Raúl Castro. His paternal grandfather was Soviet writer Arkady Gaidar and his maternal grandfather was writer Pavel Bazhov. Gaidar married the daughter of writer Arkady Strugatsky during his time at the university. His daughter, Maria Gaidar, was one of the leaders of the Russian democratic opposition. From July 2009 till June 2011 she was Deputy Chair of the Government of Kirov oblast. In 2015 and 2016 she was vice-governor of Odessa Oblast in Ukraine.
Gaidar graduated with honors from the Moscow State University, Faculty of Economics, in 1978 and worked as a researcher in several academic institutes. A long-time member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and an editor of the CPSU ideological journal Communist during the perestroika, he joined Boris Yeltsin's camp during Perestroika. In 1991 he quit the Communist Party and was promoted to Yeltsin's government.
While in government, Gaidar advocated free market economic reforms according to the principle of shock therapy. His best-known decision was to abolish price regulation by the state, which immediately resulted in a major increase in prices and amounted to officially authorizing a market economy in Russia. He also cut military procurement and industrial subsidies, and reduced the budget deficit. Gaidar was the First Vice-Premier of the Russian Government and Minister of Economics from 1991 until 1992, and Minister of Finance from February 1992 until April 1992.
He was appointed Acting Prime Minister under President Boris Yeltsin in 1992 from 15 June until 14 December, when the anti-Yeltsin Russian Congress of People's Deputies refused to confirm Gaidar in this position and Viktor Chernomyrdin was eventually chosen as a compromise figure. Gaidar continued to advise the new government. On 18 September 1993, he was again appointed the First Vice-Premier under Chernomyrdin as a deliberate snub to the opposition. He played an active role in the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993.
On 3 October, he famously spoke live on Russian television, then broadcasting from an emergency station near Moscow, as there was fighting going on in the Ostankino complex, calling on Muscovites to gather to defend Yeltsin's government so that Russia would not be "turned into an enormous concentration camp for decades".
In the 1993 Duma elections, in the aftermath of the crisis, Gaidar led the pro-government bloc Russia's Choice and was seen by some as a possible future Prime Minister. However, due to the bloc's failure to win the plurality of votes in the election, Gaidar's role in the government diminished and he finally resigned on 20 January 1994.
Gaidar was often criticized for imposing ruthless reforms in 1992 with little care for their social impact; however, it has to be understood that the country back then was at the brink of a famine. Russia had no currency for buying import goods, at the same time, no-one gave credits as the country was essentially bankrupt. The collapse of the Soviet social system led to serious deterioration in living standards. Millions of Russians were thrown into poverty due to their savings being devalued by massive hyperinflation. Moreover, the privatization and break-up of state assets left over from the Soviet Union, which he played a big part in, led to much of the country's wealth being handed to a small group of powerful business executives, later known as the Russian oligarchs, for much less than what they were worth. The voucher privatization program enabled these few oligarchs to become billionaires specifically by arbitraging the vast difference between old domestic prices for Russian commodities and the prices prevailing on the world market. Because they stashed billions of dollars in Swiss bank accounts rather than investing in the Russian economy, these oligarchs were dubbed "kleptocrats." As society grew to despise these figures and resent the economic and social turmoil caused by the reforms, Gaidar was often held by Russians as one of the men most responsible. On the other hand, the ubiquitous goods deficit of the Soviet years disappeared and it became possible to buy all goods in the shops. Per capita calorie consumption under Gaidar diminished by 3.5% from 2526.88 kCal to 2438.17 kCal.
According to Franklin Foer writing in The Atlantic, however, "when Yegor Gaidar ... asked the United States for help hunting down the billions that the KGB had carted away, the White House refused."
One of Gaidar's most outspoken critics was the Yabloko economist and MP Grigory Yavlinsky, who had proposed since 1990 a 500 Days programme for the transition of the whole USSR to market economic, which was first backed and then dismissed by the government of Nikolai Ryzhkov. Yavlinsky emphasized the differences between his and Gaidar's reforms program, such as the sequencing of privatization vs. liberalization of prices and the applicability of his program to the entire Soviet Union.
Gaidar's supporters contend that although many mistakes were made, he had few choices in the matter and ultimately saved the country both from bankruptcy and from starvation. According to the BBC's Andrei Ostalski, "There were only two solutions—either introduce martial law and severe rationing, or radically liberalize the economy. The first option meant going all the way back to the Stalinist system of mass repression. The second meant a colossal change, a journey—or, rather, a race—through uncharted waters with an unpredictable outcome."
In November 2006 Gaidar went to Dublin, Ireland to present his book 'Death of the Empire: Lessons for Modern Russia' at an academic conference. Shorty after breakfast, a fruit salad and a cup of tea, Gaidar felt sick and returned from the conference hall to his room at the hotel. Then he was called on the phone to come down and deliver his speech, what Gaidar has later recalled as a call that saved his life, as he must had certainly died if were left in his room unattended. After Gaidar had tried to deliver his speeh he collapsed in the university hallway and was urgently taken a to local hospital. His colleague, Ekaterina Genieva, recalled that "He was lying on the floor unconscious. There was blood coming from his nose; he was vomiting blood. This went on for more than half an hour".
Next day he moved from the hospital to the Russian embassy's premises and arranged a transfer to Moscow where the doctors familiar with his health status suggested that it looks like he was 'poisoned'.
In a later interview that was published in the FT Gaidar claimed that this has been an attempted political murder, where "most likely that means that some obvious or hidden adversaries of the Russian authorities stand behind the scenes of this event, those who are interested in further radical deterioration of relations between Russia and the west".
Another Russian reformist official and former colleague of Gaidar, Anatoly Chubais rejected a possibility of Kremlin's involvement in this case, commening that "Yegor Gaidar was on the verge of death on 24 November. The deadly triangle - Politkovskaya, Litvinenko and Gaidar - would have been very desirable for some people who are seeking an unconstitutional and forceful change of power in Russia."
Irish police opened an official investigation of the case. One of the versions voiced by the Russian opposition leaders and Kremlin supporters suggested that Boris Berezovsky, then a Russian oligarch in exile, may have been behind it. Andrey Illarionov, former Putin's adviser now living in the US, commented that the whole case was staged, and the reason for taking Gaidar to hospital must have been hyperthensia, stress or alcohol.
Gaidar died at the age of 53 in Odintsovo raion, Moscow Oblast, Russia. Gaidar's aide Valery Natarov stated that Gaidar died unexpectedly, early on 16 December 2009, at his Moscow Oblast home while he was working on a book for children. Gaidar died of pulmonary edema, provoked by myocardial ischemia. He is survived by his wife, three sons and daughter.
Former associates acknowledged Gaidar as an object of loathing among ordinary Russians who lost everything during the economic liberalization. However, many Russian citizens praised Gaidar as a man who averted greater catastrophes. "He stood before the choice of civil war or painful reforms", Boris Nemtsov, a former deputy prime minister under Yeltsin, told the Ekho Moskvy radio station. "He gave his life to avert civil war."
Anatoly Chubais, the minister responsible for privatization in the early 1990s, who considers himself a friend of Gaidar, praised Gaidar as Russia's "savior". "It was Russia's huge good fortune that in one of the worst moments in its history it had Yegor Gaidar. In the early 1990s he saved the country from famine, civil war and disintegration", Chubais wrote in his blog. "Few people in the history of Russia and in world history can be compared with him for force of intellect, clarity of understanding of the past, present and future, and a willingness to take the most difficult but necessary decisions", wrote Chubais.
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has expressed condolences to relatives and friends of Yegor Gaidar. Medvedev called Gaidar a "daring, honest and decisive" economist who "evoked respect among his supporters and opponents." Gaidar was a brave, honest, and determined man, who "assumed responsibility for unpopular but essential measures in a period of radical change," the president said.
"The death of Gaidar is a heavy loss for Russia," says Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. "We have lost a genuine citizen and patriot, a strong spirited person, a talented scientist, writer and expert.... He didn't dodge responsibility and 'took the punch' in the most challenging situations with honor and courage," the statement said.
The White House offered condolences over Gaidar's death. Although controversial, Gaidar's legacy formed the foundation of a dynamic market-based economy and is destined to live on, U.S. National Security Council spokesman Mike Hammer said. Hammer described him as a top-notch intellectual, a true Russian patriot and a leading brain behind Russia’s political and economic reforms in the past two decades.
In honor of Yegor Gaidar, each year in mid-January the Russian Presidency holds a conference that attracts the Russian political and business elite, with top European politicians also attending. The 2014 Forum was hosted by Dmitry Medvedev, with presentations by former Czech President Václav Klaus, former Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti, and former Bulgarian Deputy Prime Minister Simeon Djankov. The Gaidar Forum is organized the week before the World Economic Forum in Davos and thus also serves to formulate the Russian positions on a variety of topics.
Academic and political positionsEdit
- Director of the Institute for Economy in Transition
- Executive Vice-President of the International Democratic Union (Conservative International)
- Steering Committee member "Arrabida Meetings" (Portugal)
- Member of the Baltic Sea Cooperation Council under the Prime-Minister of Sweden
- Member of the Editorial Board of "Vestnik Evropy" (Moscow)
- Member of the Advisory Board of the "Acta Oeconomica" (Budapest)
- Member of the Advisory Board of the CASE Foundation (Warsaw)
- Member of the International Advisory Board of the Moscow School of Management SKOLKOVO (Moscow)
- Collapse of an Empire: Lessons for Modern Russia, by Yegor Gaidar, Brookings Institution Press (17 October 2007), ISBN 0-8157-3114-0.
- Russian Reform / International Money (Lionel Robbins Lectures) by Yegor Gaidar and Karl Otto Pöhl (Hardcover – 6 July 1995)
- Days of Defeat and Victory (Jackson School Publications in International Studies) by E. T. Gaidar, Yegor Gaidar, Michael McFaul, and Jane Ann Miller (Dec 1999)
- State and Evolution: Russia's Search for a Free Market by E. T. Gaidar, Yegor Gaidar, and Jane Ann Miller (Donald R. Ellegood International Publications) Hardcover (Aug 2003) ISBN 978-0295983493
- The Economics of Russian Transition by Yegor Gaidar (15 August 2002)
- Ten Years of Russian Economic Reform by Sergei Vasiliev and Yegor Gaidar (25 March 1999)
- Russia: A Long View, by Yegor Gaidar (Author), Antonina W. Bouis (Translator), Anders Aslund (Foreword), The MIT Press (October 12, 2012), ISBN 0-2620-1741-5.
- Leszek Balcerowicz - architect of the shock therapy reforms in Poland.
- Anton Denisov. "Post-Soviet reform architect Gaidar dies aged 53 | Top Russian news and analysis online | 'RIA Novosti' newswire". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- Yegor Gaidar The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 17 December 2009
- "Yegor Gaidar, Shock Therapy Architect, Dies at 53 (Update2)". Bloomberg. 30 May 2005. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 December 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Gaĭdar, Egor Timurovich (1999). Days of defeat and victory. University of Washington Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-295-97823-6.
- Medvedev, Roy Aleksandrovich; George Shriver (2000). Post-Soviet Russia: a journey through the Yeltsin era. Columbia University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-231-10606-8.
- "Биографии членов правительства" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 September 2011.
- Divisions Revealed as Kremlin Critic Moves to Work for Ukraine Government, The Moscow Times (20 July 2015)
- "Russia's Reaction to NATO Aggression Against Yugoslavia". 29 March 1999. Archived from the original on 28 February 2005. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- Гайдар и его реформы by Григорий Герасимов
- Johanna Granville, "Dermokratizatsiya and Prikhvatizatsiya: The Russian Kleptocracy and Rise of Organized Crime,"Demokratizatsiya (summer 2003), pp. 448-457.
- "Russia's market reform architect Gaidar dies at 53". Yahoo! News. Reuters. Retrieved 17 December 2009.[dead link]
- "Famous Russian politician Yegor Gaidar dies". Russia Today. Archived from the original on 17 December 2009. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- Yegor Gaidar: The price to pay BBC News. Retrieved 17 December 2009
- Bowcott, Tom Parfitt Owen (1 December 2006). "Family believes former Russian prime minister also poisoned". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "Former Russian PM Gaidar poisoned, say his doctors". The Independent. 1 December 2006. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "Subscribe to read | Financial Times". www.ft.com. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "Gaidar Alleges He Was Poisoned By Putin's Enemies". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "Former Russian PM Gaidar poisoned, say his doctors". The Independent. 1 December 2006. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Ирландская полиция начала расследование странной болезни Гайдара | DW | 01.12.2006". DW.COM (in Russian). Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "Яд для Гайдара". expert.ru. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "Спецоперация «Отравление Гайдара Борисом Березовским»". aillarionov.livejournal.com. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "Yegor Gaidar, Russian economic reformer, dies aged 53". BBC News. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- "Gaidar, Russia's free-market architect, dies at 53 - Business". MSNBC. 17 October 2002. Retrieved 17 December 2009.[dead link]
- Anton Denisov (19 March 1956). "Yegor Gaidar, architect of Russia's free market transition, dies | Top Russian news and analysis online". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- "Михаил Ходорковский: "Несмотря на разногласия..."" [Mikhail Khodorkovsky: "Despite the differences ..."]. Radio Fee Europe. 16 December 2009.
- "ПРЕССЦЕНТР Михаила Ходорковского и Платона Лебедева – "Он был очень талантливым и высокоответственным человеком"". Khodorkovsky.ru. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- "Президент России". Kremlin.ru. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- "По факту смерти известного политика и экономиста Егора Гайдара будет проведена доследственная проверка" [An investigation verification will be conducted upon the death of a prominent politician and economist Yegor Gaidar]. Echo.msk.ru. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- "Gaidar, acting Russian PM under Yeltsin, dies". USA Today. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- "Remembering Russia's "shock doctor" Yegor Gaidar". RT. Retrieved 17 December 2009.[dead link]
- "Кончина Гайдара – тяжелая утрата для России, считает Путин" [Gaidar's death - heavy loss for Russia, Putin said]. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- "White House offers condolences over Gaidar's death". Voice of Russia. 17 December 2009. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy
- "Московская школа управления СКОЛКОВО – Московская школа управления СКОЛКОВО". Skolkovo.ru. 16 December 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- Yegor Gaidar's home page
- Speech, explaining the underlying reasons for the dissolution of the Soviet Union
- Interview in 2000 with Boston radio
- Gaidar, acting Russian PM under Yeltsin, dies[dead link]
- Yegor Gaidar – Daily Telegraph obituary
| Prime Minister of Russia
15 June 1992 – 14 December 1992