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1993 Russian legislative election

Parliamentary elections were held in Russia on 12 December 1993.[1] They included the last elections to the Federation Council of Russia.[2]

1993 Russian State Duma election

← 1990 12 December 1993 1995 →

All 450 seats to the State Duma
226 seats needed for a majority
Turnout54.81% Decrease 22.19 pp
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  Wladimir Schirinowski cropped.jpg Gaidar in 2008 - crop.jpg Gennady Zyuganov, 2013.jpeg
Leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky Yegor Gaidar Gennady Zyuganov
Party LDPR Russia's Choice Communist Party
Seats won 64 64 42
Popular vote 12,318,562 8,339,345 6,666,402
Percentage 22.92% 15.51% 12.4%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Alevtina Fedulova (duma.gov.ru).jpg Mikhail Lapshin.jpg Ba-yavlinsky-g-a-1999-june.jpg
Leader Alevtina Fedulova Mikhail Lapshin Grigory Yavlinsky
Party Women of Russia Agrarian Party of Russia Yabloko
Seats won 23 37 27
Popular vote 4,369,918 4,292,518 4,223,219
Percentage 8.13% 8% 7.9%

Chairman-designate

Ivan Rybkin
Agrarian Party

1993 Russian Federation Council election

12 December 1993

All 178 seats to the Federation Council
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Independent Vacant seats
Seats won 171 7
Popular vote 53,751,696
Percentage 100%

Chairman-designate

Vladimir Shumeyko
Independent

BackgroundEdit

The 1993 general election was taking place in the aftermath of the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, a violent confrontation on the streets of Moscow which resulted in the dissolution of the previous Russian parliament by military force. Yeltsin hoped to resolve the political turmoil by decreeing for the election to the new Russian parliament and the constitutional referendum to take place on 12 December 1993.

Electoral systemEdit

The new election law adopted for the 1993 Duma election stipulated half the 450 Duma members were elected by a party-list system of proportional representation, and half were elected as individual representatives from single-member districts. Every Russian voter thus received two different ballots. The proportional representation ballot compelled each voter to endorse an electoral organization or vote against all of them. By contrast, the single-member district ballot required a voter to endorse an individual, whose party affiliation, if any, could not be given on the ballot.

In order to nominate a list of candidates in the proportional representation ballot, a party or electoral organization had to gather 100,000 signatures from the electorate, of which no more than 15% could be from any one region or republic. The method used to calculate the number of seats won by each party was the Hare method, with a threshold of 5.0 per cent of the valid vote, including votes cast against all, but excluding invalid ballots. To secure a place on a single-member district ballot, candidates had to gather the signatures of at least 1.0 percent of the constituency electorate. The winner in each single-member districts contest was simply the candidate with plurality of votes, regardless of the number of votes cast against all.

ResultsEdit

State DumaEdit

Party PR Constituency Total
seats
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Liberal Democratic Party 12,318,562 22.9 59 1,577,400 3.0 5 64
Russia's Choice 8,339,345 15.5 40 3,630,799 6.8 24 64
Communist Party 6,666,402 12.4 32 1,848,888 3.5 10 42
Women of Russia 4,369,918 8.1 21 309,378 0.6 2 23
Agrarian Party 4,292,518 8.0 21 2,877,610 5.4 16 37
Yavlinsky–Boldyrev–Lukin 4,223,219 7.9 20 1,849,120 3.5 7 27
Party of Russian Unity and Accord 3,620,035 6.7 18 1,443,454 2.7 4 22
Democratic Party 2,969,533 5.5 14 1,094,066 2.1 0 14
Russian Democratic Reform Movement 2,191,505 4.1 0 1,083,063 2.0 5 5
Civic Union 1,038,193 1.9 0 1,526,115 2.9 10 10
Future of Russia–New Names 672,283 1.3 0 411,426 0.8 2 2
Kedr 406,789 0.8 0 301,266 0.6 1 1
Dignity and Charity 375,431 0.7 0 445,168 0.8 3 3
Other parties 377,863 0.7 0 0
Independents 25,961,405 48.7 130 130
Against all 2,267,963 4.2 8,509,300 16.0
Invalid/blank votes 4,248,927
Vacant seats[a] 6 6
Total 53,751,696 100 225 57,495,248 100 225 450
Registered voters/turnout 106,170,835 106,170,835 54.2
Source: Nohlen & Stöver, Politika.su

a Five seats in Tatarstan were left vacant due to a low turnout (less than 25%) and were elected at a later date, whilst one seat in Chechnya remained unfilled.[3]

Federation CouncilEdit

Party Votes % Seats
Independents 53,751,696 100 171
Invalid/blank votes 3,946,002
Vacant seats[a] 7
Total 57,697,698 100 178
Registered voters/turnout 106,170,835 54.3
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

a Five seats were elected at a later date, whilst two seats in Chechnya remained unfilled.[4]

Although the Federation Council was contested on a non-party basis,[2] 11 were members of the Communist Party, six were members of Russia's Choice and nine were members of other parties.[5]

AftermathEdit

The results of the polls proved to be disappointing for the Kremlin: the two competing pro-government parties, Russia's Choice and the Party of Russian Unity and Accord, gained 15.5% and 6.7% of the vote respectively and won 123 of the 450 seats in the State Duma. Neither party was able to control the parliamentary agenda nor impose the will of the president on the Duma. Lacking legislative success, both parties rapidly lost membership.

Parliamentary groupsEdit

The use of the mixed system for the election of the Duma produced a large number of deputies which were unaffiliated with any electoral bloc. By joining other parliamentary groups or forming groups of independent deputies, they could significantly influence the balance of power in the Duma. Hence, the parliamentary groups in the first two-year term of the Duma showed lack of stability and its numbers may be given only with approximation.

Parliamentary group Leader Seats
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia Vladimir Zhirinovsky 53-64
Russia's Choice Yegor Gaidar 47-78
Communist Party of the Russian Federation Gennady Zyuganov 45-47
Women of Russia Yekaterina Lakhova 20-24
Agrarian Party of Russia Mikhail Lapshin 50-55
Yabloko Grigory Yavlinsky 27-28
Party of Russian Unity and Accord Sergey Shakhray 12-34
Democratic Party of Russia Nikolay Travkin 8-15
Liberal Democratic Union of 12 December Irina Khakamada 11-38
New Regional Politics - Duma-96 V. Medvedev 30-67
Russia I. Shichalin 34-38
Stability A. Leushkin 34-40
Russian Way (unregistered) Sergei Baburin 11-14
Strong State (Derzhava) (unregistered) V. Kobelev 4-5

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1642 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ a b Nohlen & Stöver, p1656
  3. ^ Результаты выборов в Думу I созыва (in Russian).
  4. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p1659
  5. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p1658

External linksEdit