Far-left politics

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Far-left politics are politics further to the left on the left–right political spectrum than the standard political left. There are different definitions of the far-left. Some scholars define it as representing the left of social democracy, while others limit it to the left of communist parties. In certain instances, especially in the news media, far-left has been associated with some forms of authoritarianism, anarchism and communism, or it characterizes groups that advocate for revolutionary anti-capitalism and anti-globalization.

Extremist far-left politics can involve violent acts, such as terrorism, and the formation of far-left militant organizations. Far-left terrorism consists of groups that attempt to realize their ideals and bring about change through violence rather than traditional political processes. In addition, governments ruled by political parties who either self-describe or are identified by scholars as far-left have caused political repression, indoctrination, xenophobia, and mass killings.[1][2][3]


The definition of the far-left varies in the literature and there is not a general agreement on what it entails or consensus on the core characteristics that constitute the far-left, other than being to the left of the political left. In France, extrême-gauche ("extreme left") is a generally accepted term for political groups that position themselves to the left of the Socialist Party, although some such as the political scientist Serge Cosseron limit the scope to the left of the French Communist Party.[4]

Scholars such as Luke March and Cas Mudde propose that socio-economic rights are at the far-left's core. Moreover, March and Mudde argue that the far-left is to the left of the political left with regard to how parties or groups describe economic inequality on the base of existing social and political arrangements.[5] Luke March, Senior Lecturer in Soviet and post-Soviet Politics at Politics and International Relations of the University of Edinburgh, defines the far-left as those who position themselves to the left of social democracy, which is seen as either insufficiently left-wing,[6] or as defending the social democratic tradition that is perceived to have been lost.[7]

The two main sub-types of far-left politics are called "the radical left" and "the extreme left"; the first desires fundamental changes in neoliberal capitalism and progressive reform of democracy such as direct democracy and the inclusion of marginalised communities,[8] while the latter denounces liberal democracy as a "compromise with bourgeois political forces" and defines capitalism more strictly.[5] Far-left politics is seen as radical politics because it calls for fundamental change to the capitalist socio-economic structure of society.[9]

March and Mudde say that far-left parties are an increasingly stabilized political actor and are challenging mainstream social democratic parties, defining other core characteristics of far-left politics as being internationalism and a focus on networking and solidarity as well as opposition to globalization and neoliberalism.[9] In his later conceptualization, March started to refer to far-left politics as "radical left politics", which is constituted of radical left parties that reject the socio-economic structures of contemporary society that are based on the principles and values of capitalism.[10]

Radical left partiesEdit

In Europe, the support for far-left politics comes from three overlapping groups, namely far-left subcultures, disaffected social democrats, and protest voters—those who are opposed to their country's European Union membership.[11] To distinguish the far-left from the moderate left, Luke March and Cas Mudde identify three useful criteria:[12][13]

Other scholars classify the far-left under the category of populist socialist parties.[16] Vít Hloušek and Lubomír Kopeček of the Masaryk University at the International Institute of Political Science suggest secondary characteristics, including anti-Americanism, anti-globalization, opposition to NATO, and in some cases a rejection of European integration.[15]

March states that "compared with the international communist movement 30 years ago, the far left has undergone a process of profound de-radicalization. The extreme left is marginal in most places." March identifies four major subgroups within contemporary European far-left politics, namely communists, democratic socialists, populist socialists, and social populists.[17] In a later conception of far-left politics, March writes: "I prefer the term 'radical left' to alternatives such as 'hard left' and 'far left', which can appear pejorative and imply that the left is necessarily marginal." According to March, the most successful far-left parties are pragmatic and non-ideological.[18]

According to political scientist Paolo Chiocchetti, radical left parties have failed to concretise an alternative to neoliberalism and lead a paradigm shift towards a different path of development model, despite electoral gains in the 2010s;[19] when they were in government, such parties were forced to put aside their strong anti-neoliberalism and accept neoliberal policies, either proposed by their larger allies or imposed due to the international context.[20] This view is also shared by Mudde[21] and political scientist Yiannos Katsourides in regards to SYRIZA.[22]

Far-left militantsEdit

Many far-left militant organizations were formed by members of existing political parties in the 1960s and 1970s,[23][24][25] among them Montoneros, Prima Linea, the Red Army Faction, and the Red Brigades.[24][26][27][28] These groups generally aimed to overthrow capitalism and the wealthy ruling classes.[29]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ McClosky & Chong 1985, p. 331.
  2. ^ Kopyciok & Silver 2021.
  3. ^ Chen & Lee 2007, p. 471.
  4. ^ Cosseron 2007, p. 20.
  5. ^ a b March & Mudde 2005.
  6. ^ Liebman & Miliband 1985.
  7. ^ March 2008, p. 1: "The far left is becoming the principal challenge to mainstream social democratic parties, in large part because its main parties are no longer extreme, but present themselves as defending the values and policies that social democrats have allegedly abandoned."
  8. ^ Dunphy 2004.
  9. ^ a b March 2012b.
  10. ^ Holzer & Mareš 2016, p. 57.
  11. ^ Smaldone 2013, p. 304.
  12. ^ March & Mudde 2005, p. 25.
  13. ^ Hloušek & Kopeček 2010, pp. 45–46.
  14. ^ a b Hloušek & Kopeček 2010, p. 45.
  15. ^ a b Hloušek & Kopeček 2010, p. 46.
  16. ^ Katsambekis & Kioupkiolis 2019, p. 82.
  17. ^ March 2008, p. 3.
  18. ^ March 2012a, p. 1724.
  19. ^ Chiocchetti 2016, pp. 1–6.
  20. ^ Chiocchetti 2016, "Filling the vacuum? The trajectory of the contemporary radical left in Western Europe".
  21. ^ Mudde 2016.
  22. ^ Katsourides 2020.
  23. ^ Pedahzur, Perliger & Weinberg 2009, p. 53.
  24. ^ a b Clark 2018, pp. 30–42, 48–59.
  25. ^ Balz 2015, pp. 297–314.
  26. ^ Raufer 1993.
  27. ^ The Irish Times, 22 April 1998: "German detectives yesterday confirmed as authentic a declaration by the Red Army Faction (RAF) terrorist group that its struggle to overthrow the German state is over."
  28. ^ Chaliand 2010, pp. 227–257.
  29. ^ CISAC 2008: "The PL [Prima Linea] sought to overthrow the capitalist state in Italy and replace it with a dictatorship of the proletariat."


  • Chiocchetti, Paolo (2016). The Radical Left Party Family in Western Europe, 1989–2015 (E-book ed.). London, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-22186-9. Retrieved 19 November 2021 – via Google Books.
  • Dunphy, Richard (2004). Contesting Capitalism?: Left Parties and European Integration (paperback ed.). Manchester, England: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-719-06804-1. Retrieved 19 November 2021 – via Google Books.
  • Katsambekis, Giorgos; Kioupkiolis, Alexandros (2019). The Populist Radical Left in Europe (E-book ed.). London, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-72048-9. Retrieved 19 November 2021 – via Google Books.
  • Kopyciok, Svenja; Silver, Hilary (June 2021). "Left-Wing Xenophobia in Europe". Frontiers in Sociology. 6: 2. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  • March, Luke; Mudde, Cas (1 April 2005). "What's Left of the Radical Left? The European Radical Left After 1989: Decline and Mutation". Comparative European Politics. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. 3 (1): 23–49. doi:10.1057/palgrave.cep.6110052. ISSN 1740-388X. S2CID 55197396. Retrieved 21 November 2021 – via ResearchGate.
  • March, Luke (2008). Contemporary Far Left Parties in Europe: From Marxism to the Mainstream? (PDF). Berlin, Germany: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. ISBN 978-3-868-72000-6. Retrieved 3 June 2017 – via Library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.
  • March, Luke (2012a). Radical Left Parties in Europe (E-book ed.). London, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-57897-7. Retrieved 19 November 2021 – via Google Books.
  • March, Luke (September 2012b). "Problems and Perspectives of Contemporary European Radical Left Parties: Chasing a Lost World or Still a World to Win?". International Critical Thought. London, England: Routledge. 2 (3): 314–339.
  • McClosky, Herbert; Chong, Dennis (1985). "Similarities and Differences between Left-Wing and Right-Wing Radicals". British Journal of Political Science. 15 (3): 331. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
Further reading
Radical left parties case studies

External linksEdit