European Green Party

(Redirected from European Greens)

The European Green Party (EGP), also referred to as European Greens, is the European political party that represents national parties from across Europe who share Green values. The European Greens works closely with the Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) parliamentary group in the European parliament which is formed by elected Green party members along with the European Free Alliance, European Pirate Party and Volt Europa. The European Greens' partners include its youth wing the Federation of Young European Greens (FYEG), the Greens European Foundation (GEF) and the Global Greens family.

European Green Party
PresidentMélanie Vogel and Thomas Waitz
Secretary-GeneralBenedetta De Marte
Founded21 February 2004; 18 years ago (2004-02-21)
Preceded byEuropean Federation of Green Parties
HeadquartersRue du Taciturne 34, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
Think tankGreen European Foundation
IdeologyGreen politics[1]
Pro-Europeanism
Political positionCentre-left to left-wing
International affiliationGlobal Greens
European Parliament groupGreens–European Free Alliance
Colours  Green
European Parliament
52 / 705
European Lower Houses
275 / 5,796
European Upper Houses
52 / 1,513
Website
europeangreens.eu

HistoryEdit

Green politics emerged from grassroots political movements, such as the environmental, peace, and women's rights movements. They forged the Greens' political priorities: climate change, peace, environment, democracy, social justice and health. Greens emerged as a new political force in the 1970s in several European countries and have been represented in the European Parliament since 1984.[2]

The European Green Party was founded at the 4th Congress of the European Federation of Green Parties on 20–22 February 2004 in Rome, as the evolution of this already existing federation. The foundation of the new party was finalised with the signing of the treaty constituting the party. 32 Green parties from across Europe joined this new pan-European party.[3] The Greens were the first to form a political party at the European level.

The European political party amplifies the political expression of member parties by having common policy positions, mutual election manifestos, and cohesive European election campaigns. The European Greens also has networks which brings Green politicians together, such as the Local Councillors Network.[3][4]

The current presence of European Greens member parties in national governments is the highest in history. They are now in government in 7 countries in Europe: Austria (Die Grünen), Belgium (Groen and Ecolo), Finland (Vihreät De Gröna), Germany (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the Republic of Ireland (Comhaontas Glas), Luxembourg (déi gréng) and Montenegro (Građanski Pokret URA).

RepresentationEdit

The table below shows the results of the Greens for the six direct elections to the European Parliament, in terms of seats and votes. It also shows how many European Commissioners the European Greens have, who led the parliamentary group. It also lists how the Green parliamentary group and supra-national organisations was named and what European parliamentary group they joined.[5]

Year MEPs MEPs % Votes % EC Leaders EP Subgroup EP group Organization
1979 0 0 2.4% 0 none none none Coordination of European Green and Radical Parties
1984 11 2.5% 4.2% 0 Friedrich-Wilhelm Graefe zu Baringdorf (1984–86),
Bram van der Lek (1984–86),
Brigitte Heinrich (1986),
François Roelants du Vivier (1986),
Frank Schwalba-Hoth (1986–87),
Paul Staes (1987–88),
Wilfried Telkämper (1987–89)
Green Alternative European Link Rainbow Group European Green Coordination
1989 25 4.8% 7.4% 0 Maria Amelia Santos (1989–90),
Alexander Langer (1990),
Adelaide Aglietta (1990–94),
Paul Lannoye (1990–94)
Green Group in the European Parliament European Green Coordination
1994 21 3.7% 7.4% 0 Claudia Roth (1994–98),
Alexander Langer (1994–95),
Magda Aelvoet (1997–99)
Green Group in the European Parliament European Federation of Green Parties
1999 38 6.1% 7.7% 1[a] Heidi Hautala (1999–2002),
Paul Lannoye (1999–2002),
Monica Frassoni (2002–04),
Daniel Cohn-Bendit (2002–04)
European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Federation of Green Parties
2004 35 4.8% 7.3% 0 Monica Frassoni (2004–09),
Daniel Cohn-Bendit (2004–09)
European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party
2009 48[b] 6.2% 7.3% 0 Rebecca Harms (2009–14),
Daniel Cohn-Bendit (2009–14)
European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party
2014 50[6][c] 6.7% 7.3% 0 Rebecca Harms (2014–2016),
Ska Keller (2017– ),
Philippe Lamberts (2014– )
European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party
2019 67 11.4% 10.0% 0 Ska Keller and Bas Eickhout European Greens Greens-EFA European Green Party

Organisational structureEdit

Ulrike Lunacek, ex vice-president of the European Parliament and Michaele Schreyer, the only Green European Commission member so far

The European Green Party is a European political party, constituted out of political parties from European countries. Parties can also become associate members. Members of the Greens/EFA group in the European Parliament not belonging to a member party can be admitted as a special member with speaking rights but no vote.

 
Alice Bah Kuhnke, Deputy chairwoman of the Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) group in the European Parliament.

The governing bodies of the EGP are the Council and the Committee.[7]

  • The Council takes place twice a year and is the main decision-making body of the European Greens and consists of delegates of member parties. During Councils, delegates from European Greens parties set a common political direction, linked to the development of the European project and its values. They do so by debating and vote on resolutions on key issues in Europe. Delegates are allotted based on their most recent European or national election results. Each party has at least two delegates. consists of delegates of member parties. These are allotted on the basis of their most recent European or national election results. Each party has at least two delegates.[8]
  • The Committee consists of nine members, including two Co-Chairs (one man and one woman), a Secretary General and a Treasurer. They are responsible for daily political affairs, execution of the Council's decisions and the activities of the EGP office and staff. Co-Chairs Thomas Waitz and Mélanie Vogel, Secretary General Benedetta De Marte, Treasurer Ute Michel, and Committee Members Vula Tsetsi, Sibylle Steffan, Małgorzata Tracz, Rasmus Nordqvist and Mina Jack Tolu were elected at the 35th European Green Party in Riga, Latvia. The EGP has had several Co-Chairs.

Co-chairs of the European GreensEdit

Mandate Co-chairs Member party Years Secretary General Council election
Nov 2019 – May 2022   Evelyne Huytebroeck Ecolo 11/2019 – Present   Mar Garcia Tampere,   Finland, November 2019
  Thomas Waitz Die Grünen 11/2019 – Present
Nov 2015 – Nov 2019   Monica Frassoni Federazione dei Verdi 11/2015 – 11/2019   Mar Garcia Lyon,   France, November 2015
  Reinhard Bütikofer Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen 11/2015 – 11/2019
Nov 2012 – Nov 2015   Monica Frassoni Federazione dei Verdi 11/2012 – 11/2015   Jacqueline Cremers (until end 2014)

  Mar Garcia (from January 2015)

Athens,   Greece, November 2012
  Reinhard Bütikofer Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen 11/2012 – 11/2015
Oct 2009 – Nov 2012   Monica Frassoni Federazione dei Verdi 10/2009 – 11/2012   Jacqueline Cremers Malmö,   Sweden, October 2009
  Philippe Lamberts Ecolo 10/2009 – 11/2012
May 2006 – Oct 2009   Ulrike Lunacek Die Grünen 05/2006 – 10/2009   Juan Behrend Helsinki,   Finland, May 2006
  Philippe Lamberts Ecolo 05/2006 – 10/2009
May 2003 – May 2006   Grazia Francescato Federazione dei Verdi 05/2003 – 05/2006   Arnold Cassola Saint Andrews,   Malta, May 2003
  Pekka Haavisto Vihreä Liitto 05/2003 – 05/2006
  • The Congress is an enlarged meeting of the Council which is convened by the Council at least once every 5 years and hosts more delegates.

NetworksEdit

The EGP hosts a collection of networks that have specific special interest focus, including:

 
  States with member parties
  States with associate parties
  States with candidate parties

GuidelinesEdit

CharterEdit

According to its charter, the European Greens is working towards a just and sustainable transition towards societies "respectful of human rights and built upon the values of environmental responsibility, freedom, justice, diversity and non-violence". The charter’s guiding principles provide a framework for the political actions taken by member parties.  

The priorities outlined in the charter include protecting human health and wellbeing, maintaining biological diversity, combatting global warming, transitioning to a just and sustainable economy, strengthening inclusive democracies, safeguarding diversity, and ensuring social justice.  

Statutes  Edit

The European Green Party statutes define the party in legal terms.

MembershipEdit

As of July 2022, the European Greens has 36 member parties in 32 countries.

Full membersEdit

Country Name MEPs National MPs Government status
  Albania Green Party of Albania Not in EU
0 / 140
Extra-parliamentary
  Austria The Greens – The Green Alternative
3 / 18
26 / 183
In government
  Belgium   Flemish Groen
1 / 12
[d]
8 / 102
[e]
In government
  French
  German
Ecolo
2 / 9
[f]
13 / 63
[g]
In government
  Bulgaria Green Movement
0 / 17
3 / 240
In government
  Cyprus Movement of Ecologists – Citizens' Cooperation
0 / 6
3 / 56
In opposition
  Czech Republic Green Party
0 / 22
0 / 200
Extra-parliamentary
  Denmark Green Left
2 / 13
15 / 179
Confidence and supply
  Estonia Estonian Greens
0 / 7
0 / 101
Extra-parliamentary
  Finland Green League
3 / 13
20 / 200
In government
  Åland Sustainable Initiative
0 / 14
2 / 30
  France Europe Ecology – The Greens
10 / 74
21 / 577
In opposition
  Georgia Greens Party of Georgia Not in EU
0 / 150
Extra-parliamentary
  Germany Alliance 90/The Greens
21 / 96
118 / 735
In government
  Greece Ecologist Greens
0 / 21
0 / 300
Extra-parliamentary
  Hungary LMP – Hungary's Green Party
0 / 21
8 / 199
In opposition
  Ireland Green Party[h]
2 / 13
12 / 160
In government
  Italy Green Europe
1 / 73
5 / 630
In opposition
  South Tyrol Greens
0 / 73
0 / 630
Extra-parliamentary
  Latvia The Progressives
0 / 8
10 / 100
Extra-parliamentary
  Luxembourg The Greens
1 / 6
6 / 60
In government
  Malta AD+PD
0 / 6
0 / 67
Extra-parliamentary
  Moldova Ecologist Green Party Not in EU
0 / 101
Extra-parliamentary
  Netherlands GroenLinks
3 / 26
8 / 150
In opposition
  North Macedonia Democratic Renewal of Macedonia Not in EU
1 / 120
In government
  Norway Green Party Not in EU
3 / 169
In opposition
  Poland The Greens
0 / 51
3 / 460
In opposition
  Portugal Ecologist Party "The Greens"
0 / 21
0 / 230
Extra-parliamentary
  Romania Green Party
0 / 32
0 / 329
Extra-parliamentary
  Slovenia Youth Party – European Greens
0 / 8
0 / 90
Extra-parliamentary
  Spain Greens Equo
0 / 54
1 / 350
Confidence and supply
  Catalonia Green Left[i]
1 / 54
[j]
2 / 350
In government
  Sweden Green Party
3 / 20
16 / 349
[9]
Confidence and supply
  Switzerland Green Party of Switzerland Not in EU
28 / 200
In opposition
  Ukraine Party of Greens of Ukraine Not in EU
0 / 450
Extra-parliamentary
  United Kingdom   England
  Wales
Green Party of England and Wales Not in EU
1 / 573
[k]
In opposition
  Scotland Scottish Greens
0 / 59
[l]
Extra-parliamentary
  Northern Ireland Green Party in Northern Ireland [m]
0 / 18
[n]
Extra-parliamentary

Candidate membersEdit

Country Name MEPs National MPs
  Croatia Sustainable Development of Croatia
  Montenegro United Reform Action Not in EU
3 / 81
  Spain Catalunya en Comú
1 / 59
4 / 48
[o]
  Turkey Green Left Party Not in EU
  Serbia Zajedno Not in EU
8 / 250
sources[10][11]

Associate membersEdit

Country Name MEPs National MPs
  Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Green Party Not in EU
  Belarus Belarusian Green Party Not in EU
0 / 110
  Russia Union of Greens of Russia[12] Not in EU
0 / 170
sources[10]

Former membersEdit

Country Year left Name MEPs (current) National MPs (current)
  Denmark 2012 De Grønne n/a – defunct
  Hungary 2015 Green Left n/a – defunct
  Latvia 2019 Latvian Green Party
6 / 100
  Netherlands 2017 The Greens -
  Russia 2016[p] Green Alternative Not in EU -
  Spain 2012 Confederation of the Greens

Ideology and positionsEdit

The European Greens have committed themselves to the basic tenets of Green politics, such as environmental responsibility, individual freedom, inclusive democracy, diversity, social justice, gender equality, global sustainable development and non-violence.

The European Greens was the first European political party to form, signalling its commitment to the European project. In its charter, it nevertheless affirms that the political party is working to make the European Union more just, democratic and inclusive.  

European election campaignsEdit

ManifestosEdit

2019: Time to renew the promise of Europe.  

2014: Change Europe, Vote Green.  

2009: A Green New Deal for Europe.

2004: Europe Can Do Better. You Decide!

1999: A Common Green Manifesto for the 1999 European Elections.

1994: Election Platform – Green Parties of the EU.

ResultsEdit

The candidates for the 2019 European Parliament election were Ska Keller and Bas Eickhout, who campaigned for climate protection, a social Europe, more democracy and stronger rule of law. That year, the Greens made the strongest ever showing across Europe, in part due to rising public awareness about climate change and the impact of youth movements for climate. The strongest surge was in Germany as Alliance 90/The Greens replaced the centre-left Social Democratic Party of Germany as the second-strongest party. The Greens/EFA group in the European Parliament obtained 74 seats in total. The Greens' results signified a new balance of power as the European People's Party (EPP) and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) lost their majority.

In the 2014 European Parliament election the Green candidates were José Bové and Ska Keller. These elections marked the first time there were primaries including Spitzenkandidaten at the European elections, which allows Europeans to not only vote for who should represent them in the European Parliament, but also help to decide who should lead the European Commission. In May they presented a common programme including the Green New Deal at the launch of the European Greens' campaign which called for "a new direction of economic policy aimed at reducing our carbon footprint and improving our quality of life". The slogan of the campaign was 'Change Europe, vote Green'. The Greens/EFA group in the European Parliament obtained 50 seats in total.

In the 2009 European Parliament election, even though the European Parliament was reduced in size, the European Greens' member parties won 46 seats, the best result of the Green Parties in 30 years. The Greens/EFA group in the European Parliament secured 55 seats in total.

In the 2004 European Parliament election, member parties won 35 Seats and the Greens/EFA group in the European Parliament secured 43 in total.

Green representationEdit

European institutionsEdit

Organisation Institution Number of seats
  European Union European Commission
0 / 28
European Council
(Heads of Government)
0 / 28
Council of the European Union
(Participation in Government)
6 / 27
European Parliament
52 / 751
  Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
3 / 318

Election resultsEdit

Country Name Votes Total Last EU election Votes Total Last national election Government status
  Austria The Greens – The Green Alternative 532,193 3,834,662 14.1% 664,055 4,835,469 13.9% In government
  Belgium   Flemish Groen 525,908 6,732,157 7.8% 413,836 6,780,538 6.1% In government
  French
  German
Ecolo 492,330 7.2% 416,452 6.1% In government
  Bulgaria The Greens EPP 2,015,320 6.1%[13] EPP 2,658,548 6.3%[13] In opposition
  Cyprus Movement of Ecologists – Citizens' Cooperation 9,232 280,935 3.3%[14] 15,762 357,712 4.4% In opposition
  Czech Republic Green Party 0 2,370,765 did not compete 53,343 5,375,090 1.0% Extra-parliamentary
  Denmark Socialist People's Party 364,895 2.758.855 13.2% 272,304 3,569,521 7.7% Confidence and supply
  Estonia Estonian Greens 5,824 332,104 1.8% 10,226 561,131 1.8% Extra-parliamentary
  Finland Green League 292,892 1,830,045 16.0% 354,194 3,081,916 11.5% In government
  France Europe Ecology – The Greens 3,055,023 22,654,164 13.5% 973,527 22,655,174 4.3% In opposition
  Germany Alliance 90/The Greens 7,677,071 37,396,889 20.5% 6,852,206 46,442,023 14.8% In government
  Greece Ecologist Greens 49,099 5,656,122 0.9% 0 5,769,542 did not compete Extra-parliamentary
  Hungary LMP – Hungary's Green Party 75,498 3,470,257 2.2% 404,429 5,732,283 7.1% In opposition
  Ireland Green Party[q] 190,755 1,678,003 11.4% 155,695 2,183,489 7.1% In government
  Italy Green Europe 621,492 26,783,732 2.3% 0 32,841,705 did not compete Extra-parliamentary
  South Tyrol Extra-parliamentary
  Luxembourg The Greens 39.535 217,086 18.9% 32.177 216,177 15.1% In government
  Malta AD+PD 7,142 260,212 did not compete 0 310,665 did not compete Extra-parliamentary
  Netherlands GroenLinks 599,283 5,497,813 10.9% 537,584 10,422,852 5.2%
  Poland The Greens EPP 13,647,311 38.5%[15] EPP 18,470,710 27.4%[16] In opposition
  Portugal Ecologist Party "The Greens" LEFT 3,314,414 6.9%[17] LEFT 5,340,890 6.3%[17] In opposition
  Romania Green Party 0 9,069,822 did not compete 23,085 5,908,331 0.4% Extra-parliamentary
  Slovenia Youth Party – European Greens 0 482,075 did not compete 0 891,097 did not compete Extra-parliamentary
  Spain Equo 0 22,426,066 did not compete 582,306 24,258,228 2.4% Confidence and supply
  Catalonia Esquerra Verda[r] LEFT Run with UP[18] 0 did not compete In government
Catalunya en Comú LEFT Run with UP[18] LEFT Run with UP In government
  Sweden Green Party 478,258 4,151,470 11.5% 285,899 6,535,271 4.4% In government
European Greens 15.016.430 176.860.279 8,49% 12.047.080 212.120.443 5,67%

PartnershipsEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Michaele Schreyer for Alliance '90/The Greens
  2. ^ includes 6 independent MEPs elected for the Europe Écologie group
  3. ^ Includes 14 MEPs, from 8 countries, NOT affiliated with EGP member parties.
  4. ^ Dutch-speaking electoral college
  5. ^ Flemish seats in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives, including seats for bilingual Brussels.
  6. ^ All seats for the French and German-speaking electoral colleges.
  7. ^ All seats for French and German-speaking Communities in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives, including seats for bilingual Brussels.
  8. ^ The Irish Green Party operates also in Northern Ireland as the "Green Party in Northern Ireland". The Northern Irish party is separately listed in this table although it does not have separate membership in the EGP.
  9. ^ Esquerra Verda is member party of Catalunya en Comú.
  10. ^ Ernest Urtasun is member of Catalunya en Comú and Esquerra Verda.
  11. ^ English and Welsh seats in the House of Commons.
  12. ^ Scottish seats in the House of Commons
  13. ^ It does not have separate membership in the EGP because it is a part of the Irish Green Party.
  14. ^ Northern Irish seats in the House of Commons.
  15. ^ Catalan seats in the Congress of Deputies.
  16. ^ Full member from 1994 to 2016. Downgraded to associate member in 2016.
  17. ^ The Irish Green Party operates also in Northern Ireland as the "Green Party in Northern Ireland". The Northern Irish party is separately listed in this table although it does not have separate membership in the EGP.
  18. ^ Esquerra Verda is member party of Catalunya en Comú.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  2. ^ History of the European Green Party at greens-efa.eu
  3. ^ a b History of the European Green Parts at europeangreens.eu
  4. ^ [1] Local Councillors Network
  5. ^ "Directory". Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  6. ^ "Results of the 2014 European elections – European Parliament". results-elections2014.eu. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  7. ^ "Statutes of the European Green Party" (PDF). europeangreens.eu. 20 May 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  8. ^ "EGP Rule Book" (PDF). europeangreens.eu.
  9. ^ "2018: Val till riksdagen – Valda" (in Swedish). Valmyndigheten. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Member Parties". European Greens.
  11. ^ "Search". Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  12. ^ "Green Russia".
  13. ^ a b In a coalition with Yes, Bulgaria! and Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria as Democratic Bulgaria
  14. ^ with SYPOL
  15. ^ Parties included in the coalition are the Democratic Left Alliance (since 16 February), The Greens (since 17 February), Now! (since 18 February), Civic Platform (since 21 February), Modern, Democratic Party (since 22 February), Polish People's Party, Union of European Democrats (since 23 February), Social Democracy of Poland (since 2 March), Liberty and Equality (since 3 March), League of Polish Families (since 11 March) and Feminist Initiative (since 15 March). The Coalition also gained the support from Barbara Nowacka and her movement, the Polish Initiative and civic organisation Committee for the Defence of Democracy. The Coalition came in second place in the 2019 European Parliament election with 38.5% of the vote, returning 22 MEPs.
  16. ^ The party participate in the 2019 Polish parliamentary election as part of the Civic Coalition.
  17. ^ a b These are the results for Unitary Democratic Coalition.
  18. ^ a b On 2 July 2020, former ICV members announced the founding of a new party and that it would be part of the En Comú Podem, with David Cid, Marta Ribas and Ernest Urtasun being members of the new party.

External linksEdit