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Eurasianism (Russian: евразийство, yevraziystvo) is a political movement in Russia, formerly within the primarily Russian émigré community, that posits that Russian civilisation does not belong in the "European" or "Asian" categories but instead to the geopolitical concept of Eurasia. Originally developing in the 1920s, the movement was supportive of the Bolshevik Revolution but not its stated goals of enacting communism, seeing the Soviet Union as a stepping stone on the path to creating a new national identity that would reflect the unique character of Russia's geopolitical position. The movement saw a minor resurgence after the collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of the 20th century, and is mirrored by Turanism in Turkic and Uralic nations.
- 1 Theoretical Eurasianism
- 2 Practical Eurasianism
- 3 Turkish flavour
- 4 In literature
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Sources
- 8 External links
Early 20th centuryEdit
Eurasianism is a political movement that has its origins in the Russian émigré community in the 1920s. The movement posited that Russian civilization does not belong in the "European" category (somewhat borrowing from Slavophile ideas of Konstantin Leontyev), and that the October Revolution of the Bolsheviks was a necessary reaction to the rapid modernization of Russian society. The Eurasianists believed that the Soviet regime was capable of evolving into a new national, non-European Orthodox Christian government, shedding the initial mask of proletarian internationalism and militant atheism (to which the Eurasianists were strongly opposed).
The Eurasianists criticized the anti-Bolshevik activities of organizations such as ROVS, believing that the émigré community's energies would be better focused on preparing for this hoped for process of evolution. In turn, their opponents among the emigres argued that the Eurasianists were calling for a compromise with and even support of the Soviet regime, while justifying its ruthless policies (such as the persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church) as mere "transitory problems" that were inevitable results of the revolutionary process.
The key leaders of the Eurasianists were Prince Nikolai Trubetzkoy, P.N. Savitsky, P.P. Suvchinskiy, D. S. Mirsky, K. Čcheidze, P. Arapov, and S. Efron. Philosopher Georges Florovsky was initially a supporter, but backed out of the organization claiming it "raises the right questions", but "poses the wrong answers". A significant influence of the doctrine of the Eurasianists can be found in Nikolai Berdyaev's essay The Sources and Meaning of Russian Communism.
Several members of the Eurasianists were affected by the Soviet provocational TREST operation, which had set up a fake meeting of Eurasianists in Russia that was attended by the Eurasianist leader P.N. Savitsky in 1926 (an earlier series of trips were also made two years earlier by Eurasianist member P. Arapov). The uncovering of the TREST as a Soviet provocation caused a serious morale blow to the Eurasianists and discredited their public image. By 1929, the Eurasianists had ceased publishing their periodical and had faded quickly from the Russian émigré community.
The political-cultural concept espoused by some in Russia is sometimes called the Greater Russia and is described as a political aspiration of pan-Russian nationalists and irredentists to retake some or all of the territories of the other republics of the former Soviet Union and territory of the former Russian Empire not to mention the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and amalgamate them into a single Russian state. Alexander Rutskoy, the Vice President of Russia from 1991–1993, asserted irredentist claims to Narva in Estonia, Crimea in Ukraine, and Ust-Kamenogorsk in Kazakhstan, among other territories.
Before war broke out between Russia and Georgia in 2008, Aleksandr Dugin visited South Ossetia and predicted: "Our troops will occupy the Georgian capital Tbilisi, the entire country, and perhaps even Ukraine and the Crimean Peninsula, which is historically part of Russia, anyway." Former South Ossetian president Eduard Kokoity is a Eurasianist and argues that South Ossetia never left the Russian Empire and should be part of Russia.
Neo-Eurasianism (Russian: неоевразийство) is a Russian school of thought which gained a following in Russia during the years leading up to the collapse of the Soviet Union and in the period afterwards that considers Russia to be culturally closer to Asia than to Western Europe.
The school of thought takes its inspiration from the Eurasianists of the 1920s, such as Prince Nikolai Trubetzkoy while P.N. Savitsky. Lev Gumilev is often cited as the founder of the Neo-Eurasianist movement, and he was quoted as saying that "I am the last of the Eurasianists."
At the same time, major differences have been noted between Gumilev's work and those of the original Eurasianists. Gumilev's work is controversial for its scientific methodology (the use of his own conception of ethnogenesis and the notion of "passionarity" of ethnoses). At any rate, Gumilev's work has been a source of inspiration for the Neo-Eurasianist authors, of whom Aleksandr Dugin has the highest profile.
Gumilev's contribution to Neo-Eurasianism lies in the conclusions he reaches from applying his theory of ethnogenesis: that the Mongol occupation of 1240–1480 AD (known as the "Mongol yoke") had shielded the emergent Russian ethnos from the aggressive neighbor to the West,[who?] allowing it to gain time to achieve maturity. The idea of Eurasianism contrasts with Konstantin Leontyev's Byzantism, which is similar in its rejection of the West, but identifies with the Byzantine Empire rather than with Central Asian tribal culture.
Early 21st century Russian political partyEdit
The ideology of the movement was partially incorporated into a new movement of the same name after the 1991 fall of the Soviet Union, influenced the political theorist Aleksandr Dugin to publish in 1997 a magnum opus by the name of Foundations of Geopolitics. He later founded the Eurasia Party on the Russian political scene.
Eurasian Economic UnionEdit
The Eurasian Economic Union was founded in January 2015, consisting of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and observer member Moldova, all of them being previous members of the Soviet Union. Members include states from both Europe and Asia; the union promotes political and economic cooperation among members.
The BRIC idea, minus the B, is also relevant here because it shows that 21st-century Russia and China can co-operate on a tangible economic basis, whereas previous Sino-Soviet efforts were stillborn. BRIC is a grouping acronym referring to the countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China, deemed to be developing countries at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, on their way to becoming developed countries. It is typically rendered as "the BRICs" or "the BRIC countries" or "the BRIC economies" or alternatively as the "Big Four". A related acronym, BRICS, adds South Africa. Indonesia is sometimes suggested to be included on the basis that it is in a similar situation.
The term was coined by Jim O'Neill in 2001 as an acronym for four countries that were all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, but in 2009 the leaders of BRIC countries made the first summit and in 2010 BRIC became a formal institution. South Africa began efforts to join the BRIC grouping and on December 24, 2010, was invited to join BRICS. The original aim of BRIC was the establishment of an equitable, democratic and multi-polar world order, but later BRIC became a political organization, especially after South Africa joined.
The BRIC idea later was supplanted by the BRICS nations, with the addition of South Africa. The BRICS have a bank, which was eponymously named until recently. Sometime around 2015, it was renamed the New Development Bank and bestowed $100 billion dollars.
The Greek poet, Turkologist and Sinologist, Professor of International Relations and Geopolitics Dimitri Kitsikis, was involved in promotion of Turkish–Greek friendship and eurasianist historiosophy and geopolitical concepts.
The political activist Silviu Brucan, was involved in shaping eurasianism as a geopolitical concept, with articles focused on Russian politics that were published in a monthly magazine called Sfera Politicii.
Since the late 1990s, Eurasianism has gained some following in Turkey among nationalist (ulusalcı (tr)) circles. The most prominent figure who is associated with Dugin is Doğu Perinçek, the leader of the Patriotic Party (Vatan Partisi). Some analysts of modern Turkish politics have suggested that the ultra-nationalist and secular elite that are also affiliated with the members of the Turkish military, who have come under close scrutiny with the Ergenekon coup case, have close ideological and political ties to the Eurasianists.
- Chapman, Thomas; Roeder, Philip G. (November 2007). "Partition as a Solution to Wars of Nationalism: The Importance of Institutions". American Political Science Review. 101 (4): 680. doi:10.1017/s0003055407070438.
- "Road to War in Georgia: The Chronicle of a Caucasian Tragedy", Spiegel, August 25, 2008.
- Neo-Eurasianist Aleksandr Dugin on the Russia-Georgia Conflict, CACI Analyst, September 3, 2008.
- Laruelle, Marlène "Histoire d'une usurpation intellectuelle: Gumilev, 'le dernier des eurasistes'? (analyse des oppositions entre L.N. Gumilev et P.N. Savickij" in Sergei Panarin (ed.) Eurasia: People & Myths, Moscow, Natalis Press, 1993 (Russian lang.)
- Prokurat, Sergiusz; Fabisiak, Jan (2012), The BRIICs and inequality: income inequality trends in major emerging markets and their implications (PDF), Rzeszów: "Nierówności społeczne a wzrost gospodarczy" Vol. 26, pp. 122–135, ISBN 978-83-62753-53-6, archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-16, retrieved 5 August 2016 Cite uses deprecated parameter
O'Neill, Jim (30 November 2001). Building Better Global Economic BRICs, Global Economics Paper No: 66 (PDF). Goldman Sachs. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2015-02-09. Cite uses deprecated parameter
2=Jim O'Neill; Dominic Wilson; Roopa Purushothaman; Anna Stupnytska (1 December 2005). How Solid are the BRICs? (Global Economics Paper No: 134) (PDF). Goldman Sachs Economic Research. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-07-29. Retrieved 2014-07-28. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Global Economics Paper No. 99, Dreaming with BRICs Archived 2008-10-26 at the Wayback Machine
"Another BRIC in the wall". The Economist. 21 April 2008. Archived from the original on 2015-02-09. Retrieved 2014-07-28. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Halpin, Tony, "Brazil, Russia, India and China form bloc to challenge US dominance" Archived 2011-09-02 at the Wayback Machine, The Times, 17 June 2009.
Graceffo, Antonio (21 January 2011). "BRIC Becomes BRICS: Changes on the Geopolitical hessboard". Foreign Policy Journal. Archived from the original on 2011-01-26. Retrieved 14 April 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
"New era as South Africa joins BRICS". SouthAfrica.info. Archived from the original on 2011-04-18. Retrieved 2012-06-19. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Giorgios K. Filis – Russia and Turkey in the Geopolitics of Eurasia & Theory of Median Space
- Evelyne Pieiller, "Hungary Looks to the Past for Its Future," Le Monde Diplomatique, English ed. November, 2016. http://mondediplo.com/2016/11/10hungary
- Brucan, Silviu. "Geopolitics and Strategy" (PDF). sferapoliticii.ro. Sfera Politicii. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- Mehmet Ulusoy: "Rusya, Dugin ve‚ Türkiye’nin Avrasyacılık stratejisi" Aydınlık Dec. 5 2004, pp. 10–16
-  Archived 2011-08-01 at the Wayback Machine Emre Uslu: Turkish military: a source of anti-Americanism in Turkey. Today's Zaman, July 31, 2011.
- The Mission of Russian Emigration, M.V. Nazarov. Moscow: Rodnik, 1994. ISBN 5-86231-172-6
- Russia Abroad: A comprehensive guide to Russian Emigration after 1917 also some Ustrialov's papers in the Library
- The criticism towards the West and the future of Russia-Eurasia
- Laruelle, Marlene, ed. (2015). Eurasianism and the European Far Right: Reshaping the Europe–Russia Relationship. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-1-4985-1068-4.
- Stefan Wiederkehr, Die eurasische Bewegung. Wissenschaft und Politik in der russischen Emigration der Zwischenkriegszeit und im postsowjetischen Russland (Köln u.a., Böhlau 2007) (Beiträge zur Geschichte Osteuropas, 39).