Pavel Sergeyevich Grachev (Russian: Па́вел Серге́евич Грачё́в; 1 January 1948 – 23 September 2012), sometimes transliterated as Grachov or Grachyov, was a Russian Army General and the Defence Minister of the Russian Federation from 1992 to 1996; in 1988 he was awarded Hero of the Soviet Union gold star. As Defence Minister, Grachev gained notoriety because of his military incompetence displayed during the First Chechen War and the persistent allegations of involvement in enormous corruption scandals.
|Minister of Defence|
18 May 1992 – 17 July 1996
|Prime Minister||Boris Yeltsin|
Yegor Gaidar (acting)
|Preceded by||Boris Yeltsin (acting)|
|Succeeded by||Mikhail Kolesnikov (acting)|
|Born||1 January 1948|
Rvy, Tula Oblast, RSFSR, USSR
|Died||23 September 2012 (aged 64)|
Krasnogorsk, Moscow Oblast, Russia
|Political party||CPSU (1969–91)|
|Awards||Hero of the Soviet Union|
|Allegiance|| Soviet Union|
|Branch/service||Russian Airborne Troops|
|Years of service||1965–1996|
General of the Army
|Commands||Soviet Airborne Troops |
Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
First Chechen War
Life and careerEdit
In the Soviet UnionEdit
Grachev, born in 1948 in Tula Oblast, RSFSR, joined the Soviet Army's airborne troops in 1965 and finished the Ryazan Guards Higher Airborne Command School. In 1972, he joined the Soviet Communist Party. After commanding parachute platoons, companies and battalions in the 1970s, he attended the Frunze Military Academy and the General Staff Academy, graduating in 1981. During the Soviet–Afghan War, Grachev commanded the 345th Independent Guards Airborne Regiment from 1982 to 1983, and was in command of the 103rd Guards Airborne Division in Afghanistan in the last years of the Soviet involvement from 1985 to 1988.
In December 1990, he was appointed commander of the Soviet airborne troops. In August/December 1991, Grachev became the Soviet Union's First Deputy Minister of Defence during its break-up.
In the Russian FederationEdit
For a period of time, in the early-to-mid-1990s, Grachev was a close friend of the President of Russia Boris Yeltsin, and held the post of the Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation from May 1992 to June 1996. Grachev took part in the Soviet coup attempt of 1991 and the events of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, during which he supported Yeltsin. In November 1994 Yeltsin called Grachev "the best defense minister of the decade."
In late 1994 through 1996, Grachev played a key role in initiating and leading the First Chechen War. He was one of authors of the idea to use force to "restore constitutional order" in the breakaway republic of Chechnya and publicly promised to swiftly crush the Chechen separatist forces "in a couple of hours with a single airborne regiment." He was rumoured to have launched the disastrous storming of Grozny while drunk during the celebrations of his 1 January birthday. As TIME commented in 1995: "Grachev had remarked recently that only an 'incompetent commander' would order tanks into the streets of central Grozny, where they would be vulnerable (...) Yet at the end of December he did it." Eventually, in July 1996, following his re-election, Yeltsin sacked the disgraced Grachev. The First Chechen War soon ended with more than 100,000 soldiers and civilians having lost their lives.
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Grachev was accused of being personally involved in major military corruption scandals, which was not proven in court, that occurred during the withdrawal of the Soviet troops from East Germany. The alleged corruption, which gained Grachev the nickname of "Pasha Mercedes", was the focus of a series of articles published by the investigative journalist Dmitry Kholodov. Four of Grachev's airborne officers and two others were tried in the murder of Kholodov but were later acquitted.
The archival footage of Grachev saying "tank regiments are commanded by total idiots; you send in the infantry first, then the tanks" is shown on TV in the 2002 film House of Fools.
- "Russian Crisis: The main players: General Grachev". The Independent. 4 October 1993. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- Грачёв Павел Сергеевич [Grachev Pavel Sergeyevich]. www.warheroes.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 25 December 2015.
- War Scare: Russia and America on the Nuclear Brink by Peter Vincent Pry.
- The War in Chechnya: Implications for Military Reform and Creation of Mobile Forces Archived 12 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Botched operation. (Russian troops in Chechnya) (Editorial), The Nation, January 1995.
- Why the Russian Military Failed in Chechnya Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Foreign Military Studies Office, December 1996.
- Grozny rebels braced for final assault, The Independent, 13 January 1996.
- Why It All Went So Very Wrong, TIME, 16 January 1995.
- (in Russian) Экс-министр обороны Павел Грачев, уволен сегодня с должности советника гендиректора «Рособоронэкспорта», которую он занимал на протяжении последних 10-ти лет., Ekho Moskvy, 25.04.2007.
- Названа причина смерти экс-министра обороны Павла Грачева (in Russian). Interfax. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Pavel Grachev, Yeltsin-Era Defense Minister, Dead At 64". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pavel Grachev|
- Grachev: Here for a While, The Moscow Times, 13 July 1995.
- Pavel Grachev: Disgraced but Indispensable, The Jamestown Foundation, 3 May 1996.
- Pavel Grachev, RusNet, 03.12.2003.
Boris Yeltsin (acting)
| Defence Minister of the Russian Federation