Salekhard

Salekhard (Russian: Салеха́рд; Khanty: Пуӆңават, Pułñawat; Nenets: Саляʼ харад, Salja’ harad) is a town in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia, serving as the okrug's administrative centre. It crosses the Arctic Circle, the main parts being about 1 kilometer (0.62 mi) south and suburbs stretching to the north of the circle.

Salekhard

Салехард
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug National Library
Flag of Salekhard
Flag
Coat of arms of Salekhard
Coat of arms
Location of Salekhard
Salekhard is located in Russia
Salekhard
Salekhard
Location of Salekhard
Salekhard is located in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
Salekhard
Salekhard
Salekhard (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug)
Coordinates: 66°32′N 66°36′E / 66.533°N 66.600°E / 66.533; 66.600Coordinates: 66°32′N 66°36′E / 66.533°N 66.600°E / 66.533; 66.600
CountryRussia
Federal subjectYamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug[1]
Founded1595
Town status since1938
Government
 • MayorAlexander Spirin
Area
 • Total84.50 km2 (32.63 sq mi)
Elevation
15 m (49 ft)
Population
 • Total42,544
 • Estimate 
(2018)
49 214
 • Density500/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
 • Subordinated totown of okrug significance of Salekhard[1]
 • Capital ofYamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug[1], town of okrug significance of Salekhard[1]
 • Urban okrugSalekhard Urban Okrug[3]
 • Capital ofSalekhard Urban Okrug[3]
Time zoneUTC+5 (MSK+2 Edit this on Wikidata[4])
Postal code(s)[5]
629000
Dialing code(s)+7 34922[6]
OKTMO ID71951000001
Websitewww.salekhard.org

HistoryEdit

The settlement of Obdorsk (Обдорск) was founded in 1595, in the place of a Khanty settlement called Polnovat-Vozh (Полноват-вож), by Russian settlers after the conquest of Siberia.[citation needed] It was situated on the Ob River, and its name supposedly derives from that. The land around Obdorsk was referred to as Obdorsky krai, or Obdoriya.

The town was often used as a place of exile during the Tsarist and Soviet periods. Among notable people who spent time here were the Doukhobor spiritual leader Pyotr Verigin and Leon Trotsky. The town and nearby area contained three Soviet camps where approximately 6,500 prisoners were held, arrested for their belief in God.[7] At the port of Salekhard, approximately 1,500 prisoners loaded and unloaded goods at the dock, or mined metal ores. About 5,000 prisoners in two camps near Salekhard were assigned to polish diamonds mined from Mir mine.

On December 10, 1930, Obdorsk became the administrative centre of the new Yamal (Nenets) National Okrug. The settlement was renamed Salekhard (from the Nenets "salja' harad", meaning "house on the peninsula") in 1933, and granted town status in 1938.[citation needed]

The nearest railway station is at Labytnangi on the opposite side of the river Ob. From 1949 to 1953, the Salekhard-Igarka Railway project made an unsuccessful attempt to extend the line to Igarka, claiming the lives of thousands of Gulag prisoners.[8] The section of railway from Salekhard to Nadym was completed and remained in use for some time in the Soviet era, although it was later abandoned. It is currently[when?] being rebuilt, along with a long-awaited bridge across the Ob between Labytnangi and Salekhard.

Salekhard was the host city for the 2006 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting in October 2006.[9]

In April 2014, Rostelecom, a Russian Internet service provider, completed the final stretch of the Nadym-Salekhard optical internet line. That same line stretches for almost 3,500 km (2175 mi).[10]

In summer 2016, after temperatures as high as 95 °F (35 °C) thawed anthrax infected corpses frozen since 1941 near Salekhard, anthrax spores infected reindeer herds and herders.[11]

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

 
administrative unit of Salekhard

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one rural locality, incorporated as the town of okrug significance of Salekhard—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the town of okrug significance of Salekhard is incorporated as Salekhard Urban Okrug.[3]

DemographicsEdit

Ethnic composition (2010):[12]

EconomyEdit

Yamal Airlines has its head office in Salekhard.[13]

By 2015, about 3 kilometres (1.9 miles) from the airport, near the Arctic circle, authorities plan to build a large polar resort "Center of the Arctic tourism."

TransportationEdit

Salekhard is located in the Ob river valley and is an important river port of the Russian Far North. The unfinished Salekhard–Igarka Railway was set to provide a rail connection between the Ob river port of Salekhard and the Yenisei river port of Igarka. Currently, the nearest railway is at Labytnangi (on the Salekhard–Igarka Railway), 20 kilometres (12 miles) north-west on the opposite side of the river Ob. The project Northern Latitudinal Railway will provide Salekhard access to railway and a long-awaited bridge across the Ob between Labytnangi and Salekhard, and will further connect Salekhard to the Konosha-Vorkuta railway and other parts of European Russia.[14] For 9–10 months of year, the river is frozen and cars and trucks can cross via the river ice. In the summer a ferry operates, however during the floating of ice, generally shortly before the start and shortly after the end of summer, Salekhard is effectively cut off from the outside world, regarding freight. During these periods, only helicopters are able to reach Salekhard in case of emergency. Native people, mainly the Nenets and Khanty people, always build up stocks of food at home, in the shops, and in the markets during this period, but they still suffer from seasonal price increasing.[15] The city is also served by the Salekhard Airport which is located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north of the main city.

ClimateEdit

Salekhard has a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc) with short, mild summers and severely cold winters. Precipitation is moderate, and is significantly greater in summer than in winter.

Climate data for Salekhard
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
3.3
(37.9)
5.7
(42.3)
15.5
(59.9)
24.5
(76.1)
31.6
(88.9)
32.9
(91.2)
29.9
(85.8)
24.8
(76.6)
18.2
(64.8)
7.0
(44.6)
4.1
(39.4)
32.9
(91.2)
Mean maximum °C (°F) −2
(28)
−3
(27)
1
(34)
8
(46)
18
(64)
24
(75)
26
(79)
22
(72)
16
(61)
11
(52)
3
(37)
0
(32)
27
(81)
Average high °C (°F) −18.8
(−1.8)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−9.9
(14.2)
−4
(25)
3.7
(38.7)
14.3
(57.7)
19.7
(67.5)
15.7
(60.3)
8.8
(47.8)
−0.2
(31.6)
−11.3
(11.7)
−16.2
(2.8)
−1.4
(29.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −23.2
(−9.8)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−14.9
(5.2)
−9.1
(15.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
9.5
(49.1)
14.8
(58.6)
11.4
(52.5)
5.3
(41.5)
−3.0
(26.6)
−15.3
(4.5)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−5.7
(21.7)
Average low °C (°F) −27.8
(−18.0)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−19.9
(−3.8)
−14
(7)
−4.2
(24.4)
5.2
(41.4)
10.0
(50.0)
7.3
(45.1)
2.2
(36.0)
−6
(21)
−19.5
(−3.1)
−25.2
(−13.4)
−9.9
(14.1)
Mean minimum °C (°F) −33
(−27)
−32
(−26)
−30
(−22)
−21
(−6)
−9
(16)
−2
(28)
4
(39)
2
(36)
−3
(27)
−18
(0)
−26
(−15)
−31
(−24)
−36
(−33)
Record low °C (°F) −51.3
(−60.3)
−53.7
(−64.7)
−47.4
(−53.3)
−38.7
(−37.7)
−30.8
(−23.4)
−11
(12)
−1
(30)
−5.5
(22.1)
−9.6
(14.7)
−35.7
(−32.3)
−47.1
(−52.8)
−51.5
(−60.7)
−53.7
(−64.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 23
(0.9)
19
(0.7)
21
(0.8)
26
(1.0)
37
(1.5)
51
(2.0)
65
(2.6)
69
(2.7)
42
(1.7)
46
(1.8)
28
(1.1)
27
(1.1)
454
(17.9)
Average rainy days 0.1 0 0.5 3 10 17 18 21 20 9 1 0 99.6
Average snowy days 26 23 23 16 13 2 0 0 3 17 24 27 174
Average relative humidity (%) 83 82 81 78 77 70 72 79 82 86 85 83 80
Mean monthly sunshine hours 4.0 48.0 135.0 209.0 233.0 270.0 307.0 185.0 96.0 57.0 18.0 0.0 1,562
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[16]
Source 2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)[17]

GalleryEdit

International relationsEdit

Twin towns and sister citiesEdit

Salekhard is twinned with:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Law #42-ZAO
  2. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. ^ a b c Law #26-ZAO
  4. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  5. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  6. ^ Телефонные коды городов (in Russian). Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  7. ^ Thomas, George. "Stalin's 'Railroad of Death' Witnesses Revival". CBN News. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
  8. ^ Gonzales, Daria (June 7, 2012). "A living city among dead roads". RBTH. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  9. ^ http://library.arcticportal.org/290/
  10. ^ "Rostelecom to expand network in Yamal". www.telecompaper.com. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  11. ^ Alec Luhn (August 1, 2016). "Anthrax outbreak triggered by climate change kills boy in Arctic Circle Seventy-two nomadic herders, including 41 children, were hospitalised in far north Russia after the region began experiencing abnormally high temperatures". The Guardian. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
  12. ^ "ВПН том 4. Таблица 4. Население по национальности и владению русским языком по муниципальным образованиям Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа" (PDF). Yamalstat. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
  13. ^ Yamal Airlines. Retrieved on February 27, 2012.
  14. ^ Ямальская дорога в зеркале мнений — Парламентская газета «Тюменские известия». old.t-i.ru. Проверено 5 марта 2016.
  15. ^ 2010/2011 visitor Любовь
  16. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net - Climate Data for Salekhard" (in Russian). Retrieved May 16, 2015.
  17. ^ "Salekhard Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 18, 2013.

SourcesEdit

  • Государственная Дума Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа. Закон №42-ЗАО от 6 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа», в ред. Закона №123-ЗАО от 6 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Законы Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа в части изменения вида населённого пункт Тазовский путём отнесения его к сельским пунктам и наделении муниципального образования посёлок Тазовский статусом сельского поселения». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №119, 13 октября 2006 г. (State Duma of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Law #42-ZAO of October 6, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #123-ZAO of December 6, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Due to Changing the Status of the Inhabited Locality of Tazovsky to a Rural Locality and on Granting the Municipal Formation of the Settlement of Tazovsky the Status of a Rural Settlement. Effective as of the day upon expiration of ten days from the official publication date.).
  • Государственная Дума Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа. Закон №26-ЗАО от 22 июня 2004 г. «О наделении статусом, определении административного центра и установлении границ муниципального образования город Салехард», в ред. Закона №100-ЗАО от 31 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа "О наделении статусом, определении административного центра и установлении границ муниципального образования город Салехард"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №50, 23 июня 2004 г. (State Duma of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Law #26-ZAO of June 22, 2004 On Granting the Status, Determining the Administrative Center, and Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Salkhard, as amended by the Law #100-ZAO of October 31, 2012 On Amending the Law of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug "On Granting the Status, Determining the Administrative Center, and Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Salkhard". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External linksEdit