Tula (Russian: Тула; IPA: [ˈtulə]) is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, Russia, located 193 kilometers (120 mi) south of Moscow, on the Upa River. Population: 501,169 (2010 Census); 481,216 (2002 Census); 539,980 (1989 Census).
|Tula (in English)
|- City -|
Location of Tula Oblast in Russia
|Administrative status (as of June 2014)|
|Federal subject||Tula Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|Administrative center of||Tula Oblast, Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|Municipal status (as of June 2014)|
|Urban okrug||Tula Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Tula Urban Okrug|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Area||153.52 km2 (59.27 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||501,169 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||37th|
|Density||3,265/km2 (8,460/sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|First mentioned||1146 (disputed)|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 4872|
|Tula on Wikimedia Commons|
The name of the city is of pre-Russian, probably Baltic, origin.
In the Middle Ages, Tula was a minor fortress at the border of the Principality of Ryazan. As soon as it passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a brick citadel, or kremlin, was constructed in 1514–1521. It was a key fortress of the Great Abatis Belt and successfully resisted a siege by the Tatars in 1552. In 1607, Ivan Bolotnikov and his supporters seized the citadel and withstood a four-months siege by the Tsar's army. In the 18th century, some parts of the kremlin walls were demolished. Despite its archaic appearance, the five-domed Assumption Cathedral in the kremlin was built as late as 1764.
In 1712, Tula was visited by Peter the Great, who commissioned the Demidov blacksmiths to build the first armament factory in Russia. Several decades later, Tula was turned by the Demidovs into the greatest ironworking center of Eastern Europe. The oldest museum in the city, showcasing the history of weapons, was inaugurated by the Demidovs in 1724, and Nicholas-Zaretsky Church in the city houses their family vault. The first factory to produce samovars industrially was also established there in the course of the 18th century. After the Demidovs moved the center of their manufacture to the Urals, Tula continued as a center of heavy industry, particularly in the manufacture of matériel.
The city grew rapidly in the early 20th century as a result of arms production during the 1905 Russo-Japanese War and World War I. Tula's factories also manufactured weapons for the Red Army during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1921.
During the Great Patriotic War (World War II) of 1941–1945, the city was important in the production of armaments. Tula became the target of a German offensive to break Soviet resistance in the Moscow area between October 24 and December 5, 1941. The heavily fortified city held out, however, and Guderian's Second Panzer Army was stopped near Tula. The city secured the southern flank during the Battle of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive. Tula was awarded the title Hero City in 1976. It is home to the Klokovo air base and the Tula Arms Plant.
Administrative and municipal statusEdit
Tula serves as the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the territories of Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction and of Leninsky District are incorporated as Tula Urban Okrug.
- Sergey Kazakov (1997–2005)
- Vladimir Mogilnikov (2005–2010)
- Alisa Tolkachyova (2010–2011)
- Yevgeny Avilov (2011–2012)
- Aleksandr Prokopuk (2012-2014)
- Yuri Tskipuri (2014–present)
For more than four centuries Tula has been known as a center of crafts and metalworking. Tula is a developed industrial center. Importance in the industrial structure of Tula are metallurgy, machinery and metal with a high share of the military-industrial complex and food manufacturing.
A musical instrument, the Tula accordion, is named after the city, which is a center of manufacture for such instruments sold throughout Russia and the world. Tula is also renowned for traditional Russian pryaniki (gingerbread), cookies made with honey and spices (see Tula gingerbread). In the West, Tula is perhaps best known as the center of samovar production: the Russian equivalent of "coals to Newcastle" is "You don't take a samovar to Tula". (The saying is falsely ascribed to the writer and playwright Anton Chekhov, whose made a satirical portrait of one of his characters saying "Taking your wife to Paris is the same as taking your own samovar to Tula".)
The most popular tourist attraction in Tula Oblast is Yasnaya Polyana, the home and burial place of the writer Leo Tolstoy. It is situated 14 kilometres (9 miles) south-west of the city. It was here that Tolstoy wrote his celebrated novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina.
Tula is home to:
Since 1867, there has been a railway connection between Tula and Moscow. Tula is a major railway junction with trains to Moscow, Oryol, Kursk and Kaluga. The Moscow to Simferopol M2 motorway runs past the city. City transport is provided by trams, trolleybuses, buses, and marshrutkas. Tula trams, trolleybuses, and bus routes are operated by "Tulgorelectrotrans" (Tula city electrotransport company).
Most of Tula's churches are Russian Orthodox churches. Next in number are Protestants and Catholics. Non-Christian organizations that are present include Muslims, Jews, Hare Krishna, Buddhists and Taoists.
All Orthodox organizations in Tula and the Tula Oblast are included in the Diocese of Tula and Yefremov. Among the Tula Orthodox churches should be mentioned Saints Cathedral (1776-1800), the oldest church in Tula - Annunciation (1692) and the Assumption Cathedral of the Tula Kremlin (1762-1764). In Tula also Old Believers' community services which are performed in the church of St. John Chrysostom.
In Tula there is the only Catholic church in the area, the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul. Since the 1990s, Tula has several Protestant denominations, the largest church of which is a Baptist church with a prayer house in Tula. Representatives of other Protestant churches in Tula are Seventh-day Adventists, Presbyterians (Church of the Holy Trinity, The Glorious Jesus the Lord, the Good News), Pentecostals (Tula Christian Center, Church of the New Testament) and other evangelical churches (Word of Life, the Vine Gypsy Church).
Also the city has a synagogue and the Jewish Community House.
- Leonid Bobylev (born 1949), composer
- German Galynin (1922–1966), composer
- Vladimir Mashkov (born 1963), theater and film actor and director
- Vyacheslav Nevinny (1934–2009), theater and film actor
- Maria Ouspenskaya (1876–1949), actress and acting teacher
- Vsevolod Sanayev (1912–1996), theater and film actor, acting teacher
- Gleb Uspensky (1843–1901), writer
- Vikenty Veresaev (1867–1945), writer
- Alexey Vorobyov (born 1988), singer, actor and model
- Vyacheslav Dudka (born 1960), governor of Tula Oblast (2005–2011)
- Vladimir Ivanov (1893–1938), Soviet politician
- Vladimir Bazarov (1874–1939), philosopher and economist
- Vasily Degtyaryov (1880–1949), weapons engineer
- Valery Legasov (1936–1988), inorganic chemist
- Valery Polyakov (born 1942), cosmonaut
- Ivan Sakharov (1807–1863), folklorist, ethnographer
- Petr Sushkin (1868–1928), ornithologist
- Sergei Tokarev (1899–1985), historian, ethnographer
- Alexander Kotov (1913–1981), chess player, international grandmaster, SSSR champion, author, mechanical engineer
- Ksenia Afanasyeva (born 1991), Olympic artistic gymnast, world and European champion
- Ekaterina Gnidenko (born 1992), track cyclist
- Yevgeny Grishin (1931–2005), speedskater, Olympic and European champion
- Oksana Grishina (born 1968), track cyclist
- Irina Kirillova (born 1965), volleyball player, Olympic, world and European champion
- Sergei Kopylov (born 1960), racing cyclist
- Viktor Kudriavtsev (born 1937), figure skating coach
- Andrey Kuznetsov (born 1991), tennis player
- Vladimir Leonov (born 1937), cyclist
- Valentina Maksimova (born 1937), track cyclist
- Ihor Nadein (1948–2014), football player and coach
- Yelena Posevina(born 1986), rhythmic gymnast, Olympic, world and European champion
- Evgeniya Romanyuta (born 1988), racing cyclist, European champion
- Anastasia Voynova (born 1993), racing cyclist, world and European champion
|Climate data for Tula|
|Record high °C (°F)||7.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−4.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−6.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−9.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−34.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||42
|Average rainy days||5||5||6||12||13||16||15||13||13||15||12||6||131|
|Average snowy days||21||22||15||4||0.2||0||0||0||0.3||4||13||21||101|
|Average relative humidity (%)||85||82||76||67||64||70||72||74||78||82||86||86||77|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||37.2||72.8||142.6||207.0||285.2||279.0||294.5||279.0||180.0||93.0||36.0||31.0||1,937.3|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: Climatebase (sun, 1959–2011)|
Twin towns and sister citiesEdit
- Law #954-ZTO
- Law #553-ZTO
- Official website of the Tula City Duma (in Russian)
- Генеральный план города Тулы
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Tokarev, Kirill (4 October 2011). "Tula: Loved by Tolstoy, hated by Lenin". Russia & India Report. Russia Beyond the Headlines. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- Почтовые индексы России
- Деловой город: Телефонный код Тулы
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва: Русские словари, 1998, p. 423: "The earliest etymologies derived the place name from Russian dialectal tulá 'hidden, unreachable place'... The pre-Russian origin of the name of the river and town is no longer doubted [Maiorova 1985].... Since the name of the river Upa is certainly Baltic..., its tributary *Tula [the presumed earlier form of Tulitsa] may also be of Baltic origin, which is supported by a series of parallels in Lithuanian toponymy: the river Tule, the Tulis swamp, the Tulyte field, the meadow Tulejos, the valley Tulija, etc. [Vanagas, 1981]; the meaning of these toponyms is not entirely clear...."
- "Тула". Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Moscow.
- Biggart, John (1989). Alexander Bogdanov, Left-Bolshevism and the Proletkult 1904–1932 (Ph.D.). University of East Anglia. OCLC 556500696.
- All rural localities included as a part of Tula Urban Okrug in Law #553-ZTO are listed as a part of Leninsky District in OKATO.
- Train Station in Tula (in Russian)
- Русский кулачный бой: "Tula's fighters were always glorious, but every place had its heroes."
- Сказания о русских народных играх "Tula's fighters were considered the best one on one."
- "Tula, Russia Köppen Climate Classification". Weatherbase. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Tula" (in Russian). Погода и климат. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
- "Tula Climate Normals". Climatebase. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
- "Всего три побратима Тулы осталось в мире". Tula.rfn.ru. 2005-04-29. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
- Тульская областная Дума. Закон №954-ЗТО от 27 декабря 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области», в ред. Закона №2131-ЗТО от 11 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тульской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области" и Закон Тульской области "Об установлении границ административно-территориальных единиц – районов в городе Туле"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Тульской областной Думы", №11–12(142–143), часть 4, ноябрь–декабрь 2007 г.. (Tula Oblast Duma. Law #954-ZTO of December 27, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tula Oblast, as amended by the Law #2131-ZTO of June 11, 2014 On Amending the Law of Tula Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tula Oblast" and the Law of Tula Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Administrative-Territorial Units–the Districts in the City of Tula". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication date.).
- Тульская областная Дума. Закон №553-ЗТО от 11 марта 2005 г. «О переименовании "муниципального образования город Тула Тульской области", установлении границы муниципального образования город Тула и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №2133-ЗТО от 11 июня 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории Ленинского района Тульской области, с муниципальным образованием город Тула, о внесении изменений в Закон Тульской области "О переименовании "муниципального образования город Тула Тульской области", установлении границы муниципального образования город Тула и наделении его статусом городского округа" и признании утратившими силу отдельных законодательных актов (положений законодательных актов) Тульской области». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тульские известия", №66–69, 22 марта 2005 г. (Tula Oblast Duma. Law #553-ZTO of March 11, 2005 On Renaming "Municipal Formation of the City of Tula of Tula Oblast", Establishing the Border of the Municipal Formation of the City of Tula, and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #2133-ZTO of June 11, 2014 On the Merger of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Leninsky District of Tula Oblast with the Municipal Formation of the City of Tula, on Amending the Law of Tula Oblast "On Renaming "Municipal Formation of the City of Tula of Tula Oblast", Establishing the Border of the Municipal Formation of the City of Tula, and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status", and on Abrogating Various Legislative Acts (Clauses of Legislative Acts) of Tula Oblast. Effective as of the day ten days after the official publication.).
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 71», в ред. изменения №275/2015 от 1 сентября 2015 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 71, as amended by the Amendment #275/2015 of September 1, 2015. ).