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A kremlin (Russian: кремль, tr. kreml’, IPA: [ˈkrʲemlʲ], "castle", or "citadel"[1]) is a major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities.[2] This word is often used to refer to the most famous, the Moscow Kremlin,[3] or metonymically to the government that is based there.[4]

The word is of Russian origin.[5][6][7][8] It is connected to other Slavic languages and to Turkic Kipchak languages.

The word may share the same root as kremen (кремень [krʲɪˈmʲenʲ], "flint").[9] Some kremlins in Russia are called detinets, as for example the Novgorod Kremlin.

Contents

Selected Russian cities with kremlinsEdit

World Heritage SitesEdit

IntactEdit

 
The bishop's residence in Rostov, sometimes called a kremlin

In ruinsEdit

Existing and unwalledEdit

Traces remainEdit

Modern imitationsEdit

[further explanation needed]

Kremlins outside the Russian FederationEdit

After the disintegrations of the Kievan Rus, the Russian Empire and the USSR, some fortresses considered Kremlin-type, remained beyond the borders of modern Russia. Some are listed below:

The same structure in Ukraine is called dytynets (Ukrainian: дитинець, from dytyna – child). The term has been in use since the 11th century. The term kremlin first appeared in 14th century in Russian territories, where it replaced dytynets.

Many Russian monasteries have been built in a fortress-like style similar to that of a kremlin. For a partial list, see Monasteries in Russia.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Pleshakov, Constantine (2006). Stalin's Folly: The Tragic First Ten Days of World War II on the Eastern Front. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 24. ISBN 0618773614.
  2. ^ G, Frank, Ben (2010-09-23). A Travel Guide to Jewish Russia & Ukraine. Pelican Publishing. p. 150. ISBN 9781455613281.
  3. ^ Shubin, Daniel H. (2004). A History of Russian Christianity, Vol. I: From the Earliest Years through Tsar Ivan IV. Algora Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 9780875862873.
  4. ^ Barcelona, Antonio; Benczes, Réka; Ibáñez, Francisco José Ruiz de Mendoza (2011). Defining Metonymy in Cognitive Linguistics: Towards a Consensus View. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 234. ISBN 9027223823.
  5. ^ "Кром — Кремник — Кремль - Архитектура - РУССКОЕ ВОСКРЕСЕНИЕ". www.voskres.ru. Retrieved 2018-09-25.
  6. ^ "kremlin | Origin and meaning of kremlin by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  7. ^ "The Russian Kremlins". Free Tour Saint Petersburg. 2016-01-13. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  8. ^ Thompson], [edited by Della (2009). Oxford essential Russian dictionary : Russian-English, English-Russian. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780199576432. OCLC 502676920.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Russian Etymological Dictionary by Max Vasmer

Further readingEdit

  • Воронин Н. Н. Владимир, Боголюбово, Суздаль, Юрьев-Польской. М.: Искусство, 1967.
  • Кирьянов И. А. Старинные крепости Нижегородского Поволжья. Горький: Горьк. книжн. изд., 1961.
  • Косточкин В. В. Русское оборонное зодчество конца XIII — начала XVI веков. М.: Издательство Академии наук, 1962.
  • Крадин Н. П. Русское деревянное оборонное зодчество". М.: Искусство, 1988.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Древние русские крепости. М.: Наука, 1965.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Зодчество Древней Руси. Л.: Наука, 1986.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Строительное производство Древней Руси (X—XIII вв.). СПб: Наука, СПб, 1994.
  • Сурмина И. О. Самые знаменитые крепости России. М.: Вече, 2002.
  • Тихомиров М. Н. Древнерусские города. М.: Гос. изд. полит. лит-ры, 1956.
  • Яковлев В. В. Эволюция долговременной фортификации. М.: Воениздат, 1931.

External linksEdit