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The T3 is a famous type of Czech tramcar produced by ČKD Tatra. Well-maintained tramcars of this type are very reliable, and a late-2000s study conducted on the Prague tram system has shown 98.9% reliability, the best of the Prague tram system fleet.[1] During its period of production, between 1960 and 1999, 13,991 powered units and 122 unpowered trailers were sold worldwide, it is the most widely produced tram car in the world.[2]

Tatra T3
Průvod tramvají 2015, 22a - tramvaj 7292.jpg
Tatra T3SUCS in Prague
Brno, vozovna Medlánky, Tatra T3 (01).jpg
Interior
In service1960 – present
ManufacturerČKD Tatra
AssemblyCzechoslovakia Prague
Family nameTatra
Constructed1962 – 1997
Entered service1960
Number built13945 + 131 bodies
PredecessorTatra T2
SuccessorTatra T6A5
Capacity110 / 95 (T3SU)
Specifications
Car length14,000 mm (45 ft 11 in)
Width2,500 mm (8 ft 2 38 in)
Height3,050 mm (10 ft 0 in)
Doors3 / 2 (T3SU)
Maximum speed65 km/h (40 mph)
Weight16,000 kg (35,000 lb)
Engine typeTM 22
Traction motors4
Power output4×40 kW
Electric system(s)600 V DC
Current collection methodpantograph
Wheels driven4
Coupling systemAlbert
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in), 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in), 1,524 mm (5 ft)
Modernized Tatra T3D trams in Chemnitz, Germany
Couple of Tatra T3SU in Riga, Latvia
Tram modernized from T3SU to MTTD on the historic Boulevard Ring tram line in Moscow
T3 Coupé in Prague
Tatra T3R in Brno, Czech Republic
Three-unit tram Tatra K3R-NT in Pilsen, Czech Republic

Contents

TypesEdit

T3Edit

The design of the T3 had to meet difficult specifications. The cars needed to have the same capacity as its predecessor (the Tatra T2), but be easier to build. Some of the things that were done in order to meet this goal were making the walls thinner, and fitting the cars with laminate seats instead of cushioned leatherette seats such as the T2 used. The T3 was delivered to all tramway companies in the former Czechoslovakia. It was most numerous in Prague, where over 1,000 vehicles were delivered. The T3 still forms (mostly in various modernised versions) the backbone of the Czech tram fleet.

T3SUEdit

(SU for Soviet Union) As with the T2SU, the first T3SU was delivered with the modification of removing the middle door and replacing it with seats. Later cars, however, were delivered with the third door in place. Again, the vehicles had a closed operator's compartment and were adapted for the harsh climate. Altogether 11,368 T3SU were delivered, making it the largest production of a single type of streetcar worldwide. But because so many of one type were made, their replacement by more modern cars was slow.

The T3SU was delivered from 1963, first to Moscow and later to 33 further Soviet cities.

T3SUCSEdit

(SUCS for Soviet Union-modified Czechoslovakia)

Originally, the production of the T3 was stopped in 1976 and focus shifted to newer vehicles. The Slovak city Košice, however, ordered two motor coaches as an exception. The production of the replacement type KT8D5 was slated to begin in 1985, but this model was by then obsolete. Further production of the T3 would have been too expensive, so instead vehicles of the type T3SU were re-imported and adapted. The closed operator's cab was maintained, the vehicles had all three doors in place, and differed from the original T3 only in a few details.

T3SU EvolutionEdit

Over time, the T3SU has had minor changes in both exterior appearance and interior design.

Exterior details:

  • <1966: Narrow passenger windows disappeared
  • ~1969: Narrow window route designators
  • 1980s: Illuminated route indicator on top
  • ~1985: Oval turn indicator at the front became two rectangular lights. The same lamps began to be fitted to the rear
  • 1983 onwards: Small grid in the forward section of the tram on the left side
  • ~1985: Two small red lamps near the tramcar-to-tramcar "control circuit port", both front and rear
  • Additional red horizontal lamps from behind

Interior:

  • Early 1960s to early 1970s: Sofa-style seats
  • Early 1970s to mid-1980s: "Toilet"-like seats
  • 1977-1978: Cream-coloured saloon (repainted yellow/dark-blue)

T3DEdit

(D for Deutschland)

In East Germany the first three T3D cars started operation in 1964 and the city of Dresden got its first delivery in 1965. The cars were used in part due to their width of 2.50 m (8 ft 2 in). They operated as single cars or as multiple units (motor+motor, motor+motor+trailer) and/or as mini trams (motor+trailer). The use of trailer cars was due to the use of original Czech T3 electrical equipment, which had enough power to support trailer cars. However, due to reduced available power, the maximum speed of the streetcar reached only 55 km/h instead of the usual 65 km/h (40 mph).

Only German and Yugoslav networks had trailer cars. The car was designated as B3D and had the same body as the T3D. Today, only Chemnitz uses T3s in full service as the T3D-M (modified).

T3YUEdit

(YU for Yugoslavia)

From 1967 onwards, vehicles supplied to Yugoslavia differed from the standard type T3 by having different pantographs and trucks. In addition, trailer cars were used, as in East Germany. Uncommonly, the network used narrow-profile vehicles, two of which could be found in Czechoslovakia and one in the Soviet Union.

T3REdit

(R for Romania)

At the end of the 1960s, Romania ordered RA cars as part of an agreement in the Comecon. The first vehicles came in 1970 to the city of Galați and had different electrical equipment from the Czechoslovak vehicles, to use the network's 750 V DC voltage. Since the carbodies were built too wide for use elsewhere, they remained in Galați. Only 50 units were delivered. Romania then opted for the narrower Tatra T4, which had more success, being still used in Bucharest as of 2019.

A few more of the same type were manufactured in 1997.

T3RFEdit

Four Tatra T3RF were the very last T3 trams built. They were made for Samara and Izhevsk, but only Samara bought them. In 2002 the two others were sold to Brno and modernized.

Modernized Tatra-T3 tramsEdit

In most Czech cities and in some others such as Bratislava, Moscow, Riga, and Odessa, Tatra-T3 trams became very common. As a result, service and maintenance workers became very experienced at servicing them. This was one reason for modifying existing trams rather than replacing them with newer stock (the other being cost).

Modernization normally includes:

  • Restoration of the car body
  • Digital/Electronic destination sign installation
  • Audio information system
  • Installation of new traction motors
  • Thyristor-controlled motor traction system
  • Refurbishing of the interior, which varies by city and transport authority
  • Pantograph replacement (depending on the transport authority)

More radical modernization includes insertion of a low-floor section (e.g. Tatra K3R-NT).

ProductionEdit

14,113 trams were produced and delivered to:[3]

Country City Type Delivery years Number Fleet numbers Remarks
  Czechoslovakia Bratislava T3 1964 – 1966 42 267–308   [4][5]
T3SU 1982 20 717–736   [4][5]
T3SUCS 1985 – 1989 110 7737–7846   [4][5]
body 1976 16 see notes   [6][5]
Brno T3 1963 – 1972 109 495–580, 1581–1603   [4][7][8]
T3SUCS 1985 – 1989 49 1604–1652   [4][7][8]
body 1971 1 1497   [7][8][6]
Košice T3 1963 – 1967 93 243–335   [4][9]
T3SU 1982 20 336–355   [4][9]
T3SUCS 1983 – 1989 69 356–424   [4][9]
body 1970 – 1979 11 see notes   [6][9][10]
Liberec T3 1965 – 1973 20 29–48   [4][11]
T3SU 1982 – 1983 10 49–58   [4][12]
T3SUCS 1986 – 1987 23 59–81   [4][12]
Most and Litvínov T3 1967 – 1972 9 290–298   [4][13]
T3SU 1982 26 see notes   [4][13]
T3SUCS 1983 – 1987 43 see notes   [4][13]
body 1968 – 1976 28 see notes   [13][14]
Olomouc T3 1966 – 1970 30 116–145   [4][15]
T3SUCS 1983 – 1987 39 146–184   [4][15]
Ostrava T3 1965 – 1975 97 701–797   [4][16]
T3SU 1982 5 901–905   [4][16]
T3SUCS 1983 – 1987 122 906–1027   [4][16]
body 1976 – 1997 23 732, 777, 798, 1028–1047   [6][16]
Pilsen T3 1964 – 1976 48 160–207   [4][17]
T3SU 1982 25 208–232   [4][17]
T3SUCS 1983 – 1987 55 233–287   [4][17]
Prague T3 1960 – 1976 892 6101–6992 No. 6101 – prototype [4][18][19]
T3SU 1982 20 7001–7020   [4][20][21]
T3SUCS 1983 – 1989 272 7021–7292   [4][22][23]
T3M 1992 1 8071 Originally ČKD test tram No. 8003. [24]
body 1966 – 1996 43 see notes   [6][25][26][27]
  Yugoslavia Osijek T3YU 1968 – 1982 26 6839–6848, 7211–7222, 8223–8226   [4][28]
Sarajevo T3YU 1967 – 1969 20 120–139   [4][29]
  East Germany Chemnitz T3D 1968 – 1988 132 401–532   [4]
Schwerin T3D 1973–1988 115 201–297, 401–418   [4]
  Romania Galați T3R 1971 – 1974 50 1–50   [30]
  Soviet Union Barnaul T3SU 1967 – 1985 444     [31]
Dniprodzerzhynsk T3SU 1972 – 1986 183     [31]
Dnipropetrovsk T3SU 1968 – 1987 370     [31]
Donetsk T3SU 1967 – 1987 251     [31]
Grozny T3SU 1981–1986 70     [31]
Irkutsk T3SU 1967 – 1968 30     [31]
Izhevsk T3SU 1966 – 1986 270     [31]
Yekaterinburg T3SU 1964 – 1986 530     [31]
Kiev T3SU 1964 – 1987 923 5052–5688, 5701–5858, 5901–5994, 6000–6032   [31]
body 1981 2     [6]
Kramatorsk T3SU 1967 2 22, 23   [31][32]
Krasnodar T3SU 1980 – 1986 115     [31]
Kryvyi Rog T3SU 1986 – 1987 50 001–050   [31][33]
Kursk T3SU 1966 – 1987 278     [31]
Mariupol T3SU 1967 – 1975 32 1001–1005, 1008–1034   [31][34]
Moscow T3SU 1963 – 1987 2069     [31]
body 1970–1971 6     [6]
Nizhny Novgorod T3SU 1978 – 1986 220     [31]
Novokuznetsk T3SU 1967 – 1986 215     [31]
Odessa T3SU 1966 – 1987 484 2945–3339, 4001–4089   [31][35][36]
Oryol T3SU 1979 – 1985 85 001–085   [31][37]
Pyatigorsk T3SU 1967 – 1987 117     [31]
Rostov-on-Don T3SU 1967 – 1985 405     [31]
Riga T3SU 1974 – 1987 243     [31]
Samara T3SU 1964 – 1986 619     [31]
Tashkent T3SU 1983 – 1985 18 2501–2518   [31][38]
Tula T3SU 1965 – 1986 401     [31]
body 1971 1     [6]
Twer T3SU 1967 – 1986 306     [31]
Ufa T3SU 1966 – 1987 360     [31]
Ulyanovsk T3SU 1966 – 1986 401     [31]
Vladikavkaz T3SU 1972 – 1987 114     [31]
Volgograd T3SU 1967 – 1987 425     [31]
Volzhsky T3SU 1967 – 1980 75 52–126   [31][39][40]
Voronezh T3SU 1977 – 1986 209     [31]
Zaporizhia T3SU 1966 – 1987 304     [31]
Fleet numbers
  • Most – Litvínov (T3SU): 204, 205, 210, 211, 214, 222–225, 227–234, 236, 238, 246, 247, 249, 250, 259, 261, 266
  • Most – Litvínov (T3SUCS): 235, 237, 240–245, 248, 251–254, 257, 260, 264, 269, 271, 274–284, 300–313
  • Most – Litvínov (car bodies): 201–203, 206–209, 212, 213, 215–221, 226, 239, 255, 256, 258, 262, 263, 265, 267, 268, 270, 280
  • Prague (car bodies): 6009, 6012–6025, 6092, 6138, 6163, 6164, 6289, 6457, 6736, 6779, 6795, 6798, 8009, 8015, 8051, 8053, 8063, 8067, 8068, 8072, 8074, 8076, 8077, 8079, 8080, 8082, 8083, 8087–8089
  • Bratislava (car bodies): 202–204, 207, 209–211, 213, 215, 218, 221–224, 228, 229
  • Košice (car bodies): 229, 229, 238, 239, 261, 266–268, 298, 301, 302

Note: This is the list of first owners. Stock may have later been resold to other cities not on this list.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ IHNED.cz - Nový model tramvají Porsche je nejporuchovější ze všech. Každá sedmá stojí
  2. ^ "V pražských ulicích dojezdila po padesáti letech poslední tramvaj T3". iDNES.cz. 19 December 2011.
  3. ^ "Tatra T3 deliveries". Strassenbahnen-Online. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Mara, Robert (2001). Tatra T3 1960–2000. 40 let tramvají Tatra T3. Praha: K-Report Pavel Malkus. p. 123. ISBN 80-903012-0-7.
  5. ^ a b c d "Tatra - ČKD T3". Imhd.zoznam.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Mara, s. 125.
  7. ^ a b c "Evidence vozů DPMB, typ: T3". Bmhd.cz. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  8. ^ a b c Butschek, Alan (2000). 100 let elektrické pouliční dráhy v Brně 1900–2000. Ústí nad Labem: Vojtěch Wolf – vydavatelství WOLF & Tramvajklub Brno. pp. 72–76.
  9. ^ a b c d "Tatra - ČKD T3". Imhd.zoznam.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  10. ^ Tatranský, Adam (2004). Košické koľaje 1891–2004 (in Slovak). Brno: vlastním nákladem. pp. 79–80. ISBN 80-239-3979-3.
  11. ^ Dvorský, Petr; Grisa, Ivan; Jäkl, Gisbert (2007). Úzkorozchodné tramvajové provozy. Liberec. Praha: Nakladatelství Corona. pp. 353–358. ISBN 80-86116-49-2.
  12. ^ a b Dvorský, s. 358–363.
  13. ^ a b c d "Evidenční čísla - vozy rychlodráhy". Mosteckamhd.cz. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  14. ^ "Vehicles List, Most and Litvinov. Tatra T3". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  15. ^ a b "Tramvaje T3". Mhd-olomouc.cz. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  16. ^ a b c d "DP Ostrava - vozový park, typ: T3, trakce: tramvaj". Seznam-autobusu.cz. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  17. ^ a b c "PMDP - vozový park, typ: T3, trakce: tramvaj". Seznam-autobusu.cz. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  18. ^ "T3". Prag-straba.de (in German). Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  19. ^ "T3". Prazsketramvaje.cz. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  20. ^ "T3SU". Prag-straba.de (in German). Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  21. ^ "T3SU". Prazsketramvaje.cz. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  22. ^ "T3SUCS". Prag-straba.de (in German). Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  23. ^ "T3SUCS". Prazsketramvaje.cz. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  24. ^ Mara, s. 84.
  25. ^ "T3 (6009-6092)". Prag-straba.de (in German). Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  26. ^ "T3M2-DVC". Prag-straba.de (in German). Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  27. ^ "T3M2-DVC". Prazsketramvaje.cz. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  28. ^ "Vehicles List, Osijek. Tatra T3YU". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
  29. ^ "Vehicles List, Sarajevo. Tatra T3YU". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  30. ^ "T3R". Tatrawagen.de (in German). Retrieved 2011-12-29.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Mara, s. 124.
  32. ^ "Vehicles List, Kramatorsk. Tatra T3SU 2 door". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  33. ^ "Vehicles List, Krivoy Rog. Tatra T3SU". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  34. ^ "Vehicles List, Mariupol. Tatra T3SU 2 door". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  35. ^ "Vehicles List, Odessa. Tatra T3SU 2 door". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  36. ^ "Vehicles List, Odessa. Tatra T3SU". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  37. ^ "Vehicles List, Oryol. Tatra T3SU". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  38. ^ "Vehicles List, Tashkent. Tatra T3SU". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
  39. ^ "Vehicles List, Volzhskiy. Tatra T3SU 2 door". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  40. ^ "Vehicles List, Volzhskiy. Tatra T3SU". Transphoto.ru. Retrieved 2011-12-30.

External linksEdit