Suzdal (Russian: Суздаль, IPA: [ˈsuzdəlʲ]) is a town that serves as the administrative center of Suzdalsky District in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, which is located near the Kamenka River, 26 kilometers (16 mi) north of the city of Vladimir. Vladimir is the administrative center of the surrounding oblast. As of the 2021 Census, its population was 9,286.[11]

Flag of Suzdal
Coat of arms of Suzdal
Location of Suzdal
Suzdal is located in Russia
Location of Suzdal
Suzdal is located in Vladimir Oblast
Suzdal (Vladimir Oblast)
Coordinates: 56°25′N 40°27′E / 56.417°N 40.450°E / 56.417; 40.450
Federal subjectVladimir Oblast[1]
Administrative districtSuzdalsky District[1]
 • Head of Town[3]Larisa Majorova[3]
 • Total15 km2 (6 sq mi)
115 m (377 ft)
 • Total10,535
 • Estimate 
9,618 (−8.7%)
 • Density700/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
 • Capital ofSuzdalsky District[1]
 • Municipal districtSuzdalsky Municipal District[1]
 • Urban settlementSuzdal Urban Settlement[1]
 • Capital ofSuzdalsky Municipal District,[1] Suzdal Urban Settlement[1]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[6])
Postal code(s)[7]
601291, 601293
Dialing code(s)+7 49231[8]
OKTMO ID17654101001
Town Day2nd Saturday of August[9]
Suzdal population
2021 Census9,286[11]
2010 Census10,535[4]
2002 Census11,357[12]
1989 Census12,063[13]
1979 Census11,529[14]
Christmas in Suzdal

Suzdal is one of the oldest Russian towns. In the 12th century, it became the capital of the principality, while Moscow was one of its subordinate settlements. Currently, Suzdal is the smallest of the Russian Golden Ring towns, yet it has more than 40 historically important monuments and 200 architectural sites.[8][15][16] Several of these sites are listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[17][18]

History edit

Suzdal in 1912

The town's history dates back to 999 or 1024, and in 1125 Yury Dolgoruky made Suzdal the capital of the Rostov-Suzdal principality.[19][20] Suzdal served as a capital at the time when Moscow has been described as "still a cluster of cowsheds".[8] In 1157, Andrei Bogolyubsky moved the capital from Suzdal to Vladimir, from which time the principality was known as Vladimir-Suzdal. Suzdal was burned and plundered in 1237 during the Mongol-led invasions, however remained a trade centre after this because of its location in a fertile wheat-growing area.[21] Eventually,[when?] it united with Nizhny Novgorod until both were annexed by Moscow in 1392.[19]

Plan of Suzdal, 1788

After a decline in political importance, the town rose in prominence as a religious center with development projects funded by Vasily III and Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century. In the late 17th and 18th centuries, wealthy merchants paid for 30 churches, which still stand in the town.[19] At one point,[when?]Suzdal had 40 churches per 400 families.

In 1864, local merchants failed to convince the government to build the Trans-Siberian Railway through their town. Instead, it went through Vladimir, 35 km (22 mi) away.[8] In 1967 Suzdal earned a federally protected status, which officially limited development in the area.[19]

In 1943, high-ranking Nazi officers captured at the Battle of Stalingrad were imprisoned within Suzdal's monastery.[22]

Today, the town serves as a tourist center, as it features many examples of old Russian architecture -mostly churches and monasteries. Despite having nearly ten thousand residents, Suzdal still retains a rural atmosphere with streams and meadows, and chicken and livestock a common sight on the streets, some of which remain unpaved. This juxtaposition of medieval architecture in a pastoral setting has made Suzdal a popular subject for artists.[23]

Administrative and municipal status edit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Suzdal serves as the administrative center of Suzdalsky District,[24] to which it is directly subordinated.[25] As a municipal division, the town of Suzdal is incorporated within Suzdalsky Municipal District as Suzdal Urban Settlement.[26]

Tourism edit

The only industry in the town is tourism. Suzdal avoided the industrialization of the Soviet times and was able to preserve many examples of Russian architecture of the 13th-19th centuries. There are 305 monuments and listed buildings in Suzdal, including 30 churches, 14 bell towers, and 5 monasteries and convents. 79 of them are federally protected buildings and 167 are regionally protected.[2]

In 1992 two of the monuments (Saviour Monastery of St Euthymius and Kremlin with Nativity of the Virgin Cathedral) were included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, together with six other White Monuments in this region.[17][18]

The Cathedral of Nativity

Main sights edit

  • The Kremlin is the oldest part of Suzdal, dating from the 10th century. It is a predecessor of the Moscow Kremlin. In the 12th century, it was the base of Prince Yury Dolgoruky, who ruled the northeastern part of Kievan Rus' and founded an outpost, which is now Moscow.[8] A posad (settlement) to the east became home to the secular population - shopkeepers and craftsmen, while the Kremlin (fortress) proper was the home of the prince, the archbishop, and the high clergy. Within the Kremlin, the Archbishop’s Chambers house the Suzdal History Exhibition, which includes a visit to the 18th-century Cross Hall, which was used for receptions. More exhibits are provided in the 1635 Kremlin bell tower (Russian: Звонница) in the yard.
  • The 1.4-kilometre-long (0.9 mi) earth rampart of the Kremlin encloses a number of houses and churches, including the Nativity of the Virgin Cathedral. This cathedral, with its blue and gold domes, was constructed in 1222-1225 by Yury II on the site of an earlier church built around 1102 by Vladimir Monomakh. It was built of light tufa with limestones for details. In 1445 the cathedral collapsed and was rebuilt in 1528-1530 with the upper structure and drums being constructed of new brick.[27] The original 13th-century door from the cathedral is now on exhibition in the Archbishop’s Chambers.
  • Saviour Monastery of St Euthymius, founded in 1352 to the north of the town centre on the high bank of the Kamenka river. It was built under the order of the Suzdal-Nizhniy Novgorod prince Konstantin. The monastery was planned as a fortress and was originally enclosed by a wooden wall, later destroyed by the Poles. Today's reddish brick walls of the Suzdal monastery were erected over four years, from 1640 to 1644. The fortifications have 12 towers constructed to house artillery power. Later [when?]the monastery became a prison, which had a reputation for brutal punishment of prisoners. In 1905 the prison was abolished.
  • The Wooden Church of St. Nicholas, built in Glotovo in 1766, was moved to Suzdal in 1960 to be part of a Museum of Wooden Architecture and Peasant Life. The church is elevated off the ground about a story high from when it was moved across the country.[clarification needed] The church is made entirely of wood.
  • St John the Baptist Church, built in 1720, at the same time as the Wooden Church of St Nicholas. It was constructed with white plastered walls and wooden supports.
  • St Alexander Convent, built in 1240 by an unknown architect. It is said[by whom?] that the princesses of Suzdal, Mariya and Agrippina, were buried here in the 14th century.
  • Intercession Convent [ru], founded in 1364. In its center stands the Cathedral of the Intercession, an add-on built in 1518, financed by Moscow knaz (king) Vasili III. The interior of the cathedral is plain white stone, with no paintings or stained glass. The church houses the burial vaults of 20 nuns of noble birth. An art museum containing works created in the 16th and 17th centuries is connected to the cathedral.

Festivals edit

Infrastructure edit

There are four major hotels in Suzdal:[2]

  • Nikolaevsky Posad (180 rooms)
  • Pushkarskaya Sloboda (291 rooms)
  • Heliopark (185 rooms)
  • GTK Suzdal (705 rooms).

There are also 50 guesthouses with a total number of 700 rooms.[2] Suzdal has approximately 20 hotel rooms per 100 population (comparing to 0.2 rooms for Russia in general, or 1.6 rooms in the US).[30]

Suzdal has 13 restaurants, 10 cafes, 11 bars and 73 souvenir shops.[2]

In 1982 Suzdal became the first Russian town to receive La Pomme d'Or (Golden Apple) - a prize for excellence in the tourism industry, awarded annually by the World Federation of Travel Journalists and Writers (FIJET).[31]

Film edit

More than 60 movies were filmed in Suzdal and the vicinity.[32] Among them:

According to local historian Yury Belov, in the summer of 1964 three different feature films (Metel, Zhenitba Balzaminova and Tsarskaya nevesta) were filmed in Suzdal at the same time.[32]

Twin towns edit

Suzdal is twinned with:

Notable people edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Устав муниципального образования город Суздаль Владимирской области [Charter of the Town of Suzdal of Vladimir Region] (PDF). Official website of Suzdal (in Russian). Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Характеристика города Суздаль [Characteristic of the Town of Suzdal]. Official website of Suzdal (in Russian). Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  3. ^ a b Глава города Суздаля [Head of the Town of Suzdal]. Official website of Suzdal (in Russian). Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ a b c d e f Ragozin, Leonid (March 2015). "Suzdal". In Richmond, Simon (ed.). Russia (7 ed.). Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74220-733-9.
  9. ^ Праздники в городе Суздаль [Holidays in the Town of Suzdal]. Information portal "Town Day" (in Russian). Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  10. ^ Численность населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2015 года [Population of the Russian Federation in 2015] (rar) (in Russian). Official website of the Russian Federal State Statistics Service.
  11. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Всероссийская перепись населения 2020 года. Том 1 [2020 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1] (XLS) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  12. ^ Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  13. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  14. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia] (XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 – via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  15. ^ Erkovich, V. (October 17, 2012). "The epicenter of "Legendary History"". Russia Beyond the Headlines. Retrieved November 30, 2019.
  16. ^ Kahn, D. (February 9, 2013). "A weekend in Suzdal". Russia Beyond the Headlines. Retrieved November 30, 2019.
  17. ^ a b "White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal". UNESCO/World Heritage Convention.
  18. ^ a b "World Heritage List No.633 Vladimir/Suzdal. ICOMOS Evaluation" (PDF). UNESCO/World Heritage Convention. October 1992.
  19. ^ a b c d Vorhees, Mara (2006). "Suzdal". In Richmond, Simon (ed.). Russia & Belarus (4 ed.). Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74104-291-7.
  20. ^ "History of Suzdal | Rusmania". Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  21. ^ Suzdal during the Tatar-Mongol yoke
  22. ^ Suzdal Camp 160: The fate of the German officers captured at Stalingrad. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  23. ^ Luxmoore, Matthew (July 1, 2012). "Suzdal". The Moscow Times. Retrieved January 18, 2016.
  24. ^ Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 17 254», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 17 254, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  25. ^ Resolution #433
  26. ^ Law #190-OZ
  27. ^ Brumfield, William Craft (1997). Landmarks of Russian Architect: A Photographic Survey. Routledge. p. 60. ISBN 9056995367. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  28. ^ Официальный веб-сайт Открытого Российского фестиваля анимационного кино [Official website of Open Russian Festival of Animated Film] (in Russian). February 27, 2024.
  29. ^ "'Cucumber Day' Celebrated in Russia". NBC News. July 16, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  30. ^ "The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013" (PDF). 2013 World Economic Forum. p. 424. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  31. ^ "Golden Apple Award". Official website of the World Federation of Travel Journalists and Writers.
  32. ^ a b Belov, Yury (2006). В главной роли Суздаль [Starring Suzdal] (in Russian). Algoritm. ISBN 5-9265-0281-0.
  33. ^ Соглашение между городами Ротенбург об дер Таубер (ФРГ) и Суздаль (СССР) [Agreement between Rothenburg ob der Tauber (FRG) and Suzdal (USSR)] (PDF). Official website of Suzdal (in Russian). April 24, 1988.
  34. ^ Соглашение между городами Клез (Италия) и Суздаль (Россия) [Agreement between Cles (Italy) and Suzdal (Russia)] (PDF). Official website of Suzdal (in Russian). October 1991.
  35. ^ "Oberlin's Connections Around the World". Oberlin: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. USA.
  36. ^ "Sister City - Suzdal, Russia". Official website of Windham, NH. USA.
  37. ^ Соглашение о дружбе и сотрудничестве между г.Суздалем (Россия) и г.Эвора (Португалия) [Partnership agreement between Suzdal (Russia) and Évora (Portugal)] (PDF). Official website of Suzdal (in Russian). August 12, 2006.
  38. ^ "Protocole d'accord de cooperation entre les municipalités de Souzdal et Loches" [Partnership agreement between Suzdal (Russia) and Loches (France)] (PDF). Official website of Suzdal (in French). December 15, 2011.
  39. ^ Соглашение о сотрудничестве между администрациями города Суздаля (РФ) и города Шанжао (КНР) [Partnership agreement between Suzdal (Russia) and Shangrao (China)] (PDF). Official website of Suzdal (in Russian). September 10, 2012.

Sources edit

  • Brumfield, William (2009). Suzdal: Architectural Heritage in Photographs. Moscow: Tri Kvadrata. ISBN 978-5-94607-118-5.
  • Администрация Владимирской области. Постановление №433 от 13 июня 2007 г. «О реестре административно-территориальных образований и единиц Владимирской области», в ред. Постановления №169 от 5 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в Постановление Губернатора области от 13.06.2007 №433 "О реестре административно-территориальных образований и единиц Владимирской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Владимирские ведомости", №114, 20 июня 2007 г. (Administration of Vladimir Oblast. Resolution #433 of June 13, 2007 On the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Formations and Units of Vladimir Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #169 of March 5, 2015 On Amending Resolution #433 of the Oblast Governor of June 13, 2007 "On the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Formations and Units of Vladimir Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Владимирской области. Закон №190-ОЗ от 26 ноября 2004 г. «О наделении Суздальского района и вновь образованных муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав, соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований и установлении их границ», в ред. Закона №90-ОЗ от 5 августа 2009 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Владимирской области "О наделении Суздальского района и вновь образованных муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав, соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований и установлении их границ"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования (27 ноября 2004 г.). Опубликован: "Владимирские ведомости", №331, 27 ноября 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vladimir Oblast. Law #190-OZ of November 26, 2004 On Granting Suzdalsky District and the Newly Established Municipal Formations Comprising It an Appropriate Status of the Municipal Formations and on Establishing Their Borders, as amended by the Law #90-OZ of August 5, 2009 On Amending the Law of Vladimir Oblast "On Granting Suzdalsky District and the Newly Established Municipal Formations Comprising It an Appropriate Status of the Municipal Formations and on Establishing Their Borders". Effective as of the day of the official publication (November 27, 2004).).

External links edit