Astrakhan (Russian: Астрахань, IPA: [ˈastrəxənʲ] ) is the largest city and administrative centre of Astrakhan Oblast in southern Russia. The city lies on two banks of the Volga, in the upper part of the Volga Delta, on eleven islands of the Caspian Depression, 60 miles (100 km) from the Caspian Sea, with a population of 475,629 residents at the 2021 Census.[16] At an elevation of 28 meters (92 ft) below sea level, it is the lowest city in Russia.

Astrakhan
Астрахань
From the top to bottom-right, Panoramic view of Astrakhan, Maria Ascension Cathedral in Astrakhan Kremlin, Astrakhan Stock Exchange, Baku Mosque, Nikolskaya Street
Flag of Astrakhan
Coat of arms of Astrakhan
Anthem: Anthem of Astrakhan[2]
Location of Astrakhan
Map
Astrakhan is located in Astrakhan Oblast
Astrakhan
Astrakhan
Location of Astrakhan
Astrakhan is located in European Russia
Astrakhan
Astrakhan
Astrakhan (European Russia)
Astrakhan is located in Caspian Sea
Astrakhan
Astrakhan
Astrakhan (Caspian Sea)
Astrakhan is located in Russia
Astrakhan
Astrakhan
Astrakhan (Russia)
Coordinates: 46°21′00″N 48°02′06″E / 46.35000°N 48.03500°E / 46.35000; 48.03500
CountryRussia
Federal subjectAstrakhan Oblast[1]
Founded1558[3]
City status since1717[3]
Government
 • BodyCity Duma[4]
 • Head[6]Oleg Polumordvinov[5]
Area
 • Total208.70 km2 (80.58 sq mi)
Elevation
−25 m (−82 ft)
Population
 • Total520,339
 • Estimate 
(2018)[9]
533,925 (+2.6%)
 • Rank33rd in 2010
 • Density2,500/km2 (6,500/sq mi)
 • Subordinated tocity of oblast significance of Astrakhan[1]
 • Capital ofAstrakhan Oblast,[10] city of oblast significance of Astrakhan[1]
 • Urban okrugAstrakhan Urban Okrug[11]
 • Capital ofAstrakhan Urban Okrug[11]
Time zoneUTC+4 (MSK+1 Edit this on Wikidata[12])
Postal code(s)[13]
414000, 414004, 414006, 414008, 414009, 414011–414019, 414021, 414022, 414024–414026, 414028–414030, 414032, 414038, 414040–414042, 414044–414046, 414050–414052, 414056, 414057, 414700, 414890, 414899, 414950, 414960, 414961, 414999
Dialing code(s)+7 8512
OKTMO ID12701000001
City DayThird Sunday of September[14]
Websitewww.astrgorod.ru

Astrakhan was formerly the capital of the Khanate of Astrakhan (a remnant of the Golden Horde) of the Astrakhan Tatars, and was located on the higher right bank of the Volga, seven miles (11 km) from the present-day city. Situated on caravan and water routes, it developed from a village into a large trading centre, before being conquered by Timur in 1395 and captured by Ivan the Terrible in 1556 and in 1558 it was moved to its present site.

The oldest economic and cultural center of the Lower Volga region,[17] it is often called the southernmost outpost of Russia,[18] and the Caspian capital.[19][20] The city is a member of the Eurasian Regional Office of the World Organization "United Cities and Local Governments".[21] The great ethnic diversity of its population gives a varied character to Astrakhan. The city is the center of the Astrakhan metropolitan area.

Etymology edit

The name is a corruption of Hashtarkhan, itself a corruption of Haji Tarkhan (حاجی‌ ترخان)—a name amply evidenced in the medieval writings. Tarkhan is possibly a Turco-Mongolian title standing for "great khan", or "king", while haji or hajji is a title given to one who has made the Islamic requisite of pilgrimage to Mecca. Together, they denoted "the king who has visited Mecca".

The city has given its name to the particular pelts from young karakul sheep, and in particular to the hats traditionally made from the pelts.

Colloquially, the city is known by the short form Astra. Another popular nickname is The Caspian Capital.

History edit

Medieval history edit

Astrakhan is in the Volga Delta, which is rich in sturgeon and exotic plants. The fertile area formerly contained the capitals of Khazaria and the Golden Horde. Astrakhan was first mentioned by travelers in the early 13th century as Xacitarxan. Tamerlane burnt it to the ground in 1395 during his war with the Golden Horde. From 1459 to 1556, Xacitarxan was the capital of Astrakhan Khanate by the Astrakhan Tatars. The ruins of this medieval settlement were found by archaeologists 12 km upstream from the modern-day city.

Starting in A.D. 1324, Ibn Battuta, the famous Berber Muslim traveler, began his pilgrimage from his native city of Tangier, present-day Morocco to Mecca. Along the 12,100-kilometer (7,500 mi) trek, which took nearly 29 years, Battuta came in contact with many new cultures, which he writes about in his diaries. One specific country that he passed through on his journey was the Golden Horde ruled by the descendants of Genghis Khan, located on the Volga River in southern Russia; which Battuta refers to as the river Athal. He then claims the Athal is, "one of the greatest rivers in the world". In the winter, the Khan stays in Astrakhan. Due to the cold water, Özbeg Khan ordered the people of Astrakhan to lay many bundles of hay down on the frozen river. He does this to allow the people to travel over the ice. When Battuta and the Khan spoke about Battuta visiting Constantinople, which the Khan granted him permission to do, the Khan then gifted Battuta with fifteen hundred dinars, many horses, and a dress of honor.[22][23]

In 1556, the khanate was conquered by Ivan the Terrible, who had a new fortress, or kremlin, built on a steep hill overlooking the Volga in 1558. This year is traditionally considered to be the foundation of the modern city.[3]

In 1569, during the Russo-Turkish War, Astrakhan was besieged by the Ottomans, who had to retreat in disarray. A year later, the Ottoman sultan renounced his claims to Astrakhan, thus opening the entire Volga River to Russian traffic.[citation needed] The Ottoman Empire, though militarily defeated, insisted on safe passage for Muslim pilgrims and traders from Central Asia as well as the destruction of the Russian fort on the Terek River.[24] In the 17th century, the city was developed as a Russian gate to the Orient. Many merchants from Armenia, Safavid Persia, Mughal India,[25][26] and Khivan Khanate settled in the town, giving it a cosmopolitan character.

Modern history edit

 
Astrakhan in the 17th century
 
Astrakhan Kremlin on the definitive postage stamp of Russia
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1897112,880—    
1926183,254+62.3%
1939253,595+38.4%
1959295,768+16.6%
1970410,473+38.8%
1979461,003+12.3%
1989509,210+10.5%
2002504,501−0.9%
2010520,339+3.1%
2021475,629−8.6%
Source: Census Data

For seventeen months in 1670–1671, Astrakhan was held by Stenka Razin and his Cossacks. Early in the following century, Peter the Great constructed a shipyard here and made Astrakhan the base for his hostilities against Persia, and later in the same century Catherine the Great accorded the city important industrial privileges.[27]

The city was held from 1707 by the Cossacks under Kondraty Bulavin during the Bulavin Rebellion until they were defeated the next year. A Kalmuck khan laid an abortive siege to the kremlin several years before that.

In 1717, it became the seat of Astrakhan Governorate, whose first governors included Artemy Petrovich Volynsky and Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev. Six years later, Astrakhan served as a base for the first Russian venture into Central Asia. In 1702, 1718 and 1767, it suffered severely from fires; in 1719 it was plundered by the Safavid Persians; and in 1830, cholera killed much of the populace.[27]

The Astrakhan Kremlin was built from the 1580s to the 1620s from bricks taken from the site of Sarai Berke. Its two impressive cathedrals were consecrated in 1700 and 1710, respectively. Built by masters from Yaroslavl, they retain many traditional features of Russian church architecture, while their exterior decoration is definitely baroque.

In March 1919 after a failed workers' revolt against Bolshevik rule, 3,000 to 5,000 people were executed in less than a week by the Cheka under orders from Sergey Kirov. Some victims had stones tied around their necks and were thrown into the Volga.[28][29]

 
Akhamtovskaya Street

During Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the A-A line running from Astrakhan to Arkhangelsk was to be the eastern limit of German military operation and occupation. The plan was never carried out, as Germany captured neither the two cities nor Moscow. In the autumn of 1942, the region to the west of Astrakhan became one of the easternmost points in the Soviet Union reached by the invading German Wehrmacht, during Case Blue, the offensive which led to the Battle of Stalingrad. Light armored forces of German Army Group A made brief scouting missions as close as 35 km to Astrakhan before withdrawing. In the same period, elements of both the Luftwaffe's KG 4 and KG 100 bomber wings attacked Astrakhan, flying several air raids and bombing the city's oil terminals and harbor installations.

In 1943, Astrakhan was made the seat of a Soviet oblast within the RSFSR. The oblast was retained as a national province of the independent Russian Federation in the 1991 administrative reshuffle after the dismemberment of the Soviet Union.

 
Astrakhan in 2012

In the present day, Astrakhan is a large industrial centre of the Volga country, Russia, with a population of over 500,000. Starting nearly 400 years ago and continuing to the present day, Astrakhan has been Russia's main center of fish processing. The market for fish is a large component of the economy in this city.[30]

Owing to shared Caspian borders, Astrakhan recently has been playing a significant role in the relations between Russia and Azerbaijan. As the latter's government has been heavily investing into the wellbeing of the city, Astrakhan has recently begun to symbolize the friendship between both countries. In 2010 a bridge was constructed with donations from Azerbaijan, which was named "Bridge of Friendship".[31] Moreover, Azerbaijani government sponsored secondary school number 11, which carries the name of the national leader Heydar Aliyev, as well as a children's entertainment center named "Dream".[32] Apart from that, a park has been built in the center of Astrakhan which is dedicated to friendship between the two countries. In the last 5 years Astrakhan has been visited by top Azerbaijani delegations on several occasions.[33][34][35][36]

After fraud was alleged in the mayoral election of 2012 and the United Russia candidate was declared the winner, organizers of the 2011–2012 Russian protests supported the defeated candidate, Oleg V. Shein of Just Russia, in a hunger strike. Protestors, buoyed by celebrities who support the reform movement, attracted 5,000 people to a rally on April 14.[37]

Administrative and municipal status edit

Astrakhan is the administrative center of the oblast.[10] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Astrakhan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Astrakhan is incorporated as Astrakhan Urban Okrug.[11]

The city of Astrakhan is further subdivided into four administrative districts: Kirovsky, Leninsky, Sovetsky and Truskovsky.

Demographics edit

Religion edit

 
Trinity Cathedral in the Astrakhan Kremlin

Astrakhan is the archiepiscopal see of one of the metropolitanates and (as Astrakhan and Yenotayevka) eparchies of the Russian Orthodox Church, its only other suffragan being Akhtubinsk.[citation needed] There is also a Catholic community, served by the Church of the Assumption of Mary (Astrakhan). There is also a substantial Muslim population made up of Astrakhan Tatars and other Muslims.[38] At 1777 the white Mosque was built,[39] and the Baku Mosque was built in 1907–1909.

Population edit

According to the results of the 2021 Census, the population of Astrakhan was 475,629.[16]

At the time of the official 2021 Census, the ethnic makeup of the city's population was:[40]

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Russians 293,620 78.8%
Kazakhs 23,965 6.4%
Astrakhan Tatars 21,179 5.7%
Azerbaijanis 4,213 1.1%
Nogais 4,163 1.1%
Lezgins 2,823 0.8%
Armenians 2,727 0.7%
Avars 2,469 0.7%
Chechens 1,684 0.5%
Ukrainians 1,681 0.5%
Kalmyks 1,077 0.3%
Agrzhan 12,926 3.5%
 
White Mosque of Astrakhan

Geography edit

The city lies on two banks of the Volga, in the upper part of the Volga Delta, on eleven islands of the Caspian Depression, 60 miles (100 km) from the Caspian Sea. At an elevation of 28 meters (92 ft) below sea level, it is the lowest city in Russia.

Climate edit

Astrakhan features a temperate continental "Aralian" semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with cold winters and hot summers. Astrakhan is one of the driest cities in Europe. Rainfall is scarce but relatively evenly distributed throughout the course of the year with, however, more precipitation (58%) in the hot season (six hottest months of the year), which determines the "Aralian" type (as opposed to the "Turkmenon" type, with the wet season during the cold months)[41][42][citation needed]. The below sea-level elevation of Astrakhan influences the climate. Partially a result of this and also being far from the oceans means that summers are much hotter than found further west on similar latitude in Europe and worldwide for 46°N with the notable exception of the interior Pacific Northwest of the United States.

It is this even distribution of rainfall and the relatively low annual temperature that causes the city to fall under this climate category as opposed to an arid climate.

Winters tend to be cold in the city, though by Russian standards, Astrakhan features relatively balmy winters. Summers in the city can be hot, with high temperatures in excess of +40 °C (104 °F). The mean annual temperature amplitude (difference between the mean monthly temperatures of the hottest and coldest months) is thus equal to 29.2 °C (52.6 °F) (+25.6 °C (78.1 °F) in July and −3.6 °C (25.5 °F) in January), so the climate is truly continental (amplitudes superior or equal to 21 °C (38 °F) determines continental climates, while in semi-continental climates amplitudes vary between 18 °C (32 °F) and 21 °C (38 °F)).[citation needed] Spring and fall are basically transitional seasons between summer and winter.

Climate data for Astrakhan (1991–2020, extremes 1837–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
17.1
(62.8)
24.0
(75.2)
32.0
(89.6)
36.8
(98.2)
40.6
(105.1)
41.0
(105.8)
40.8
(105.4)
38.0
(100.4)
29.9
(85.8)
21.6
(70.9)
16.4
(61.5)
41.0
(105.8)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
1.5
(34.7)
8.8
(47.8)
17.6
(63.7)
24.7
(76.5)
30.1
(86.2)
32.6
(90.7)
31.4
(88.5)
24.6
(76.3)
16.8
(62.2)
7.3
(45.1)
1.3
(34.3)
16.4
(61.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.6
(25.5)
−3.0
(26.6)
3.2
(37.8)
11.3
(52.3)
18.5
(65.3)
23.8
(74.8)
26.1
(79.0)
24.6
(76.3)
18.0
(64.4)
10.9
(51.6)
3.1
(37.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
10.9
(51.6)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −6.5
(20.3)
−6.5
(20.3)
−1.0
(30.2)
5.9
(42.6)
12.7
(54.9)
17.7
(63.9)
19.9
(67.8)
18.3
(64.9)
12.5
(54.5)
6.3
(43.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
−4.5
(23.9)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) −31.8
(−25.2)
−33.6
(−28.5)
−26.9
(−16.4)
−8.9
(16.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
5.4
(41.7)
10.1
(50.2)
6.1
(43.0)
−2.0
(28.4)
−10.5
(13.1)
−25.8
(−14.4)
−29.9
(−21.8)
−33.6
(−28.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15
(0.6)
12
(0.5)
17
(0.7)
25
(1.0)
28
(1.1)
25
(1.0)
22
(0.9)
17
(0.7)
16
(0.6)
19
(0.7)
17
(0.7)
18
(0.7)
231
(9.1)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 2
(0.8)
2
(0.8)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
2
(0.8)
Average rainy days 8 6 7 11 12 11 10 9 9 9 12 10 114
Average snowy days 14 12 7 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 12 51
Average relative humidity (%) 84 80 73 63 61 58 58 59 66 74 83 86 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 87 106 163 226 293 316 332 309 252 181 84 58 2,407
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[43]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[44]

Education edit

Astrakhan has five institutions of higher education. Most prominent among these are Astrakhan State Technical University and Astrakhan State University.

 
Astrakhan State Technical University

Transportation edit

The city is served by Narimanovo Airport named after Soviet Azerbaijani politician Nariman Narimanov. It is managed by OAO Aeroport Astrakhan. After its reconstruction and the building of the international sector, opened in February 2011, Narimanovo Airport is one of the most modern regional airports in Russia. There are direct flights between Astrakhan and Aktau, Istanbul, St. Petersburg and Moscow.

There is also a military airbase nearby (Astrakhan (air base)).

Astrakhan is linked by rail to the north (Volgograd and Moscow), the east (Atyrau and Kazakhstan) and the south (Makhachkala and Baku). There are direct trains to Moscow, Volgograd, Saint Petersburg, Baku, Kyiv, Brest and other towns. Intercity and international buses are available as well. Public local transport is mainly provided by buses and minibuses called marshrutkas. Until 2007 there were also trams, and until 2017 trolleybuses.

 
Astrakhan railroad station

Notable people edit

 
Self-portrait of Boris Kustodiev in front of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra, 1912, Uffizi

Twin towns and sister cities edit

Astrakhan is twinned with:

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #67/2006-OZ
  2. ^ Decision #123
  3. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 28. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  4. ^ Charter of Astrakhan, Article 35
  5. ^ Official website of Astrakhan. Head of the City Administration Archived May 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  6. ^ Charter of Astrakhan, Article 32
  7. ^ Russian Institute of Urban Planning. Генеральный план города Астрахань. Основные технико-экономические показатели. Archived October 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine (General Plan of the City of Astrakhan. Main Technical Economical Measures). (in Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  10. ^ a b Charter of Astrakhan Oblast, Article 9
  11. ^ a b c Law #43/2004-OZ
  12. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  13. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  14. ^ Charter of Astrakhan, Article 6
  15. ^ Astrakhan Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Население Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine (Population) (in Russian)
  16. ^ a b "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  17. ^ "Официальный сайт органов местного самоуправления". Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2023.
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  21. ^ "Публикации – Члены ОГМВ Евразия". euroasia-uclg.ru. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  22. ^ "Lands of the Golden Horde & the Chagatai: 1332 - 1333 Archived August 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine". University of California, Berkeley (UCB).
  23. ^ Batuta, Ibn, and Samuel Lee. The Travels of Ibn Battuta in the Near East, Asia and Africa. pp79
  24. ^ Janet Martin, Medieval Russia:980-1584, 356.
  25. ^ "Astrakhan's India Connection". 16 March 2020.
  26. ^ Staff, Homegrown (8 June 2021). "Fascinating Accounts Of Indians In Russia Dating Back To The 17th Century". Homegrown. Retrieved 14 May 2023.
  27. ^ a b   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainKropotkin, Peter Alexeivitch (1911). "Astrakhan". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 795.
  28. ^ [books.google.com.sg/books?id=00o2eO8w06oC&pg=PA5]
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 22, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ "Astrakhan". russia.rin.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2023.
  31. ^ "Heydar Aliyev Foundation - Azerbaijan-Russia Friendship Bridge in Astrakhan". heydar-aliyev-foundation.org. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  32. ^ "Azerbaijan, Russian Astrakhan mull relations". azernews.az. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  33. ^ APA Information Agency, APA Holding. "APA - Presidents of Azerbaijan and Russia met in Astrakhan - PHOTO". en.apa.az. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  34. ^ "News.Az - Azerbaijani first lady Mehriban Aliyeva receives Astrakhan Oblast Order of Merit". news.az. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  35. ^ "tass.ru/en/world/699466". tass.ru. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  36. ^ "Гейдар Алиев на полях сражений Ивана Грозного - астраханские записки Эйнуллы Фатуллаева". Haqqin. 19 April 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  37. ^ David M. Herszenhorn (14 April 2012). "Moscow Protesters Take Their Show on the Road". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  38. ^ "TATAR MUSLIM COMMUNITY OF ASTRAKHAN IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY". Retrieved 14 May 2023.
  39. ^ "White Mosque of Astrakhan attraction reviews - White Mosque of Astrakhan tickets - White Mosque of Astrakhan discounts - White Mosque of Astrakhan transportation, address, opening hours - attractions, hotels, and food near White Mosque of Astrakhan".
  40. ^ "Итоги::Астраханьстат". Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  41. ^ Georges Viers, Éléments de climatologie, Paris, Nathan, 2001, 2e édition ISBN 978-2091911878, pages 154 and 155
  42. ^ Jean Demangeot (13 February 2001). Les milieux désertiques. Armand Colin. ISBN 978-2-200-28492-3. Figure 9 Climats désertiques d'Asie, pages 37 and 79
  43. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net (Weather and Climate-The Climate of Astrakhan)" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  44. ^ "Astrahan (Astrakhan) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  45. ^ "Генерал Скаржинский и его дети: неизвестное о представителях известного рода". 19 November 2016.
  46. ^ "Генерал Скаржинский и его дети: неизвестное о представителях известного рода". 19 November 2016.
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Sources edit

  • Государственная Дума Астраханской области. Закон №67/2006-ОЗ от 4 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Астраханской области», в ред. Закона №46/2017-ОЗ от 5 сентября 2017 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований и административно-территориальных единиц "Лебяжинский сельсовет", "Образцово-Травинский сельсовет", "Полдневский сельсовет" и внесении изменений в Закон Астраханской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований и наделении их статусом сельского, городского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района" и Закон Астраханской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Астраханской области"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Сборник законов и нормативных правовых актов Астраханской области", №47, 19 октября 2006 г. (State Duma of Astrakhan Oblast. Law #67/2006-OZ of October 4, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Astrakhan Oblast, as amended by the Law #46/2017-OZ of September 5, 2017 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations and the Administrative-Territorial Units of "Lebyazhinsky Selsoviet", "Obraztsovo-Travinsky Selsoviet", "Poldnevsky Selsoviet", and Amending the Law of Astrakhan Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations and on Granting Them the Status of Rural, Urban Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District" and the Law of Astrakhan Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Astrakhan Oblast". Effective as of after ten days from the day of the official publication have passed.).
  • Государственная Дума Астраханской области. Закон №43/2004-ОЗ от 6 августа 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований и наделении их статусом сельского, городского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред. Закона №47/2017-ОЗ от 5 сентября 2017 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Астраханской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований и наделении их статусом сельского, городского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Астраханские известия", №34, 12 августа 2004 г. (State Duma of Astrakhan Oblast. Law #43/2004-OZ of August 6, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations and on Granting Them the Status of Rural, Urban Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District, as amended by the Law #47/2017-OZ of September 5, 2017 On Amending the Law of Astrakhan Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations and on Granting Them the Status of Rural, Urban Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication.).
  • Городская Дума муниципального образования "Город Астрахань". Решение №24 от 31 марта 2016 г. «Устав муниципального образования "Город Астрахань"», в ред. Решения №91 от 17 июля 2017 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав муниципального образования "Город Астрахань"». Вступил в силу 22 апреля 2016 г. (за исключением отдельных положений). Опубликован: "Астраханский вестник", №15, 21 апреля 2016 г. (City Duma of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Astrakhan". Decision #24 of March 31, 2016 Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Astrakhan", as amended by the Decision #91 of July 17, 2017 On Amending the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Astrakhan". Effective as of April 22, 2016 (with the exception of certain clauses).).
  • Государственная Дума Астраханской области. №21/2007-ОЗ 9 апреля 2007 г. «Устав Астраханской области», в ред. Закона №49/2017-ОЗ от 25 сентября 2017 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 17 Устава Астраханской области». Вступил в силу 30 апреля 2007 г. (за исключением отдельных положений). Опубликован: "Сборник законов и нормативных правовых актов Астраханской области", №18, 19 апреля 2007 г. (State Duma of Astrakhan Oblast. #21/2007-OZ April 9, 2007 Charter of Astrakhan Oblast, as amended by the Law #49/2017-OZ of September 25, 2017 On Amending Article 17 of the Charter of Astrakhan Oblast. Effective as of April 30, 2007 (with the exception of several clauses).).
  • Городской Совет города Астрахани. Решение №123 от 1 ноября 2000 г. «Об утверждени гимна города Астрахани». (City Council of the City of Astrakhan. Decision #123 of November 1, 2000 On Adopting the Anthem of the City of Astrakhan. ).

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