Atyrau (Kazakh: Атырау, Atyrau, pronounced [ɑtəˈrɑw] (listen); Russian: Атырау, pronounced [ɐtɨˈraʊ]), known until 1991 as Guryev (Russian: Гурьев, pronounced [ˈɡurʲjɪf]), is a city in Kazakhstan and the capital of Atyrau Region. Atyrau is a transcontinental city, at the mouth of the Ural River on the Caspian Sea, between Europe and Asia, 2,700 kilometres (1,700 miles) west of Almaty and 351 kilometres (218 miles) east of the Russian city of Astrakhan.

Atyrau
Атырау
Atyrau
City
Урал река.jpg
Тенгизшевройл и Марриотт.jpg
Мечеть в Атырау (5695343595).jpg
Акимат Атырау .jpg
Исатай Махамбет.jpg
Ortodox Church in Atyrau - panoramio.jpg
Clockwise from top: Central Bridge above the Ural River which connects Europe and Asia during the evening; The Manjali Mosque; Isatay and Makhambet Monument; An orthodox church; The city government building; The Marriott Executive Apartment during the morning.
Flag of Atyrau
Official seal of Atyrau
Atyrau is located in Kazakhstan
Atyrau
Atyrau
Location in Kazakhstan
Atyrau is located in Europe
Atyrau
Atyrau
Location in Europe
Atyrau is located in Asia
Atyrau
Atyrau
Location in Asia
Coordinates: 47°07′0″N 51°53′0″E / 47.11667°N 51.88333°E / 47.11667; 51.88333
Country Kazakhstan
RegionAtyrau Region
Founded1640
City status1885
Government
 • Akim (mayor)Meyirim Kalaui
Elevation
−20 m (−70 ft)
Population
 (2020)
 • City290,700
 • Metro
355,117
Time zoneUTC+5 (UTC+5)
Postal code
060001 - 060011
Area code(s)(+7) 7122
Vehicle registrationE, 06
Websiteatyrau.gov.kz/index.php/en/

Atyrau is famous for its oil and gas industries. It has a population of 355,117 as of 2020. It is predominantly made up of Kazakhs, the minorities being Russians, Koreans, Tatars and Uzbeks.

HistoryEdit

The wooden fort at the mouth of the Yaik River was founded in 1645 as Nizhny Yaitzky gorodok (literally, Lower Yaik Fort) by the Russian trader Gury Nazarov, a native of Yaroslavl, who specialized in trade with Khiva and Bukhara. The fort was plundered by the Yaik Cossacks, leading the Guriev family to rebuild it in stone (1647–62). Tsar Alexis sent a garrison of Streltsy to protect the fort from Cossack incursions. Despite these efforts, the Cossack rebel Stepan Razin held the town in 1667 and 1668. The fort gradually lost its strategic significance and was demolished in 1810. Between 1708 and 1992 the city was known as Guriev. The Kazakh name Atyrau means 'river delta'.

Two parts of the world have the city. The side of Samarskaya (right side of the river) lies in Europe and the left bank of Bukharskaya is in Asia. It was established in 1615, by the employer Mikhail Guriev, who applied the decree to tzar Mikhail Fedorovich for a monopoly in the mouth of Ural to fish sturgeons.[1]

Origin of the nameEdit

Murzaev E. Dictionary of popular geographical terms (1984) states:

"The branched coast of a large lake or sea, on which appeared the bay and islands, the estuaries of rivers and capes. The north-eastern coast of the Caspian Sea, including its alyp, the locals still call Atyrau."

A. Nurmaganbetov and M. Khobdabayev states:

"The word atyrau, which earlier means "island", also grasps the concept of the word saga -" the mouth of the river, "and this is natural, whatever the river, at the point where it enters the ocean or the sea, its mouth branches out, and between each branch appears dry We think that this is the main reason for joint use of Atyrau together with the "mouth of the river".

Ecological Kazakh-Russian dictionary (2001) states:

Atyrau is a tract, a cane shoal in the mouth of the Urals.

GeographyEdit

Atyrau (together with Aktau) is Kazakhstan's main harbour city on the Caspian Sea, Atyrau at the delta of the Ural River. Atyrau city is approximately 20 metres (66 feet) below sea level. The city is considered to be located both in Asia and Europe, as it is divided by the Ural River.

The city is a hub for the oil-rich Caspian Depression; because of this, many oil wells have been drilled in the Tengiz Field and Kashagan Field areas. An oil pipeline runs from Atyrau to Samara, where it joins the Russian pipeline system. A separate oil pipeline runs from the Tengiz field to the Russian Black Sea port of Novorossiisk.

DemographicsEdit

At the beginning of 2020, the population of the city is 290,700 people, 355,117 people in the territory of the city akimat.

National composition (at the beginning of 2020):

In total - 355,117 people.

ClimateEdit

Atyrau
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
16
 
 
−3
−9
 
 
12
 
 
−1
−9
 
 
16
 
 
7
−2
 
 
17
 
 
17
7
 
 
28
 
 
25
14
 
 
17
 
 
31
19
 
 
12
 
 
34
21
 
 
10
 
 
32
19
 
 
9
 
 
25
13
 
 
18
 
 
16
6
 
 
16
 
 
5
−2
 
 
16
 
 
−1
−7
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: http://www.pogodaiklimat.ru/climate/35700.htm

Atyrau's climate is semi-arid (Köppen climate classification BSk), just shy of being classified as arid (Köppen climate classification BWk), with hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is low throughout the year. Snow is common, though light in winter. The lowest temperature on record is −37.9 °C (−36.2 °F), recorded in 1909, and the highest temperature is 42.7 °C (108.9 °F), recorded in 1984.[2] It is much more continental than areas further west on the European continent, with summers characterized by temperatures averaging 33 °C (91 °F) and lack of precipitation, resembling continental hot-summer mediterranean climates, and subarctic winters with little snow but with chilling temperatures. These vast temperature swings are more comparable to Siberia and the North American plains.

Climate data for Atyrau (1991–2020, extremes 1881–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.5
(50.9)
15.0
(59.0)
26.3
(79.3)
32.5
(90.5)
38.9
(102.0)
42.8
(109.0)
42.7
(108.9)
44.6
(112.3)
40.1
(104.2)
29.6
(85.3)
20.0
(68.0)
11.8
(53.2)
44.6
(112.3)
Average high °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−1.3
(29.7)
6.8
(44.2)
17.3
(63.1)
25.3
(77.5)
31.3
(88.3)
33.7
(92.7)
32.2
(90.0)
24.7
(76.5)
15.6
(60.1)
5.3
(41.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
15.6
(60.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.4
(20.5)
−5.6
(21.9)
1.9
(35.4)
11.6
(52.9)
19.4
(66.9)
25.1
(77.2)
27.4
(81.3)
25.6
(78.1)
18.4
(65.1)
10.2
(50.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−4.2
(24.4)
10.4
(50.7)
Average low °C (°F) −9.3
(15.3)
−9.0
(15.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
6.5
(43.7)
13.7
(56.7)
18.8
(65.8)
21.0
(69.8)
19.2
(66.6)
12.7
(54.9)
5.5
(41.9)
−1.6
(29.1)
−7.0
(19.4)
5.7
(42.3)
Record low °C (°F) −37.9
(−36.2)
−37.4
(−35.3)
−32.3
(−26.1)
−12.3
(9.9)
−2.3
(27.9)
2.3
(36.1)
8.1
(46.6)
4.8
(40.6)
−5.7
(21.7)
−15.7
(3.7)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−35.8
(−32.4)
−37.9
(−36.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 16
(0.6)
12
(0.5)
16
(0.6)
17
(0.7)
28
(1.1)
17
(0.7)
12
(0.5)
10
(0.4)
9
(0.4)
18
(0.7)
16
(0.6)
16
(0.6)
187
(7.4)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 3
(1.2)
6
(2.4)
2
(0.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
2
(0.8)
6
(2.4)
Average rainy days 4 4 6 8 9 7 6 5 5 8 10 6 78
Average snowy days 14 11 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 11 50
Average relative humidity (%) 84 80 74 58 50 45 45 46 52 64 80 84 64
Average dew point °C (°F) −11
(12)
−10
(14)
−3
(27)
2
(36)
7
(45)
9
(48)
11
(52)
10
(50)
6
(43)
2
(36)
−2
(28)
−6
(21)
1
(34)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 98 138 167 245 311 330 343 323 267 196 105 75 2,598
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[2]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990),[3] Time and Date (dewpoints 2005–2015)[4]

IndustryEdit

Oil industryEdit

The third biggest refinery in Kazakhstan is located in Atyrau.[5] Atyrau Refinery is operated by KazMunayGas and has a capacity of 16,600 m³/day (2012). A deep oil refining complex is under construction which is the final stage of complete reconstruction of Atyrau Oil Refinery. This project is designed to process 2.4 million tons/year of raw materials (oil and vacuum gas oil). The project will increase the depth of the oil processing at the refinery by 2016 to 85%. The volume of oil refining will reach 5.5 million tons per year.[6]

Atyrau is located near Tengiz field, which is operated in part by Chevron.[7] Most families of Chevron employees live in Dostyk village, a compound that includes housing, recreational facilities, and an international school.[8] Atyrau also has expatriate populations working for Agip, ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, and ConocoPhillips.[9]

EducationEdit

The city contains Atyrau University.

SportsEdit

The city is home to the basketball team BC Barsy Atyrau. The team competes in the international FIBA Asia Champions Cup and the Kazakhstan Basketball Championship. It plays its home games at the Sports and Recreation complex Atyrau. There's a multi-use stadium called Munaishy Stadium, which is mostly used for football matches and it's home to the football club FC Atyrau. The stadium's capacity is 8,690 spectators.[10]

TransportationEdit

AirEdit

 
Entrance to the Atyrau Airport

Atyrau Airport (IATA: GUW, ICAO: UATG) serves the city of Atyrau. The airport is located 8 km northwest of Atyrau. The airport hosts 6 airlines, mostly operating domestic flights, and is the focus city of the flag carrier airline Air Astana. In 2019, it was the 5th busiest airport in Kazakhstan, as 937,032 people had passed the airport in that year. There are some international destinations, such as flights to Moscow, operated by Aeroflot, Amsterdam and Istanbul, both operated by Air Astana.

RailwayEdit

 
Train from Moscow to Almaty staying at the Atyrau Railway Station

There is a railway station, located northeast of Atyrau. There are mainly domestic routes, such as routes to large cities Almaty, Aktobe and Nur-Sultan, but there's also international routes, such as a route to Russian cities Astrakhan, Saratov, Moscow, Volgograd and Tajikistani cities Kulob, Khujand, Dushanbe and Uzbekistan's capital Tashkent.

International relationsEdit

Twin townsEdit

Atyrau is twinned with:

Bridges of AtyrauEdit

On August 28, 1965, the first real reinforced concrete bridge in the city, passing through the Ural River, was built and put into operation. The bridge is 259 meters (847.9 feet) long and 10 meters (32.8 feet) high. The bridge connects Satpayev Avenue and Abay Street. On the right European coast on Satpayev Avenue, the akimat (mayor's office) of the city and akimat (governor) of the Atyrau region adjoin the bridge.

In 2001, a unique pedestrian suspension bridge was built. The 551-meter (1807.7 feet)-long bridge is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the longest pedestrian bridge in the world. From the middle of the bridge over the Urals there are views of Azattyk Avenue and its surroundings.

In 2009, the Sultan Beibars was opened - a four-lane bridge with a throughput capacity of 5–7 thousand cars a day, 800 meters (2624.6 feet) long with access roads, 380.74 meters (1249.1 feet) long and 22 meters (72.17 feet) wide. The width of the roadway is 16 meters (52.49 feet), plus two walking paths of 2.5 meters (8.2 feet) each.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Atyrau". Archived from the original on 2021-04-14. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  2. ^ a b "pogoda.ru.net Погода и Климат". Retrieved January 3, 2022.
  3. ^ "Atyrary (Atyrau) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  4. ^ "Climate & Weather Averages in Atyrau, Kazakhstan". Time and Date. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  5. ^ Company Overview of Atyrau Refinery LLP
  6. ^ "Japanese Banks Provide $297.5 million Loan to Atyrau Oil Refinery". The Gazette of Central Asia. Satrapia. 15 August 2012.
  7. ^ "Kazakhstan". chevron.com. Retrieved 2016-12-06.
  8. ^ "DAIS | Touching Hearts Strengthening Minds". www.daiskz.org. Retrieved 2016-12-06.
  9. ^ "General Information". atyrau.globaloutpostservices.com. Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-06.
  10. ^ "Как обновится стадион «Мунайшы» - Футбол".
  11. ^ "Есть ли побратимы у Актау и других городов Казахстана".

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 47°07′N 51°53′E / 47.117°N 51.883°E / 47.117; 51.883