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Magnitogorsk (Russian: Магнитого́рск, IPA: [məɡnʲɪtɐˈɡorsk], lit. city of the magnetic mountain) is an industrial city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern side of the extreme southern extent of the Ural Mountains by the Ural River. Population: 407,775 (2010 Census); 418,545 (2002 Census); 440,321 (1989 Census).
Magnitogorsk State Technical University
|Federal subject||Chelyabinsk Oblast|
|City status since||1931|
|• Mayor||Sergey Berdnikov|
|• Total||392.35 km2 (151.49 sq mi)|
|Elevation||370 m (1,210 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||44th in 2010|
|• Density||1,000/km2 (2,700/sq mi)|
|• Subordinated to||City of Magnitogorsk|
|• Capital of||City of Magnitogorsk|
|• Urban okrug||Magnitogorsky Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Magnitogorsky Urban Okrug|
|Time zone||UTC+5 (MSK+2 )|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 3519|
|Twin towns||Brandenburg an der Havel, Gomel, Huai'an|
It was named after the Magnitnaya Mountain, a geological anomaly that once consisted almost completely of iron ore, around 55% to 60% iron. It is the second-largest city in Russia that is not the administrative center of any federal subject or district. Magnitogorsk contains the largest iron and steel works in the country, Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. The official motto of the city is "The place where Europe and Asia meet", as the city occupies land in both Europe and Asia.
Magnitogorsk was founded in 1743 as part of the Orenburg Line of forts built during the reign of the Empress Elizabeth. By 1747 the settlement had grown large enough to justify the building of a small wooden chapel named subsequently "The Church of the Holy Trinity".
Russian iron-ore mining in this region dates back to 1752, when two entrepreneurs named Tverdysh and Myasnikov decided to check on the feasibility of mining in the area that became famous later. They managed to take full advantage of the fact that the Magnitnaya mountain did not belong to anyone at that time - they secured it for themselves by way of petition to Empress Elizabeth. In 1759, the petition was eventually accepted, and they launched iron-ore production.
The city underwent rapid change in the 1930s, when according to Stalin's Five-Year-Plans, Magnitogorsk was to become a one-industry town modeled after two of the most advanced steel-producing cities in the United States at that time – Gary, Indiana, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. At this time, hundreds of foreign experts streamed in, in order to implement and direct the work. 
In 1928 a Soviet delegation arrived in Cleveland, Ohio to discuss with American consulting company Arthur G. McKee a plan to set up in Magnitogorsk a copy of the US Steel steel-mill in Gary. The contract was increased four times, and eventually the new plant had a capacity of over four million tons annually.
It was a showpiece of Soviet achievement. Huge reserves of iron ore in the area made it a prime location to build a steel-plant capable of challenging its Western rivals. However, a large proportion of the workforce, as ex-peasants, typically had few industrial skills and little industrial experience. To solve these issues, several hundred foreign specialists arrived to direct the work, including a team of architects headed by the German Ernst May.
According to the original plans, the city was to have followed the linear city design, with rows of similar superblock neighborhoods running parallel to the factory, with a strip of greenery, or greenbelt, separating them. Planners would align living and production spheres so as to minimize necessary travel time: workers would generally live in a sector of the residential band closest to the sector of the industrial band in which they worked.
However, by the time that May completed his plans for Magnitogorsk, construction of both factory and housing had already started. The sprawling factory and enormous cleansing lakes had left little room available for development, and May therefore had to redesign his settlement to fit the modified site. This modification resulted in a city being more "rope-like" than linear. Although the industrial area is concentrated on the left bank of the river Ural, and most residential complexes are separated and located on its right bank, the city inhabitants are still subjected to noxious fumes and factory smoke.
The book Behind the Urals, by John Scott, documents the industrial development of Magnitogorsk during the 1930s. Scott discusses the fast-paced industrial and social developments during Stalin's first five-year plan and the rising paranoia of the Soviet regime preceding the Great Purge of the late 1930s.
In 1937 foreigners were told to leave and Magnitogorsk was declared a closed city. There is little reliable information about events and development of the city during the closed period.
The city played an important role during World War II because it supplied much of the steel for the Soviet war-machine and its strategic location east of the Ural Mountains made Magnitogorsk safe from seizure by the German Army.
During perestroika the closed-city status was removed and foreigners were allowed to visit the city again. The years after perestroika brought a significant change in the life of the city; the Iron and Steel Plant was reorganized as a joint-stock company Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works (MISW or MMK), which helped with the reconstruction of the railway and the building of a new airport.
Administrative and municipal statusEdit
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Magnitogorsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Magnitogorsk is incorporated as Magnitogorsky Urban Okrug.
The city is connected by the Magnitogorsk International Airport and by a railway. Public transportation includes trams, buses, and taxis. The city is ranked 8th in the world and 2nd in Russia for automobile congestion.
Education and cultureEdit
There are also three theatres: Pushkin Drama Theatre (the oldest in the city), the Opera and Ballet House, and the Puppet Theatre. The Church of the Ascension of the Lord opened in 2004.
Metallurg Magnitogorsk is an ice hockey team based in Magnitogorsk, playing in the Kontinental Hockey League. Evgeni Malkin (b. 1986) of the Pittsburgh Penguins and Nikolai Kulemin (b. 1986) of the New York Islanders both used to play for the club and both are Magnitogorsk natives. Metallurg Magnitogorsk won Gagarin Cup in 2013–14 KHL season and 2015-16 KHL season.
The town's football team is FC Magnitogorsk playing in the Amateur Football League. Located in the vicinity of the city, Abzakovo is a popular mountain skiing base built by the MMK (see the URL below).
Several sports clubs are active in the city:
|Metallurg Magnitogorsk||Ice Hockey||1955||Kontinental Hockey League||1st||Arena Metallurg|
|Stalnye Lisy||Ice Hockey||2009||Junior Hockey League||Jr. 1st||Arena Metallurg|
|Magnitka-Universitet||Basketball||?||Men's Basketball Supreme League||3rd||MGTU Sports Hall|
Magnitogorsk was mentioned in the Blacksmith Institute's 2007 survey of the world's worst polluted cities, placed in the report's unranked list of the 25 most polluted places outside the top ten. Pollutants include lead, sulfur dioxide, heavy metals and other air pollutants. According to the local hospital, only 1% of all children living in the city are in good health. The Blacksmith Institute says that, according to a local newspaper report, "only 28% of infants born in 1992 were healthy, and only 27% had healthy mothers". However, according to Blacksmith Institute, plant managers have upgraded much of their equipment in recent years and emissions have been reduced by about 60%.
Magnitogorsk has a distinct four-season humid continental climate similar to those found in the North American Plains with warmer summers than subarctic climates, but with relatively severe winters for the latitude. This climate type is typical for southerly Russian areas far from large bodies of water. The average July high is around 25 °C (77 °F) with lows of 13 °C (55 °F) with January averages ranging from −10 °C (14 °F) in daytime high to −18 °C (0 °F) in average low. Temperatures approaching 34 °C (93 °F) or above have been measured from May to September with real severe frosts below −36 °C (−33 °F) have been measured in all other months than that except transitional months April and October.
|Climate data for Magnitogorsk|
|Record high °C (°F)||3.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−10.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−14.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−18.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−42.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||19
|Average rainy days||0.1||0.2||2||7||12||13||15||13||12||9||4||0.4||88|
|Average snowy days||17||14||11||5||1||0.2||0||0.1||1||6||13||15||83|
|Average relative humidity (%)||83||80||80||67||58||60||67||68||69||73||81||82||72|
Twin towns and sister citiesEdit
The city is twinned with:
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Resolution #161
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- "Magnitogorsk". Google Arts & Culture. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- "Magnetic Mountain". Seventeen Moments in Soviet History. June 17, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Ball, Alan M. (April 2, 2018). "Imagining America: Influence and Images in Twentieth-century Russia". Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Retrieved April 2, 2018 – via Google Books.
- McCollough, J. Brady (February 8, 2014). "Evgeni Malkin: A Russian tale with roots founded in ice and iron". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- INRIX. "Magnitogorsk's Scorecard Report". INRIX - INRIX. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- The World's Worst Polluted Places: The Top Ten, Blacksmith Institute, September 2007
- "Magnitogorsk, Russia Climate Summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- "Magnitogorsk, Russia Weather Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- "Weather and Climate - The Climate of Magnitogorsk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved April 6, 2016.
- Законодательное Собрание Челябинской области. Постановление №161 от 25 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении перечня муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав», в ред. Постановления №2255 от 23 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в перечень муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южноуральская панорама", №111–112, 14 июня 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Resolution #161 of November 25, 2006 On Adoption of the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise, as amended by the Resolution #2255 of October 23, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise. Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Scott, John, Behind the Urals: An American Worker in Russia's City of Steel, Indiana University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-253-20536-0
- Degtyarev A. G., Letopis' gory Magnitnoy i goroda Magnitogorska, 1993.
- Kotkin, Stephen. Steeltown, USSR:Soviet Society in the Gorbachev Era
- Kotkin, Stephen, Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization.
- Official Magnitogorsk Administration Site ‹See Tfd›(in English)
- http://www.dialogpress.ru/ Magnitogorsk Main News
- http://macalester.edu/courses/geog61/aritz/magnitogorsk.html Macalester College site about Magnitogorsk
- Magnitogorsk and Vicinity (Abzakovo, Bannoye)
- The Soviet Steel City at Magnitogorsk
- Magnitogorsk Photos ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)