Russo-Turkish War (1568–1570)

The Russo-Turkish War (1568–1570) or Don-Volga-Astrakhan campaign of 1569[3] (referred to in Ottoman sources as the Astrakhan Expedition) was a war between the Tsardom of Russia and the Ottoman Empire over the Astrakhan Khanate. It was the first of twelve Russo-Turkish wars ending with World War I in 1914-18.

Russo-Turkish War (1568–1570)
Part of the Russo-Turkish Wars
Date1568–1570
Location
Result Russian victory
Belligerents
Russia

Ottoman Empire

Commanders and leaders
Ivan the Terrible
Pyotr Serebrianyi
Selim II
Sokollu Mehmet Paşa
Kasim Paşa
Devlet I Giray
Strength
30,000 troops[1] 20,000 troops[2]
30,000[2]–50,000 troops[1]
Casualties and losses
unknown

Heavy.

  • Over two-thirds of the forces perished.
  • Ottoman fleet scattered.

In 1556 the Astrakhan Khanate was conquered by Ivan the Terrible, who had a new fortress built on a steep hill overlooking the Volga.[4]

In 1568 the Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmet Paşa, who was the real power in the administration of the Ottoman Empire under Selim II, initiated the first encounter between the Ottoman Empire and her future northern arch-rival Russia. The results presaged the many disasters to come. A plan to unite the Volga and Don by a canal was detailed in Constantinople.

In the summer of 1569 in response to Moscovy's interference in Ottoman commercial and religious pilgrimages, the Ottoman Empire sent a large force under Kasim Paşa of 20,000 Turks and 50,000 Tatars to lay siege to Astrakhan.[5] Meanwhile an Ottoman fleet besieged Azov. However, a sortie from the garrison under Knyaz (prince) Serebrianyi-Obolenskiy, the military governor of Astrakhan, drove back the besiegers. A Russian relief army of 30,000 attacked and scattered the workmen and the Tatar force sent for their protection. On their way home up to 70% of the remaining soldiers and workers froze to death in the steppes or became victims of attacks by Circassians. The Ottoman fleet was destroyed by a storm. The Ottoman Empire, though militarily defeated, achieved safe passage for Muslim pilgrims and traders from Central Asia and the destruction of the Russian fort on the Terek River.[5]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Николай Шефов. Битвы России. Военно-историческая библиотека. М., 2002
  2. ^ a b মধ্যযুগের মুসলিম ইতিহাস (আশরাফউদ্দিন আহমেদ), অটোমান তুর্কি সাম্রাজ্য, পৃ. ২৭৫
  3. ^ DeVries, Kelly Robert (2014-05-01). "The European tributary states of the Ottoman Empire in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries". Choice. 51 (09): 51–5179. doi:10.5860/CHOICE.51-5179. ISSN 0009-4978.
  4. ^ Martin 1996, p. 354.
  5. ^ a b Martin 1996, p. 356-357.

SourcesEdit

  • Attila Weiszhár and Balázs Weiszhár: Lexicon of Wars, Atheneaum publisher, Budapest 2004.
  • Martin, Janet (1996). Medieval Russia:980-1584. Cambridge University Press.