Special Operations Forces (Russia)
The Special Operations Forces of Russia, or SOF (Russian: Силы специальных операций; ССО, tr. Sily spetsial’nykh operatsii; SSO) are strategic-level special forces under the Special Operations Forces Command (Russian: командование сил специальных операций; KCCO, tr. Komandovanie sil spetsial’nalnykh operatsii; KSSO, or KSO) of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
|Special Operations Forces|
|Sily spetsial’nykh operatsii (SSO)|
|Active||2009 (operational from 2013)–present|
|Branch||Special Operations Forces Command|
|Part of||Russian Armed Forces|
|Garrison/HQ||Kubinka-2, Moscow region|
|Engagements||2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine |
Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War
The first units of what would become the Special Operations Forces were formed in 2009 as part of the continuing 2008 Russian military reform. The Special Operations Forces Command was set up in 2012 and announced in March 2013 by the Chief of the General Staff Valery Gerasimov. According to Gerasimov, the SOF was designed as a strategic-level asset, whose primary missions would be foreign interventions, including sabotage and anti-terrorism operations. SOF do not belong to any branch of the Russian armed forces and are distinct from the Special Forces of the Main Directorate of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces that until 2010 were under the Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU) and whose subsequent subordination appears to be unclear. Russia's SOF are manned exclusively by professional personnel hired on contract, in commissioned officer positions.
In February 2015, President of Russia Vladimir Putin decreed that 27 February be the Day of the SOF to mark, according to Russia's official news media (albeit not acknowledged formally), the establishment of Russian control over the building of the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in Simferopol, Ukraine, in February 2014.
Mission and methodsEdit
The Forces are a highly mobile, well-trained and equipped, constant combat readiness special operations force of the Russian Ministry of Defense, designed to perform specific tasks in order to protect the interests of Russian Federation (with application of military force, by necessity), both within the country and abroad, in peacetime and in wartime.
The Russian Ministry of Defense defines the term "special operation" as "methods and ways of fighting not characteristic of conventional forces: reconnaissance and sabotage, subversion and sedition, counter-terrorism, counter-sabotage, counterintelligence, guerrilla, counter-guerrilla and other activities".
In 2009, as a part of the comprehensive reform of the Russian Federation's Armed Forces, Special Operations Directorate, subordinate directly to the Chief of the General Staff, was created on the basis of the military unit Senezh in the Moscow region. The unit saw extensive action in the Caucasus region and earned the nickname "podsolnukhi" (sunflowers), a nickname given to the soldiers assigned to the unit while serving in Chechnya. It was reported that Colonel Oleg Martianov, who later became a member of the board of the Military-Industrial Commission, was one of the founders and first commander of the SOF in 2009−2013.
On 6 March 2013 the Chief of General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces Valery Gerasimov announced the beginning of the Special Operations Forces creation. While speaking to foreign military attaches in Moscow, he said: "After reviewing the practice of the formation, training and the use of special operations forces in the leading countries of the world, Russia's Defense Ministry has also begun to create them... A corresponding command was created, which is engaged in planning work and implements plan of training of the Armed Forces... A set of documents has already been elaborated to determine the direction of development, methods of training and application of these forces".
In March 2013, according to Russian media reports, creation of the Special Operations Center of the Ministry of Defense of Russia for around 500 professional soldiers began in the suburban village of Kubinka-2. Formation of the Center was scheduled to be completed by the end of 2013. The center was directly subordinated to the Special Operations Forces Command of the Russian Ministry of Defense.
At the end of April 2013, units of Special Operations Forces conducted a special tactics exercise at Elbrus mountains at the height of 4,5 kilometers. The exercise was dedicated to practice transportation of one of the SSO units by military transport aviation and army aviation, as well as air insertion of personnel and cargo into target area.
Operations and casualtiesEdit
- In 2014, unidentified men with military weapons began blockading Ukrainian bases in Crimea, and on February 27, around 50 men seized the Crimean parliament building. While claiming to be a local militia, this well-armed and highly professional unit turned out to be the first deployment of Russia's special operators. According to Russian media reports, the commander of SOF then was Alexey Dyumin, who personally conducted operations in Crimea.
- Special Operations Forces of Russia have been involved in Syria, primarily conducting target acquisition for Russian Air Force combat planes as well as for other purposes, such as the training of Syrian government troops, elimination of fighters and destroying critical enemy objects. During the battle of Palmyra in March 2016, Special Operations Forces senior lieutenant Alexander Prokhorenko was killed.
- SOF have been tasked in recovering the flight recorder of Russia's downed Su-24M back in November 2015, and reconnoitering targets for cruise missile strikes, disruption behind enemy lines through ambushes, high value targeted assassinations and retaliation strikes against select groups of fighters. The SSO also played a crucial role in the battle for Palmyra in Spring, 2016 and provided support in the Syrian push for Aleppo in the same year.
- A commander of a special missions detachment was awarded a Gold Star and named a Hero of the Russian Federation after his 16-man unit managed to successfully repulse multiple attacks conducted by an estimated 300 jihadists without loss, after being surrounded by the jihadis and abandoned by their Syrian allies. Three other operators from the same unit were also awarded honors.
- Special Purpose Center "Senezh"
- Special Purpose Center "Kubinka-2"
- Mountain Warfare Center "Terskol"
- Special Aviation Brigade
- 561st Emergency Rescue Squadron
While official numbers are classified, between Senezh and Kubinka there are between 2,000 and 2,500 total personnel. Additionally, the Command also has supporting elements, that provide Combat Support and Combat Service Support functions. Furthermore, the Command has a dedicated special aviation brigade that directly controls combat aviation assets at Torzhok, and a squadron of Ilyushin Il-76 transport aircraft at the Migalovo airfield near Tver.
The training of the officer recruit special operators is carried out in the Ryazan Higher Airborne Command School – RVVDKU (department of special and military intelligence and the department of the use of special forces) and the Novosibirsk Higher Military Command School – NVVKU (department of special intelligence and the chair of the special reconnaissance and airborne training). At Senezh, potential operators learn skydiving, mountaineering, swimming and scuba diving, and storming buildings and homes, while Kubinka-2 focuses on marritime operations and recon and controls several naval special operations detachments. There is also a cold weather/mountaineering training centre at Mount Elbrus named "Terskol," in Kabardino-Balkaria. Additionally, depending on the individual tasks the soldiers are being prepared for, the training is more in-depth.
- Arcteryx LEAF kit
- Special Operations Forces kit for extremely hot climate
- Propper Multicam BDU
- Tactical Performance ATACS FG Tactical Field Jacket / Tactical Combat Pants
- Tactical Performance ATACS FG Battle Strike Uniform Coat / Trousers
- Tactical Performance Multicam Tactical Field Jacket / Tactical Combat Pants
- Tactical Performance Multicam Battle Strike Uniform Coat / Trousers
- Tactical Performance Multicam Tactical Combat Shirt
- Phantom special thermal underwear
- Ratnik VKBO EMR camouflage combat uniforms
- Arctic raid suit "Nanuk," other special equipment for low temperatures
- «Voin-Kiver RSP»
- LSHZ 1+
- 5,45 Design Spartan 1
- 5,45 Design Spartan 2
- 5,45 Design Spartan 3
- 6Sh112 LBV
- 6Sh117 LBV
- 6B43 armor vest
- «Redut-M» armour vest
- STICH PROFI® Loading system plate carrier
- STICH PROFI® Lightweight plate carrier
- FORT Defender 2
- 5.11 Tactec Plate Carrier
- ARS ARMA Tactec Plate Carrier
- Raidgear&MBC "Phantom" universal Plate Carrier
- Raidgear&MBC MBSVest Type 2 and 3 Molle Minus universal bodyarmor
- Various Crye Precision, Survival corps, SSO/SPSON, Gear Craft, Wartech, FORT, ANA tactical, ARSARMA, Armocom plate carriers
- FORT «Fortres K14» protective suit
- FORT «Raid-L» protective suit
- PMK gas mask
- GKN-7 diving suit
- «Aqualung Amphora» rebreather
- «Veer-6» ballistic shield
- PT-2 thermal monocular
- Peltor Com Tac XP headset
- NRS-2 special scout knife
- ZALA UAVs
- Strelets reconnaissance, control and communications system
- «Arbalet» parachute system
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