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Special Operations Forces (Russia)

The Special Operations Forces of Russia, or SOF (Russian: Силы специальных операций; ССО, tr. Sily spetsial’nykh operatsii; SSO)[6][7] are strategic-level special forces under the Special Operations Forces Command (Russian: командование сил специальных операций; KCCO, tr. Komandovanie sil spetsial’nalnykh operatsii; KSSO, or KSO)[7] of the General Staff[7] of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

Special Operations Forces
Sily spetsial’nykh operatsii (SSO)
Great emblem of the Special Operations Forces.svg
Active2009; (operational from 2013 - present)
Country Russian Federation
BranchSpecial Operations Forces Command
TypeSpetsnaz
RoleSpecial Operations
SizeClassified
Part ofMedium emblem of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (27.01.1997-present).svg Russian Armed Forces
Garrison/HQKubinka-2, Moscow region
ColorsBlack
AnniversariesFebruary 27
Engagements2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine
Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War
Commanders
Notable
commanders
  • Oleg Martyanov (2009-2013)
  • Alexey Dyumin (2013-2015)
  • Alexander Matovnikov[5] (2015-2018)

The first units of what would become the Special Operations Forces were transferred from the GRU in 2009 as part of the continuing 2008 Russian military reform.[8] The Special Operations Forces Command was set up in 2012 and announced in March 2013 by the Chief of the General Staff Valery Gerasimov.[9][10] According to Gerasimov, the SOF was designed as a strategic-level asset, whose primary missions would be foreign interventions, including sabotage and anti-terrorism operations.[11][12] SOF do not belong to any branch of the Russian armed forces and are distinct from the Special Forces of the Main Directorate of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces that until 2010 were under the Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU) and whose subsequent subordination appears to be unclear.[13][9] Russia's SOF are manned exclusively by professional personnel hired on contract, in commissioned officer positions.[9]

In February 2015, President of Russia Vladimir Putin decreed that 27 February be the Day of the SOF to mark, according to Russia's official news media (albeit not acknowledged formally), the establishment of Russian control over the building of the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in Simferopol, Ukraine, in February 2014.[14][8][9]

Mission and methodsEdit

The Forces are a highly mobile, well-trained and equipped, constant combat readiness special operations force of the Russian Ministry of Defense, designed to perform specific tasks in order to protect the interests of Russian Federation (with application of military force, by necessity), both within the country and abroad, in peacetime and in wartime.

The Russian Ministry of Defense defines the term "special operation" as "methods and ways of fighting not characteristic of conventional forces: reconnaissance and sabotage, subversion and sedition, counter-terrorism, counter-sabotage, counterintelligence, guerrilla, counter-guerrilla and other activities".[15][16]

HistoryEdit

In 2009, as a part of the comprehensive reform of the Russian Federation's Armed Forces, Special Operations Directorate, subordinate directly to the Chief of the General Staff, was created on the basis of the GRU's special missions unit Senezh in the Moscow region.[8] The unit saw extensive action in the Caucasus region and earned the nickname "podsolnukhi" (sunflowers), a nickname given to the soldiers assigned to the unit while serving in Chechnya. It was reported that Colonel Oleg Martianov, who later became a member of the board of the Military-Industrial Commission, was one of the founders and first commander of the SOF in 2009−2013.[17][18]

In 2012, the Special Operations Directorate was reorganized as Special Operations Command, which was followed by plans to upscale the Forces manpower up to 9 special purpose brigades.[9]

On 6 March 2013 the Chief of General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces Valery Gerasimov announced the beginning of the Special Operations Forces creation. While speaking to foreign military attaches in Moscow, he said: "After reviewing the practice of the formation, training and the use of special operations forces in the leading countries of the world, Russia's Defense Ministry has also begun to create them... A corresponding command was created, which is engaged in planning work and implements plan of training of the Armed Forces... A set of documents has already been elaborated to determine the direction of development, methods of training and application of these forces".[10][19]

In March 2013, according to Russian media reports, creation of the Special Operations Center of the Ministry of Defense of Russia for around 500 professional soldiers began in the suburban village of Kubinka-2. Formation of the Center was scheduled to be completed by the end of 2013. The center was directly subordinated to the Special Operations Forces Command of the Russian Ministry of Defense.

At the end of April 2013, units of Special Operations Forces conducted a special tactics exercise at Elbrus mountains at the height of 4,5 kilometers. The exercise was dedicated to practice transportation of one of the SSO units by military transport aviation and army aviation, as well as air insertion of personnel and cargo into target area.[20][21]

In May 2013, the General Staff said that SOF would be tasked with security of the Winter Olympic Games in Sochi and that SOF now comprised air and naval components.[22]

Operations and casualtiesEdit

  • In 2014, unidentified men with military weapons began blockading Ukrainian bases in Crimea, and on February 27, around 50 men seized the Crimean parliament building. While claiming to be a local militia, this well-armed and highly professional unit turned out to be the first deployment of Russia's special operators.[23][24][25][26] According to Russian media reports, the commander of SOF then was Alexey Dyumin, who personally conducted operations in Crimea.[27][28]
  • The SSO were suspected to be responsible for multiple raids behind enemy lines which killed rebel fighters in the tens of dozens including two prominent commanders from Ahrar al-Sham and Jaysh al-Nasr. Other fighters killed were from Suqour Al-Sham, Hurras Al-Deen and other various rebel factions. Allegedly, 3 members of unit were killed or injured when an ambush was thwarted by National Liberation Front. [39][40][41][42]
  • A commander of a special missions detachment was awarded a Gold Star and named a Hero of the Russian Federation after his 16-man unit managed to successfully repulse multiple attacks conducted by an estimated 300 jihadists without loss, after being surrounded by the jihadis and abandoned by their Syrian allies. Three other operators from the same unit were also awarded honors.[43]
  • On 16 August 2017, Lance corporal Denis Portnyagin, when ambushed with his unit by 40 Daesh terrorists in Syria, was ready to blow himself up with a grenade to keep from being taken captive. He was part of a 4-5 man Russian special forces unit responsible for calling in airstrikes on enemy positions. While some Syrian forces retreated and all the other members of his unit were injured, including the commander and the second officer, he took upon the whole job himself and killed 14 terrorists in the process. Portnyagin’s group was evacuated when another SSO unit joined them. He was awarded the honorary title of Hero of the Russian Federation for this feat.[44]
  • On 20 September 2017, the Russian General Staff said jihadist militants tried to capture a 29-man unit of the Russian military police the day before, whom were monitoring the ceasefire in the Idlib de-escalation zone. The trapped unit fought for several hours but were eventually rescued in a special operation by a joint task force which included the Syrian Air Force, Russian Air Force and the SSO. Three members of the SSO were injured, but Russian forces suffered no fatalities. An estimated 850 jihadists were reportedly killed in the offensive.[45][46]

StructureEdit

  • Special Purpose Center "Senezh"
  • Special Purpose Center "Kubinka-2"
  • 561st Naval Rescue Center
  • 344th Army Aviation Combat Center[47][48]

While official numbers are classified, between Senezh and Kubinka-2 there are between 2,000 and 2,500 total personnel. Additionally, the Command also has supporting elements, that provide Combat Support and Combat Service Support functions. Furthermore, the Command has a dedicated special aviation brigade that directly controls combat aviation assets at Torzhok, and a squadron of Ilyushin Il-76 transport aircraft at the Migalovo airfield near Tver.[48]

TrainingEdit

The training of the officer recruit special operators is carried out in the Ryazan Higher Airborne Command School – RVVDKU (department of special and military intelligence and the department of the use of special forces) and the Novosibirsk Higher Military Command School – NVVKU (department of special intelligence and the chair of the special reconnaissance and airborne training). At Senezh, potential operators learn skydiving, mountaineering, swimming and scuba diving, and storming buildings and homes, while Kubinka-2 focuses on maritime operations and recon and controls several naval special operations detachments. There is also a cold weather/mountaineering training centre at Mount Elbrus named "Terskol," in Kabardino-Balkaria. Additionally, depending on the individual tasks the soldiers are being prepared for, the training is more in-depth.[48]

WeaponsEdit

EquipmentEdit

ApparelEdit

  • Arcteryx LEAF kit
  • Special Operations Forces kit for extremely hot climate
  • Propper Multicam BDU
  • Tactical Performance ATACS FG Tactical Field Jacket / Tactical Combat Pants
  • Tactical Performance ATACS FG Battle Strike Uniform Coat / Trousers
  • Tactical Performance Multicam Tactical Field Jacket / Tactical Combat Pants
  • Tactical Performance Multicam Battle Strike Uniform Coat / Trousers
  • Tactical Performance Multicam Tactical Combat Shirt
  • Phantom special thermal underwear[50]
  • Ratnik VKBO EMR camouflage combat uniforms
  • Arctic raid suit "Nanuk," other special equipment for low temperatures[51]

HelmetsEdit

  • 6B7-1M
  • «Voin-Kiver RSP»
  • LSHZ 1+
  • 6B47
  • 5,45 Design Spartan 1
  • 5,45 Design Spartan 2
  • 5,45 Design Spartan 3

VestsEdit

  • 6Sh112 LBV
  • 6Sh117 LBV
  • 6B43 armor vest
  • 6B45
  • 6B46
  • «Redut-M» armour vest
  • STICH PROFI® Loading system plate carrier
  • STICH PROFI® Lightweight plate carrier
  • FORT Defender 2
  • 5.11 Tactec Plate Carrier
  • ARS ARMA Tactec Plate Carrier
  • Raidgear&MBC "Phantom" universal Plate Carrier
  • Raidgear&MBC MBSVest Type 2 and 3 Molle Minus universal bodyarmor
  • Various Crye Precision, Survival corps, SSO/SPSON, Gear Craft, Wartech, FORT, ANA tactical, ARSARMA, Armocom plate carriers

OtherEdit

  • FORT «Fortres K14» protective suit
  • FORT «Raid-L» protective suit
  • PMK gas mask
  • GKN-7 diving suit
  • «Aqualung Amphora» rebreather
  • «Veer-6» ballistic shield
  • PT-2 thermal monocular
  • Peltor Com Tac XP headset
  • NRS-2 special scout knife
  • ZALA UAVs[52]
  • Strelets reconnaissance, control and communications system[53]
  • «Arbalet» parachute system

Transport VehiclesEdit

Ground vehiclesEdit

AircraftEdit

WatercraftsEdit

  • BRP SEA-DOO GTX LTD PWC
  • BRP SEA-DOO RTX-215 PWC
  • BK-16 and BK-10[54]
  • RBS BlackShadow DPVs (Diver Propulsion Vehicles)[55]

Notable membersEdit

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.wsj.com/articles/russian-special-forces-seen-as-key-to-aleppo-victory-1481884200 |date=18 Oct 2019
  2. ^ Sputnik. "Russian Aviation, Special Forces Play Key Role in Crushing Daesh Near Palmyra". sputniknews.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-11. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  3. ^ "Regime forces advance in Syria's battered Ghouta". News24.
  4. ^ https://southfront.org/in-photos-russian-military-advisers-support-syrian-army-operation-in-northwestern-hama/ |date retrieved=27 Aug 2019
  5. ^ https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Матовников,_Александр_Анатольевич |date retrieved=28 Aug 2019
  6. ^ "Силы специальных операций (ССО)". Ministry of Defense of Russia (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2017-09-06. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b c Marsh, Dr. Christopher (2017). Developments in Russian Special Operations - Russia's Spetsnaz, SOF and Special Operations Forces Command (PDF). CANSOFCOM Education & Research Centre Monograph Series. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Special Operations Forces Command. ISBN 9780660073538. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-10-19. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  8. ^ a b c «Наиболее сложная и опасная работа»: как Россия использует Силы специальных операций Archived 2018-08-28 at the Wayback Machine RT, 27 February 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d e День сил специальных операций в России Archived 2018-08-28 at the Wayback Machine RIA Novosti, 27 February 2018.
  10. ^ a b Россия решила создать силы специальных операций Archived 2018-06-27 at the Wayback Machine RIA Novosti, 6 March 2013.
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  14. ^ Вежливые люди получили свой День Archived 2018-06-12 at the Wayback Machine Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 27 February 2017.
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  19. ^ Начальник Генштаба ВС РФ Валерий Герасимов: Россия создает силы специальных операций Archived 2018-08-28 at the Wayback Machine tvzvazda.ru, 6 March 2013.
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  21. ^ «Вежливые люди» отмечают годовщину Archived 2018-08-27 at the Wayback Machine gazeta.ru, 27 February 2017.
  22. ^ Cозданные в РФ силы спецопераций займутся обеспечением безопасности ОИ Archived 2018-08-28 at the Wayback Machine RIA Novosti, 18 May 2013.
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