The Kabardians (Highland Adyghe: Къэбэрдей адыгэхэр; Lowland Adyghe: Къэбэртай адыгэхэр; Russian: Кабардинцы) or Kabardinians are one of the twelve major Circassian tribes, representing one of the twelve stars on the green-and-gold Circassian flag. They are also commonly known by the plural terms Kabardin, Kebertei, or Kabarday. Along with the Besleney tribe, they speak a distinctive dialect of the Adyghe language. Historically the Kabardians lived in Kabardia, a region of the north Caucasus. In modern times the Kabardians live mostly in the Russian republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, which partly corresponds to the historic region.
A Kabardian man in regular (non-traditional) wear.
|~1,628,500 Kabardian dialect speakers only|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Russia||590,010 (2010 census)|
|Turkey||More than 1,000,000|
|Saudi Arabia||23,000|
|United States||5,500|
|Kabardian Adyghe dialect, Russian, Turkish,|
small minorities professing Orthodox Christianity, Habze and Catholicism
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other Adyghe tribes, Abkhaz, Abaza|
Despite the Soviet administrative divisions that placed Circassians under four different designations and political units, namely Adygeans (Adyghe in Adygea), Cherkessians (Adyghe in Karachay-Cherkessia), Kabardians (Adyghe in Kabardino-Balkaria), and Shapsugians (Adyghe in Krasnodar Krai), all four groups are essentially the same people (Adyghe). Furthermore, Cherkessians are mostly of the Kabardian and Besleney tribes. One of the 12 stars on the green and gold Adyghe flag represents the Kabardian people.
The Kabardians are the largest Circassian (Adyghe) tribe in the world in general, and form the largest Circassian tribe in Russia, Turkey, Egypt, and in some other countries in the region. As of 2002[update] Kabardians numbered around 520,000 in Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia. and about 50,000 in Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia. In Turkey, where more than 1 million of them live, they are concentrated on the Uzunyayla plateau of Kayseri Province and around (Central Turkey), though there are Kabardian villages in Balıkesir, Düzce, Eskişehir (Northwest Turkey), Çorum, Samsun, and Tokat (Black Sea region), amongst many others. Significant populations of Kabardians also live in Jordan; and there are communities in the United States. However, in Israel and Jordan, the Shapsug and Abzakh tribes respectively are the largest.
Religions historically practiced by Kabardins include the native Habze faith, Christianity, and Islam. Majority of Karbardins had converted to Islam by the early 19th century. There are also still some adherents to traditional Habze beliefs, although most Kabardin are now Hanafi Sunni Muslims.
Kabardians also constituted one of the earliest Christian communities in Europe, converting in the late 2nd and early 3rd Centuries. There are also some Roman Catholic Kabardians (possibly descended from families who reportedly converted from Orthodoxy during the 13th century). Kabardians living in Mozdoksky District in the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania are Orthodox Christians. Some of the Kabardians living in the southern part of the neighbouring Kursky district of Stavropol Krai are also Orthodox Christians.
- Aleguko Shogenukov
- Alexander A. Cherkassky
- Alexey Cherkassky – Chancellor of the Russian Empire during the reign of Empress Elizabeth
- Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky – Prince of Kabarda
- Alexander N. Bekovich-Cherkassky
- Amirkhan Shomakhov
- Atazhuko Atazhukin
- Armande Kumpal Kabartay Altaï-Magini
- Aslanbek Khushtov – Member of the Parliament of Kabardino-Balkarian Republic and athlete who has won a gold medal in the 2008 Summer Olympics
- Avenir Tchemerzine – Colonel of the Russian imperial army and mathematician before becoming a bibliographer
- Bidar Kadın – Imperial consort of Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire
- Boris Cherkassky
- Dmitry Cherkassky
- Doamna Ecaterina Cercheza – Princess consort of the Voivode of Moldavia as the wife of Vasile Lupu
- Elmirza Bekovich-Cherkassky
- Fyodor A. Bekovich-Cherkasski
- Fyodor N. Bekovich-Cherkasski
- Grigory Cherkassky
- Idar of Kabardia
- Inal the Great – Prince of Kabarda
- Ismail Bey Atazhukin
- Ivan Amashuk
- Ivan B. Cherkassky – Cousin of Michael I of Russia
- Ivan E. Cherkassky
- Jacop Cherkassky
- Kasbulat Cherkassky
- Kasei Atazhukin
- Kambulat Cherkassky
- Kelemet Cherkassky
- Kudenet Cherkassky
- Kurgoko Atazhukin
- Ladislas du Luart, Comtesse Leïla Hagondokoff – Recipient of the National Order of Merit and National Order of the Legion of Honor (Commander), model for the French high-fashion house Chanel
- Ludmilla Monique Tchérina
- Mahidevran – Imperial consort of Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire
- Mamstryuk Cherkassky
- Maria Temryukovna – Tsaritsa of the Tsardom of Russia as the wife of Ivan the Terrible
- Michael A. Cherkassky I
- Michael A. Cherkassky II
- Michael T. Cherkassky
- Michael Y. Cherkassky
- Mutsal Cherkassky
- Nikita Egupov-Cherkassky
- Peter Amashukov-Cherkassky
- Peter B. Cherkassky
- Roslanbek Atazhukin
- Rusudan of Circassia – Queen consort of Georgia (Kartli) as the wife of Vakhtang the Lawgiver
- Servetseza Kadın – First wife of Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire
- Sholokh Cherkassky
- Simon Cherkassky
- Sunchalei Cherkassky
- Temryuk – Prince of Kabarda
- Vasily Amashukov-Cherkassky
- Vasily Kardanukovich Cherkassky
- Vladimir Cherkassky – Mayor of Moscow (1868–1870)
- Yefim Bekovich-Cherkassky
- Yuri Temirkanov – Music Director and Chief Conductor of the Saint Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra since 1988
- Zaur Tutov
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kabardinians.|
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- Skutsch, Carl (2013). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Routledge. p. 675. ISBN 978-1-135-19388-1.
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- Svetlana Lyagusheva (2005). "Islam and the Traditional Moral Code of Adyghes". Iran and the Caucasus. Brill. 9 (1): 29–35. doi:10.1163/1573384054068123. JSTOR 4030903.
- James Stuart Olson, ed. (1994). An Ethnohistorical dictionary of the Russian and Soviet empires. Greenwood. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-313-27497-8. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "Circassians". Adiga-home.net. 2010. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
The 12 Circassian tribes: Abadzeh Besleney Bzhedug Yegeruqay Zhaney Kabarday Mamheg Natuhay Temirgoy Ubyh Shapsug Hatukay. The twelve stars on the Adyghe Flag also refers to the twelve tribes.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- "Population". Perepis2002.ru. Archived from the original on 20 January 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- "Kabard distribution". Ethnologue.com. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
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