Battle of Poltava

The Battle of Poltava[e] (8 July 1709)[f] was the decisive victory of tsar Peter the Great (Peter I of Russia) against an army of the Swedish Empire under Swedish king Charles XII. It was the largest and most decisive battle in the Great Northern War (1700–1721).

Battle of Poltava
Part of the Swedish invasion of Russia
Battle of Poltava 1709.PNG
Peter the Great at the Battle of Poltava by Louis Caravaque
Date8 July 1709[a]
Location
Poltava, Cossack Hetmanate, Russia (present-day Ukraine)
49°37′53″N 34°33′10″E / 49.63139°N 34.55278°E / 49.63139; 34.55278Coordinates: 49°37′53″N 34°33′10″E / 49.63139°N 34.55278°E / 49.63139; 34.55278
Result

Russian victory

Belligerents
Swedish Empire
Cossack Hetmanate
Russian Imperial Standard 1703.svg Tsardom of Russia
Kalmyk Khanate
Cossack Hetmanate
Commanders and leaders
Charles XII of Sweden
Sweden Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld (POW)
Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt
Ivan Mazepa
Russian Imperial Standard 1703.svg Peter I
Russia Boris Sheremetev
Russia Alexander Menshikov
Russia Jacob Bruce
Ivan Skoropadsky[1]
Strength

Swedish combined army:
24,000 Swedish regulars
  (13,000 cavalry
     11,000 infantry)[2][b]
6,000 irregulars
  1,000 Polish vlach cavalry
    3,000–7,000     Cossacks[c][3]
34 artillery pieces


Total: up to 30,000[4][5][d]


Participated in battle:
8,700 infantry[2]
7,800 cavalry[2]
4 cannons


Total: 16,500


Besieging Poltava:
1,100 infantry
200 cavalry

Russian combined army:
52,100 Russian regulars
  (33,500 infantry
     18,600 cavalry)[2]
23,000 irregulars[2]
  (Cossacks and Kalmyks,
   3,000 Kalmyks arrived
   at the end of the battle)
102 artillery pieces


Total: 75,000[2]


Participated in battle:
24,500 infantry
14,600 dragoons[2]
3,000 Kalmyks[3]
86 cannons


Total: 42,000


Garrison of Poltava:
4,200 infantry
2,000 Cossacks
28 cannons
Casualties and losses

Swedish accounts: 6,900 killed and wounded, 2,800 captured.[6][7][8]


Russian accounts: 9,234 killed, 2,864–2,977 captured.[9][10][11]

Official accounts: 1,345 killed, 3,290 wounded.[7][10]


Other accounts: 5,953 killed and wounded.[12]
Battle of Poltava is located in Ukraine
Battle of Poltava
Location within Ukraine
Battle of Poltava is located in European Russia
Battle of Poltava
Battle of Poltava (European Russia)

During the course of six years in the initial stages of the war, king Charles XII and the Swedish Empire had defeated almost all participants in the anti-Swedish coalition, which initially consisted of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Denmark-Norway and the Tsardom of Russia. The latter under Tsar Peter I's rule was the only one still undefeated. Charles XII therefore chose to invade Russia in the autumn of 1707 and march towards Moscow with a large Swedish army. However, the campaign was complicated by harsh weather conditions and by the Russians applying scorched earth tactics[13]: 704  and surprise attacks, which forced Charles XII to interrupt his march on Moscow and instead march south to establish winter quarters in Little Russia (modern day Ukraine) with the help of Ivan Mazepa, hetman of the Zaporizhian Host.

Until the spring of 1709, Charles XII began a very costly siege of the fortified city of Poltava on the western side of the river Vorskla.[13]: 707–08  To rescue Poltava, Peter I crossed the river in mid-June with a large Russian army to the Swedish side of Vorskla. On June 17, Charles XII fell ill as a result of a gunshot wound to the foot,[14]: 289  and handed over command of the Carolean army to Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld. Despite his injury, Charles XII did not want to miss an opportunity to take up the fight with the tsar and ordered the army to attack the tsar's camp on July 8. Due to poor reconnaissance and disorder in the command during the attack, about a third of the Swedish attack force was lost before the decisive battle against the Russian army, where the Swedes were annihilated. Charles XII withdrew with the rest of his army south to the river Dnieper, which both the king, Mazepa and a couple of thousand Swedes and Cossacks crossed, thus managed to escape the Russians and establish themselves in the Ottoman Empire. The rest of the Carolean army was forced to surrender to the Russians at the village of Perevolochna on July 11, 1709.[15]

The Battle of Poltava, as well as the subsequent capitulation, ended in a decisive victory for Russia and became the greatest military catastrophe in Swedish history. It marked a turning point in the continuation of the war in favour of the anti-Swedish coalition, which as a result of the battle was revived and with renewed vigor attacked the weakened Swedish Empire on several fronts. The battle thus symbolized the beginning of Sweden's final defeat in the war and the end of Sweden's time as the new dominant power in Northern Europe, a position which after the war was taken over by the Russian Empire. The battle is therefore of crucial importance in the history of Sweden as well as Russia and Ukraine.

BackgroundEdit

Charles XII had led Swedish forces to early victories in North Zealand (Summer 1700) and in the Battle of Narva in November 1700. However, it took six years for him to defeat Augustus II of Saxony-Poland.[13]: 701, 703  Peter I withdrew from Poland in the spring of 1706,[13]: 700  and offered to cede his Baltic possessions to Sweden except St. Petersburg, but Charles refused.[13]: 703  Peter subsequently adopted a scorched-earth policy in order to deprive the Swedish forces of supplies.[13]: 704 

Charles ordered a final attack on the Russian heartland with a possible assault on Moscow from his campaign base in Poland. The Swedish army of almost 44,000 men[13]: 704  left Saxony on 22 August 1707 and marched slowly eastwards. Charles took the field in November after waiting for reinforcements to arrive.[13]: 704  Continuing east, he crossed the Vistula River on 25 December 1707, then continued through a hostile Masuria and took Grodno on 26 January 1708 after Russian troops had abandoned the city.[13]: 704  At the time the Russians had been occupied with a large rebellion of Don Cossacks, known as the Bulavin Rebellion (1707–08). This revolt was contained in part by the forces of the Cossack Hetmanate led by Hetman Ivan Mazepa.[13]: 704  The Swedes continued to the area around Smorgon and Minsk, where the army went into winter quarters. Charles left 8,000 dragoons under Maj. Gen. Ernst Detlof von Krassow in western Poland.[16]

Poor weather and road conditions kept the Swedish troops in winter quarters until June 1708. In July the Swedes defeated Marshal Boris Sheremetyev's forces at the Battle of Holowczyn and advanced to the Dnieper River.[13]: 704  During the spring Gen. Lewenhaupt in Courland had been ordered to gather supplies and march his army of about 12,000 men to join Charles' forces. However, his departure from Mitau was delayed until late June and consequently he only joined Charles' forces on 11 October.[17]

Rather than winter in Livonia or wait for Lewenhaupt, Charles decided to move southwards into Ukraine and join Mazepa, who had decided to rebel against Peter.[13]: 706  Peter sent Sheremetev to shadow the Swedish army.[14]: 287  Lewenhaupt followed south and was attacked while crossing a river near a small village that gave name to the Battle of Lesnaya, losing the supply train and half of his force.[14]: 288  In need of resupply, Charles moved towards Baturyn, Mazepa's headquarters, but Russian troops under Aleksandr Menshikov reached the city first. Anticipating the Swedish arrival, Menshikov ordered the merciless massacre of the population, razing the city and destroying or looting arms, ammunition and food.[14]: 288 

By the spring of 1709 Charles' force had shrunk to half of its original size. After the coldest winter in Europe in over 500 years, Charles was left with 20,000 soldiers and 34 cannons.[13]: 707  Short of supplies, he laid siege to the Russian fortress at Poltava on the Vorskla River on 2 May 1709.[13]: 707–08  Peter's force of 80,000 marched to relieve the siege.[13]: 708  Upon his arrival, Peter built a fortified camp on the Vorskla, 4 km north of Poltava.[14]: 290  While observing the Russian position on 20 June, Charles was struck in the foot by a stray bullet that wounded him so severely that could not stand.[14]: 289  In addition, Charles' last hope of reinforcement expired, as the Swedish forces under von Krassow had turned aside to deal with the anti-Swedish Sandomierz Confederation in Poland.[14]: 289 

Between the Russian and Swedish forces the Yakovetski and Budyschenski woods formed a corridor, which the Russians defended by building six forts across the gap.[18]: 60  Peter, in addition, ordered four more redoubts built so the entire system of ten forts would have a T shape, providing flanking fire to a Swedish advance.[18]: 60  Two of the redoubts were still being constructed on the morning of the battle, but 4,000 Russians manned the remaining eight, with 10,000 cavalry under Gen. Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov stationed behind them.[18]: 60 

BattleEdit

Swedish attackEdit

Because of his wound, Charles turned over operational command to Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld.[14]: 289  Four columns of infantry and six columns of cavalry were to form during the night, 600 meters south of the redoubts, intending to attack before dawn in order to swiftly bypass the redoubt system and hit the Russian fort.[18]: 77  The infantry was in place by 2:30 a.m. but the cavalry arrived late, having lost their way.[18]: 83  Riding forward, Axel Gyllenkrok observed the Russians at work on the two nearest redoubts and rode back to inform Rehnskiöld.[18]: 83  A reconnoitre by Maj. Gen. Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach was discovered by the Russians and the alarm was sounded by the firing of a pistol.[18]: 84  Having lost the element of surprise, and without sufficient cannon to breach the fortifications, Rehnskiöld consulted with Charles, Carl Piper and Lewenhaupt on whether or not to proceed with the assault.[18]: 91  By the time Rehnskiöld decided to proceed with the attack by quoting, "In the name of God then, let us go forward", it was nearly 4:00 a.m. on 28 June (Swedish calendar) and dawn was already approaching.[18]: 91–92  The Swedes in Carl Gustaf Roos' column quickly overran the first two redoubts, killing every Russian soldier inside them, but by 4:30 a.m. the attempts to take the third redoubt stalled.[18]: 97–99 

 
Detail of Diorama of Battle of Poltava, depicting Russian artillery firing from a entrenched position against the Swedish cavalry. From the Battle of Poltava History Museum.

Lewenhaupt's ten battalions on the right bypassed the first four redoubts entirely, advancing to the back line and, with the aid of cavalry, took some redoubts while bypassing others.[18]: 96, 105, 108  Two of Roos' rear battalions joined them, indicating that issued orders lacked clarity as to whether to avoid the redoubts or attack them in series.[18]: 94  The cavalry on the left wing, commanded by Maj. Gen. Hamilton and an infantry regiment, advanced by passing the redoubts on the left and charged the Russian cavalry, forcing them to retreat.[18]: 105  It was 5:00 a.m. when the left and right wings of the Swedish army made it past the back line of redoubts, sending the Russian cavalry in retreat.[18]: 106, 108  However, Rehnskiöld ordered his cavalry to stop their pursuit and Lewenhaupt, already advancing towards the fort, to withdraw to the west.[18]: 108–09  There they awaited Roos' battalions for two hours, while the Russian cavalry and Ivan Skoropadsky's Cossacks waited to the north, with 13 Russian battalions deployed north of their camp and ten to the south, anticipating a Swedish advance.[18]: 125 

General Roos and six battalions (one-third of the Swedish infantry) became isolated while attempting to take the third Russian redoubt.[18]: 110  After suffering severe casualties from several assault attempts, Roos led the remaining 1,500 of his original 2,600 men into the Yakovetski woods to the east at 6:00 a.m.[18]: 114  The Russians reoccupied the first two redoubts[18]: 115  and launched a two-pronged attack by ten regiments around 7:00 a.m., forcing Roos to retreat towards Poltava and take refuge in an abandoned fort by 9:00 a.m. when he could not make it to the Swedish siege works.[18]: 118–19, 127, 132  Roos was forced to surrender his command[14]: 290  at 9:30 a.m.[18]: 134 

Russian advance and turning pointEdit

The Swedes continued to wait for Roos' troops to return, unaware of their surrender.[14]: 292  As time went by Peter led the 42 battalions of Russian infantry—22,000 soldiers—into an advance out of the fortified camp, supported by 55 three-pounder cannons and 32 guns on the ramparts of the fort.[18]: 129, 138–39  Ten regiments of dragoons formed under Lt. Gen. Adolf Fredrik Bauer on the Russian right and six regiments under Menshikov on the left.[18]: 139  Just west of the camp the Russians were faced by 4,000 Swedish infantry,[14]: 292  formed into ten battalions with four three-pounders, and Creutz's cavalry in the rear.[18]: 143  The Russians slowly moved forward to engage.[18]: 143  According to Charles and reports from other Swedish officers, the weather at that time was already very hot and humid, with the sun obscured by smoke from the Russian cannons in the fort.

 
Battle of Poltava by Nicolas de Larmessin

At 9:45 a.m. Rehnskiöld ordered Lewenhaupt and the Swedish line to move forward, advancing towards the Russian line, which started firing its cannons at 500 meters.[18]: 147, 151  When the Swedes were 50 meters from the Russian line, the Russians opened fire with their muskets from all four ranks.[18]: 155  Advancing to within 30 meters of the Russian line, the Swedes fired a volley of their own and charged with their muskets and pikemen, and the Russian first line retreated towards their second line.[18]: 156  The Swedes seemed to be on the verge of a breakthrough and needed the cavalry under Gen. Creutz to break the Russian lines.[18]: 157  Unfortunately for the Swedes, Creutz's and the other cavalry units were unable to reform completely in time.[14]: 292  With the Russian line longer than the Swedish line, the Swedish infantry on the left flank lagged behind the right and finally threw down their weapons and fled.[18]: 159  As the Swedish right flank was still advancing, a gap began to open in the Swedish line which the Russians filled and the battle turned into a Cannae variation.[18]: 165  Barely able to gather his cavalry squadrons, Creutz tried to advance on the right flank, but the Russian battalions were able to form into hollow squares,[18]: 158  while Menshikov's cavalry outflanked the Swedes and attacked them from the rear.[18]: 160  At this point the Swedish assault had disintegrated and no longer had organized bodies of troops to oppose the Russian infantry or cavalry. Small groups of soldiers managed to break through and escape to the south through the Budyschenski woods, while many of the rest were overwhelmed, ridden down or captured.[18]: 174 

End of battleEdit

Realizing they were the last Swedes on the battlefield, Charles ordered a retreat to the woods, gathering what remaining forces he could for protection, including the remnants of Creutz's detachment.[18]: 175, 180  The Russians halted at the edge of the woods and their artillery fire stopped; only the Cossacks and Kalmycks roamed the plains south of the woods.[18]: 189, 192  Emerging from the woods at around noon, Charles—on horseback after his litter was destroyed, and protected by a square of a couple of thousand men—headed to Pushkaryovka and his baggage train 5 km to the south, reaching it after 1:00 p.m., by which time the battle was over.[18]: 194 

Charles gathered the remainder of his troops and baggage train and retreated to the south later that same day—at about 7:00 p.m.--abandoning the siege of Poltava.[18]: 197, 210  Lewenhaupt led the surviving Swedes and some of the Cossack forces to the Dnieper River, but was doggedly pursued by the Russian regular cavalry and 3,000 Kalmyk auxiliaries and forced to surrender three days later at Perevolochna, on 1 July.[19]

Stages of the battleEdit

AftermathEdit

 
The victory at Poltava by Alexander Kotzebue.

High-ranking Swedes captured during the battle included Field Marshal Rehnskiöld, Maj. Gen. Schlippenbach, Maj. Gen. Stackelberg, Maj. Gen. Hamilton and Prince Maximilian Emanuel, as well as Piper.[18]: 199, 203  Peter the Great held a celebratory banquet in two large tents erected on the battlefield.[18]: 202  Voltaire assumed Peter's reason for this, in raising a toast to the Swedish generals as war masters, was to send a message to his own generals about disloyalty.[20]: 108  Two mass graves contained the Russian dead, 500 meters southwest of their camp.[18]: 205  Previously defeating Peter, Charles had gone so far as to pay the Russian troops. Peter instead took many Swedes, with great pride, and sent them to Siberia.[20]: 107 

Charles and Mazepa escaped with about 1,500 men to Bendery, Moldavia, then controlled by the Ottoman Empire.[13]: 710  Charles spent five years in exile there before he was able to return to Sweden in December 1715.[14]: 295  During this time, even handicapped, he retained his magisterial calm demeanor under fire, fighting his way out of several situations. The high vizier of the Turks was eventually paid off, with much intrigue and espionage involved and plots within plots, at one point involving a ransom of the Russian crown jewels, according to Charles' prison translator.[21]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Also 27 June 1709 in Julian calendar and 28 June 1709 in Swedish calendar.
  2. ^ About 2,000 sick and injured soldiers were standing in the Pushkarivka camp.
  3. ^ The exact numbers of Mazepa's and Zaporizhian Cossacks is unknown but are usually given to 3,000 up to 7,000. They were stationed in the Pushkarivka camp and did not participate in the battle.
  4. ^ Russian sources quote the captive Field Marshal Rehnskiöld stating that his combined army before the battle consisted of up to 30,000 men.
  5. ^ Swedish: Slaget vid Poltava; Russian: Полта́вская би́тва; Ukrainian: Полта́вська би́тва
  6. ^ 28 June according to the then-used Swedish calendar; 27 June in the Julian calendar; 8 July in the Gregorian (modern) calendar.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Mackiw, Theodore (2008). "Poltava, Battle of". Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Moltusov, Valerij Aleksejevitj (2009). Poltava 1709: Vändpunkten (in Swedish). SMB. p. 93. ISBN 978-91-85789-75-7.
  3. ^ a b (in Russian) О составе русской и шведской армий в Полтавском сражении Archived 2019-10-06 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Ericson, p. 297.
  5. ^ (in Russian) Istorīia Petra Velikago, by Nikolai Alekseevich Polevoi, 1843, p. 38
  6. ^ Englund (1988), p. 215.
  7. ^ a b (in Swedish) Christer Kuvaja: Karolinska krigare 1660–1721, p. 192. Schildts Förlags AB 2008. ISBN 978-951-50-1823-6.
  8. ^ Derek Wilson (March 9, 2009). "Poltava: the Battle that Changed the World". History Today. London. 59 (3): 23–29.
  9. ^ (in Russian) Битва под Полтавой Archived 2005-02-25 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ a b "Poltava, Battle of". Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  11. ^ (in Russian) Istorīia Petra Velikago, p. 355
  12. ^ Gordon A. The History of Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia: To which is Prefixed a Short General History of the Country from the Rise of that Monarchy: and an Account of the Author's Life, Volume 1. Aberdeen. 1755. pp. 301–02
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Tucker, S.C., 2010, A Global Chronology of Conflict, Vol. Two, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC, ISBN 9781851096671
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Frost, R.I., 2000, The Northern Wars, 1558–1721, Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, ISBN 9780582064294
  15. ^ Massie.
  16. ^ Christer Kuvaja: Karolinska krigare 1660–1721, p. 179. Schildts Förlags AB 2008. ISBN 978-951-50-1823-6.
  17. ^ Christer Kuvaja: Karolinska krigare 1660–1721, pp. 180–85. Schildts Förlags AB 2008. ISBN 978-951-50-1823-6.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Englund, P., 1992, The Battle that Shook Europe, London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., ISBN 9781780764764
  19. ^ Massie.
  20. ^ a b Voltaire, The History of Charles XII, King of Sweden (1908)
  21. ^ Friedrich Ernst von Fabrice, The Genuine Letters of Baron Fabricius Envoy from His Serene Highness the Duke Administrator of Holstein to Charles XII of Sweden (1761)

SourcesEdit

  • Adlerfelt, G. (1740). The Military History of Charles XII, King of Sweden, Written by the Express Order of His Majesty.
  • Brown, Peter B. "Gazing Anew at Poltava: Perspectives from the Military Revolution Controversy, Comparative History, and Decision-Making Doctrines." Harvard Ukrainian Studies 31.1/4 (2009): 107–133. online
  • Englund, Peter (1988). Poltava: berättelsen om en armés undergång. Atlantis. ISBN 91-7486-834-9.
  • Englund, Peter (2003). The Battle that Shook Europe: Poltava and the Birth of the Russian Empire. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-847-9.
  • Ericson, Lars (2004). Svenska slagfält (in Swedish). Wahlström & Widstrand. ISBN 91-46-21087-3.
  • Frost, Robert I. "' Everyone understood what it meant': The Impact of the Battle of Poltava on the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth." Harvard Ukrainian Studies 31.1/4 (2009): 159-176 online.
  • Gerner, Kristian. "The Battle of Poltava as a Realm of Memory and a Bone of Contention." Harvard Ukrainian Studies 31.1/4 (2009): 679–693 online.
  • Hrushevskyi, Mykhailo. Illjustrirovannaja istorija Ukrainy s priloženijami i dopolnenijami.
  • Kamenskii, Alexander. "The Battle of Poltava in Russian Historical Memory." Harvard Ukrainian Studies 31.1/4 (2009): 195–204 online.
  • Konstam, Angus (1994). Poltava 1709: Russia Comes of Age. Osprey. ISBN 1-85532-416-4.
  • LeDonne, John. "Poltava and the geopolitics of Western Eurasia." Harvard Ukrainian Studies 31.1/4 (2009): 177-191 online.
  • Massie, Robert K. (1980). Peter the Great: his Life and World. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-29806-5.. popular history
  • Plokhy, Serhii, ed. Poltava 1709: The Battle and the Myth (Harvard University Press, 2012).
  • Velychenko, Stephen. The Battle of Poltava and the Decline of Cossack-Ukraine in light of Russian and English methods of rule in their Borderlands (1707–1914). online
  • Voltaire (September 2013). Voltaire's History of Charles the XII King of Sweden. ISBN 9781230362984.
  • Von Fabrice, Friedrich. The Genuine Letters of Baron Fabricius Envoy from his Serene Highness the Duke Administrator of Holstein to Charles Xii. of Sweden. ISBN 9785871371343.

External linksEdit