Casimir III the Great
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Casimir III the Great (Polish: Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. He was the third son of King Władysław I ("the Elbow-high") and Duchess Jadwiga of Kalisz, and the last Polish king from the Piast dynasty.
|Casimir III the Great|
Casimir the Great by Leopold Löffler
|King of Poland|
|Coronation||25 April 1333|
|Predecessor||Władysław I ("the Elbow-high")|
|Successor||Louis I of Hungary|
|Born||30 April 1310|
|Died||5 November 1370 (aged 60)|
Wawel Cathedral, Kraków
|Spouse||Aldona of Lithuania|
Adelaide of Hesse
Hedwig of Sagan
|Elisabeth, Duchess of Pomerania|
Anna, Countess of Cilli
|Father||Władysław I the Elbow-high|
|Mother||Jadwiga of Kalisz|
Kazimierz inherited a kingdom weakened by war and made it prosperous and wealthy. He reformed the Polish army and doubled the size of the kingdom. He reformed the judicial system and introduced a legal code, gaining the title "the Polish Justinian". Kazimierz built extensively and founded the University of Kraków, the oldest Polish university. He also confirmed privileges and protections previously granted to Jews and encouraged them to settle in Poland in great numbers.
Kazimierz left no lawful male heir to his throne, producing only daughters. When Kazimierz died in 1370 from an injury received while hunting, his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, succeeded him as king of Poland in personal union with Hungary.
The Great KingEdit
When Kazimierz attained the throne in 1333, his position was in danger, as his neighbours did not recognise his title and instead called him "king of Kraków". The kingdom was depopulated and exhausted by war, and the economy was ruined. In 1335, in the Treaty of Trentschin, Casimir was forced to relinquish his claims to Silesia "in perpetuity".
Kazimierz rebuilt and his kingdom became prosperous and wealthy, with great prospects for the future. He waged many victorious wars and doubled the size of the kingdom, mostly through addition of lands in modern-day Ukraine (then called the Duchy of Halych). Kazimierz built extensively during his reign, ordering the construction of over 40 castles, including many castles along the Trail of the Eagle's Nests, and he reformed the Polish army.
At the Sejm in Wiślica, on 11 March 1347, Kazimierz introduced reforms to the Polish judicial system and sanctioned civil and criminal codes for Great and Lesser Poland, earning the title "the Polish Justinian". He founded the University of Kraków, the oldest Polish University, and he organized a meeting of kings in Kraków in 1364 at which he exhibited the wealth of the Polish kingdom. Kazimierz is the only king in Polish history to both receive and retain the title of "Great" (Bolesław I Chrobry is also called "Great", but more commonly "Valiant").
In 1355, in Buda, Kazimierz designated his nephew Louis I of Hungary as his successor should he produce no male heir, as his father had with Charles I of Hungary to gain his help against Bohemia. In exchange Kazimierz gained a favourable Hungarian attitude, needed in disputes with the hostile Teutonic Order and Kingdom of Bohemia. Kazimierz at the time was still in his early years and having a son did not seem to be a problem (he already had a few children).
Kazimierz left no legal son, however, begetting five daughters instead. He tried to adopt his grandson, Casimir IV, Duke of Pomerania, in his last will. The child had been born to his second daughter, Elisabeth, Duchess of Pomerania, in 1351. This part of the testament was invalidated by Louis I of Hungary, however, who had traveled to Kraków quickly after Kazimierz died and bribed the nobles with future privileges. Kazimierz III had a son-in-law, Louis VI of Bavaria, Margrave and Prince-elector of Brandenburg, who was considered a possible successor, but he was deemed ineligible as his wife, Kazimierz's daughter Cunigunde, had died in 1357 without issue.
Thus King Louis I of Hungary became successor in Poland. Louis was proclaimed king upon Kazimierz's death in 1370, though Kazimierz's sister Elisabeth (Louis's mother) held much of the real power until her death in 1380.
Society under the reign of CasimirEdit
Casimir was facetiously named "the Peasants' King". He introduced the codes of law of Greater and Lesser Poland as an attempt to end the overwhelming superiority of the nobility. During his reign all three major classes — the nobility, priesthood, and bourgeoisie — were more or less counterbalanced, allowing Casimir to strengthen his monarchic position. He was known for siding with the weak when the law did not protect them from nobles and clergymen. He reportedly even supported a peasant whose house had been demolished by his own mistress, after she had ordered it to be pulled down because it disturbed her enjoyment of the beautiful landscape.
Relationship with Polish JewsEdit
On 9 October 1334, he confirmed the privileges granted to Jews in 1264 by Bolesław V the Chaste. Under penalty of death, he prohibited the kidnapping of Jewish children for the purpose of enforced Christian baptism, and he inflicted heavy punishment for the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. While Jews had lived in Poland since before his reign, Casimir allowed them to settle in Poland in great numbers and protected them as people of the king.
Relationships with childrenEdit
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Casimir III was born in Kowal, and he married four times. Casimir first married Anna, or Aldona Ona, the daughter of Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania. The marriage produced two daughters, Cunigunde (d. 1357), who was married to Louis VI the Roman, the son of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, and Elisabeth, who was married to Duke Bogislaus V of Pomerania. Aldona died in 1339, and Casimir then married Adelaide of Hesse. He divorced Adelaide in 1356, married Christina, divorced her, and while Adelaide and possibly Christina were still alive (ca. 1365), he married Hedwig of Głogów and Sagan. He had three daughters by his fourth wife, and they were still very young when he died, and regarded as of dubious legitimacy because of Casimir's bigamy.
Aldona of LithuaniaEdit
- Elisabeth of Poland (ca. 1326–1361); married Bogusław V, Duke of Pomerania
- Cunigunde of Poland (1334–1357); married Louis VI the Roman
Aldona died on 26 May 1339. Casimir remained a widower for two years.
Adelheid of HesseEdit
On 29 September 1341, Casimir married his second wife, Adelaide of Hesse. She was a daughter of Henry II, Landgrave of Hesse, and Elizabeth of Meissen. They had no children. Casimir started living separately from Adelaide soon thereafter. Their loveless marriage lasted until 1356.
Casimir effectively divorced Adelaide and married his mistress Christina Rokiczana, the widow of Miklusz Rokiczani, a wealthy merchant. Her own origins are unknown. Following the death of her first husband she had entered the court of Bohemia in Prague as a lady-in-waiting. Casimir brought her with him from Prague and convinced the abbot of the Benedictine abbey of Tyniec to marry them. The marriage was held in a secret ceremony but soon became known. Queen Adelaide renounced it as bigamous and returned to Hesse without permission. Casimir continued living with Christine despite complaints by Pope Innocent VI on behalf of Queen Adelaide. The marriage lasted until 1363–64 when Casimir again declared himself divorced. They had no children.
Hedwig of ŻagańEdit
- Anna of Poland, Countess of Celje (1366 – 9 June 1422); married firstly William of Celje; their only daughter was Anne, who married Jogaila of Lithuania (who at the time was King of Poland). Anne married, secondly, Ulrich, Duke of Teck; they had no children
- Kunigunde of Poland (1367 – 1370)
- Jadwiga of Poland (1368 – ca. 1382).
With Adelheid still alive and Christina possibly surviving, the marriage to Hedwig was also considered bigamous. The legitimacy of the three last daughters was disputed. Casimir managed to have Anne and Cunigunde legitimated by Pope Urban V on 5 December 1369. Jadwiga the younger was legitimated by Pope Gregory XI on 11 October 1371.
|Ancestors of Casimir III the Great|
Title and styleEdit
Casimir's full title was: Casimir by the grace of God king of Poland and Russia (Ruthenia), lord and heir of the land of Kraków, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Kuyavia, Pomerania (Pomerelia). The title in Latin was: Kazimirus, Dei gratia rex Polonie et Russie, nec non Cracovie, Sandomirie, Siradie, Lancicie, Cuiavie, et Pomeranieque Terrarum et Ducatuum Dominus et Heres.
- Casimir III the Great is one of the main characters in Polish historical drama series "Korona królów" ("The Crown of the Kings"). He is played by Mateusz Król.
The King's sarcophagus at Wawel Cathedral
Effigy of Casimir from his own tomb erected by his nephew around 1371
Kazimierz the Great, by Marcello Bacciarelli
Kazimierz the Great, by Jan Matejko
The Cracow Gate in Szydłów, part of the city walls established by the King
Będzin Castle; in 1348 the King upgraded it from a wooden fortress to a stone one
Statue of the King in Niepołomice near his hunting castle
Statue of the King in Bydgoszcz
Basilica in Wiślica, funded by the King, and built in the third quarter of the 14th century
Latin Cathedral, Lviv, construction began in 1360 on the King's order
the Castle in Sanok, built on the King's order
- English, Edward D. (2005). "Casimir III the Great". Encyclopedia of the medieval world. Facts On File, New York. p. 156. ISBN 0-8160-4690-5
- Halina Lerski (1996). "Casimir III the Great". Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945. ABC-CLIO Press. pp. 249–250. ISBN 0313034567. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- Saxton, L. C. (1851). Fall of Poland; containing an analytical and a philosophical account of the causes which conspired in the ruin of that nation; together with a history of the country from its origin, in two volumes. I. New York: Charles Scribner publishing company. p. 89.
- Saxton, 1851, p. 535
- Ness, Daniel; Lin, Chia-Ling (2015). International Education: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Issues and Systems. Routledge. p. 569. ISBN 9781317467519.
- Nowakowska, Natalia (2007). Church, State and Dynasty in Renaissance Poland: The Career of Cardinal Fryderyk Jagiellon (1468-1503). Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 13. ISBN 9780754656449.
- Lukowski, Jerzy; Zawadzki, Hubert (2016) . A concise history of Poland. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 9780521853323.
- "In Poland, a Jewish Revival Thrives—Minus Jews". The New York Times. 12 July 2007.
Probably about 70 percent of the world's European Jews, or Ashkenazi, can trace their ancestry to Poland — thanks to a 14th-century king, Casimir III, the Great, who drew Jewish settlers from across Europe with his vow to protect them as "people of the king",
- Robert Frost, The Oxford History of Poland-Lithuania:Vol I, The Making of the Polish-Lithuanian Union, 1385-1569, (Oxford University Press, 2015), 28.
- Rhode, Gotthold K.S. "Casimir III". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
- Pope Gregory XI: the Failure of Tradition ISBN 978-0-819-15463-7 p. 119
- Document Nr 1340 (CODEX DIPLOMATICUS MAIORIS POLONIA). POZNANIAE. SUMPTIBUS BIBLIOTHECAE KORNICENSIS. TYPIS J. I. KRASZEWSKI (Dr. W. ŁEBIŃSKI). 1879.
- , ogrodzieniec.pl; accessed 11 March 2014. ‹See Tfd›(in Polish)
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- His listing in "Medieval lands" by Charles Cawley. The project "involves extracting and analysing detailed information from primary sources, including contemporary chronicles, cartularies, necrologies and testaments."
Casimir III the GreatBorn: 1310 Died: 1370
| King of Poland
| King of Galicia-Volhynia|