Polish złoty

The złoty (Polish: [ˈzwɔtɨ] (About this soundlisten);[2] sign: ; code: PLN) is the official currency and legal tender of Poland. It is subdivided into 100 grosz (gr).[a] The widely recognised English form of the currency name is the Polish zloty.[3] It is the most traded currency in Central and Eastern Europe and ranks 22nd in the foreign exchange market.[4][5][6]

Polish złoty
Polski złoty (Polish)
200zl r.jpg Polish 5-Zloty coin (1994).gif
Obverse of a 200-złoty banknote5-złoty coin obverse
ISO 4217
CodePLN
Number985
Exponent2
Denominations
Subunit
1100grosz
PluralSee Name and plural forms
Symbol
groszgr
Banknotes
 Freq. used10zł, 20zł, 50zł, 100zł, 200zł
 Rarely used500zł
Coins1gr, 2gr, 5gr, 10gr, 20gr, 50gr, 1zł, 2zł, 5zł
Demographics
User(s)Poland Poland
Issuance
Central bankNational Bank of Poland
 Websitewww.nbp.pl
MintMennica Polska
 Websitewww.mennica.com.pl
Valuation
Inflation3.7% (2020)
 SourceNarodowy Bank Polski[1]
 MethodCPI

The word złoty is a masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', which closely relates with its name to the guilder whereas the grosz subunit was based on the groschen, cognate to the English word groat. It was officially introduced to replace its predecessor, the Polish marka, on 28 February 1919 and began circulation in 1924. The only body permitted to manufacture or mint złoty coins is Mennica Polska, founded in Warsaw on 10 February 1766.

As a result of inflation in the early 1990s, the currency underwent redenomination. Thus, on 1 January 1995, 10,000 old złoty (PLZ) became one new złoty (PLN). Since then, the currency has been relatively stable, with an exchange rate fluctuating between 3 and 4 złoty for a United States dollar. Though Poland is a member of the European Union, nearly 60% of Poles are strongly against replacing the złoty with the euro.[7][8]

Name and plural formsEdit

The term "złoty" is an adjective derived from the noun "złoto", which in the Polish language denotes gold. A literal translation of the currency's name would be "golden" or "the golden one". The closest English pronunciation of the word is [ˈzwɔtɨ] (zwo-tee), although the letter y is traditionally spoken in a hard manner. There are two plural forms – złote [ˈzwɔtɛ] (zwo-teh) as well as złotych [ˈzwɔtɨx] (zwo-tikh), and their correct usage is as follows:[9]

  • 1 – złoty or grosz [ˈzwɔtɨ] / [ˈɡrɔʂ]
  • 2...4; 22...24; 32...34 (...), 102...104, 122...124, 132...134, (...) – złote or grosze [ˈzwɔtɛ] / [ˈɡrɔʂɛ]
  • 0, 5...21; 25...31; 35...41 (...); 95...101; 105...121; 125...131; (...) – złotych or groszy [ˈzwɔtɨx] / [ˈɡrɔʂɨ]

Fractions should be rendered with złotego [zwɔˈtɛɡɔ] and grosza [ˈɡrɔʂa], for example 0.1 złotego; 2.5 złotego and so on.

Native English speakers or English-language sources tend to avoid the complexity of plural forms and in turn use "złoty" for all denominations, for instance 2 złoty and 100 złoty instead of 2 złote and 100 złotych.

SymbolEdit

The official currency symbol is , composed of lowercase z and ł which are the two first letters of "złoty".[10] It has no representation in the Unicode Standard as a single sign, but previously it had representation in Polish typewriters.[11] Now it can be typed electronically using Polish-language keyboards (Z, AltGr+L) or on the new Polish layout by pressing AltGr+1.[12] The symbol of the "grosz" subunit is represented by lowercase gr.[13]

HistoryEdit

First złotyEdit

 
A 15th-century denar featuring the Polish white eagle, minted in Toruń

The first form of tangible currency in Poland was the denarius (denar), which circulated since the 10th century.[14] During this period, Polish coinage had a single face value and was minted from bullion, primarily silver, but also compounded with copper and other precious metals.[15] The standard unit of mass used at the time was the grzywna rather than the pound, with one grzywna being equivalent to 240 denars.[16] From the 1300s to the mid-16th century, the Prague groschen (or groat) dominated the market and its high supply reduced the demand for a national currency across Central Europe.[17] Certain cities and autonomous regions of the Polish Kingdom held the privilege of minting its own currency, for instance the shilling (szeląg) in the Duchy of Prussia, which Poland co-adopted in 1526.[18]

Initially, the term "złoty" (lit. the golden one) was used in the 14th and 15th centuries for a number of foreign gold coins, most notably Venetian ducats, florins and guldens. In 1496, the Sejm parliament debated on the creation of a domestic currency and approved the złoty, which until then acted as a unit of account.[19] An exchange rate of 30 grosz was imposed for one gold piece, which remained the traditional subdivision until the 19th century.[20] In the years 1526–1535, as part of an extensive monetary reform proposed by Nicolaus Copernicus and Justus Decius, king Sigismund I defined the złoty as a legal tender in the minting ordinance on 16 February 1528.[21]

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth first issued złoty banknotes on 8 June 1794 under the authority of Tadeusz Kościuszko. The 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 złoty are depicted above.

Radical changes to the currency were made during the Kościuszko Uprising. The second partition of the vast Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth resulted in the loss of approximately 200,000 square kilometres of land and precipitated an economic collapse. The widespread shortage of funds to finance the defense of remaining territories forced the insurrectionist government to look for alternatives. In June 1794, Tadeusz Kościuszko began printing paper money and issuing first Polish banknotes as a substitute for coinage, which could not be minted in required quantities.[22] These entered circulation on 13 August 1794.

The złoty remained in circulation after the Partitions of Poland and Napoleon's Duchy of Warsaw issued coins denominated in grosz, złoty and talars, with one talar being equivalent to 6 złoty.[23] Talar banknotes were also issued. In 1813, while Zamość was under siege, the town authorities issued 6 grosz and 2 złoty coins. Following the 1815 Congress of Vienna, Austrian and Russian sectors of partitioned Poland continued to use the złoty for some time; whereas the German sector immediately introduced the Prussian thaler and later the German gold mark.

At the time of the 1830 November Uprising, the insurrectionists issued their own "rebel money" – golden ducats and silver coins in the denomination of 2 and 5 złoty, with the revolutionary coat of arms, and the copper 3 and 10 grosz.[24] These coins were still traded long after the uprising was quelled. As a consequence of the uprising, the rubel became the sole legal tender of Congress Poland, and in 1892 the Austro-Hungarian krone was introduced in Austrian Galicia. Between 1835 and 1846, the Free City of Kraków also used its own independent currency, the Kraków złoty, with the coins actually being made in Vienna.

During World War I, the rubel and krone were replaced by the Polish marka, a currency initially equivalent to the German Papiermark. The marka stayed in use after Poland regained its independence in 1918, but was extremely unstable, disrupted the whole economy, and triggered galloping inflation.

Second złotyEdit

 
The złoty was reintroduced in 1924 and replaced the Polish marka (500-mark banknote pictured above).
 
A 20-złoty banknote featuring Emilia Plater from 1936.

The złoty was reintroduced by the Minister of Finance, Władysław Grabski, in April 1924.[25] It replaced the marka at a rate of 1 złoty equaling 1,800,000 marks and was subdivided into 100 grosz, instead of the traditional 30 grosz, as it had been earlier.[26]

Following its inauguration, the second złoty was pegged to the United States dollar through a stabilization loan provided by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.[27] The budget deficit ballooned and out-of-control inflation ensued. The złoty began to stabilise in 1926 (chiefly due to significant exports of coal),[28] and was re-set on the dollar-złoty rate 50% higher than in 1924. Up to 1933 the złoty was freely exchanged into gold and foreign currency. Based on these developments, the Polish government made the decision to adopt the gold standard and maintain it for a significant period to attract global investors.[29]

Under the occupation during World War II, the Germans created an Emissary Bank (Bank Emisyjny) in Kraków, as Polish bank officials fled to Paris in France.[30] It started operating on 8 April 1940, and in May old banknotes from 1924–1939 were overstamped by the new entity.[31] Money exchange was limited per individual; the limits varied according to the status of the person. The fixed exchange rate was 2 złoty per 1 Reichsmark.[32] A new issue of notes appeared in the years 1940–1941.[33]

On 15 January 1945 the National Bank of Poland was formed, and a new printing plant opened in Łódź.[34] The series II and III notes were designed by Ryszard Kleczewski and Wacław Borowski. The first three series were taken out of circulation in line with legislation signed on 28 October 1950, covering the introduction of a new złoty with a revived coinage system.[35]

Third złoty (PLZ)Edit

 
Various banknotes issued between 1977 and 1990.

In 1950, the third złoty (PLZ) was introduced, replacing all notes issued up to 1948 at a rate of one hundred to one, while all bank assets were re-denominated in the ratio 100:3. The new banknotes were dated in 1948, while the new coins were dated in 1949. Initially, by law with effect from 1950 1 złoty was worth 0.222168 grams of pure gold.[36]

Fourth złoty (PLN)Edit

With the fall of communism in 1989 and successive hyperinflation in 1990, the złoty had to be redenominated. On 11 May 1994 a redenomination project from the NBP was approved; the act allowing the project to come into force was ratified on 7 July 1994.[37] Thus, on 1 January 1995 the old 10,000 PLZ became the new 1 PLN.[38] Redesigned coins and banknotes were released, featuring Polish monarchs, which were printed by De La Rue in London (until 1997) and PWPW in Warsaw (from 1997).[39]

Between 2013 and 2014, the banknotes received additional security features. The design does not differ greatly from the original 1994 series, but are distinguishable by the added white-coloured field with a watermark on the obverse. The updated notes also possess randomly arranged dotting, which are part of the EURion constellation.[40]

On 10 February 2017, a 500zł banknote with the likeness of John III Sobieski began circulating.[41] In 2021, Adam Glapiński, president of the National Bank of Poland, announced that a 1000zł note will be introduced in the near future.[42]

Future of the złotyEdit

One of the conditions of Poland's joining the European Union in May 2004 obliges the country to eventually adopt the euro, though not at any specific date and only after Poland meets the necessary stability criteria. Serious discussions regarding joining the Eurozone have ensued.[43][44][45] However, article 227[46] of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland will need to be amended first.[47] Public opinion research by CBOS from March 2011 shows that 60% of Poles are against changing their currency. Only 32% of Poles want to adopt the euro, compared to 41% in April 2010.[48]

BanknotesEdit

The banknotes range from 120 to 150 millimetres in length and from 60 to 75 millimetres in width. The length increases by 6mm and the width by 3mm with every higher denomination. The obverse features the left profile of a Polish monarch clothed in armour or royal regalia; the sovereigns are arranged chronologically based on the period of reign. The reverse illustrates important landmarks, early coinage or important objects from Poland's history. Architectural elements comprising portals, columns, windows or flower motifs are scattered throughout each banknote, both on the obverse and on the reverse. Predominant colours used include shades of brown, pink or purple, blue, green and gold. Face value is given in numerals in the upper-left and upper-right corners on the obverse, and in the upper-right corner on the reverse. The written form of the nominal value is embedded vertically on the obverse and horizontally on the reverse.[40]

The notes are adorned by the shieldless coat of arms of the Republic of Poland, along with signatures of the President and General Treasurer of NBP – the National Bank of Poland.[40]

Banknotes of Poland, 1994, 2016 series
Value Dimensions Main colours Description Date of
Obverse Reverse series circulation
10 złoty 120 × 60 mm Brown Mieszko I Denarius coin
Romanesque columns
1994 1 January 1995
20 złoty 126 × 63 mm Pink, purple Boleslaus I the Brave Denarius coin
Rotunda of Saint Nicolas and a fragment of Gniezno Doors
1994 1 January 1995
50 złoty 132 × 66 mm Blue Casimir III the Great Polish white eagle with royal regalia
Kraków and Kazimierz
1994 1 January 1995
100 złoty 138 × 69 mm Green Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) Polish white eagle with Grunwald swords and Teutonic armour
Malbork Castle
1994 1 January 1995
200 złoty 144 × 72 mm Gold, yellow Sigismund I the Old Polish white eagle
Wawel Castle
1994 1 January 1995
500 złoty 150 × 75 mm Light blue, pink and gold John III Sobieski Polish white eagle
Wilanów Palace
2016 10 February 2017

Exchange ratesEdit

 
The cost of one euro in złoty (from 1999)
Year USD EUR DEM GBP CHF JPY
1990 9500.00 12070.50 5864.19 16862.50 6884.05 65.45
1991 10584.26 13088.29 6378.62 18652.81 7379.05 78.7235
1992 13630.12 17662.35 8761.51 24009.90 9742.76 107.7766
1993 18164.84 21204.91 10975.20 27274.86 12308.00 164.16
1994 22726.95 26913.49 14049.60 34772.23 16670.93 224.16
Re-denomination(10000:1)
1995 2.4244 3.1358 1.6928 3.8257 2.0545 0.0258
1996 2.6965 3.3774 1.7920 4.2154 2.1826 0.0248
1997 3.2808 3.7055 1.8918 5.3751 2.2627 0.0272
1998 3.4937 3.9231 1.9888 5.7907 2.4149 0.0268
1999 3.9675 4.2270 2.1612 6.4197 2.6413 0.0350
2000 4.3464 4.0110 2.0508 6.5787 2.5747 0.0403
2001 4.0939 3.6685 end 1.9558 5.8971 2.4298 0.0337
2002 4.0795 3.8557 6.1293 2.6288 0.0329
2003 3.8889 4.3978 6.3570 2.8911 0.0339
2004 3.6540 4.5340 6.6904 2.9370 0.0337
2005 3.2348 4.0254 5.8833 2.5999 0.0294
2006 3.1025 3.8951 5.7116 2.4761 0.0266
2007 2.7667 3.7829 5.5310 2.3035 0.0235
2008 2.3708 3.4908 4.2200 2.2291 0.0234
2009 3.1175 4.3276 4.8563 2.8665 0.0333
2010 3.0179 3.9939 4.6587 2.8983 0.0345
2011 2.9636 4.1190 4.7463 3.3474 0.0373
2012 3.2581 4.1852 5.1605 3.4724 0.0409
2013 3.1608 4.1975 4.9437 3.4100 0.0324
2014 3.0315 4.1631 5.0167 3.3816 0.028778
2015 3.5725 4.3078 5.5296 3.5833 0.029671
2016 3.9011 4.2615 5.7862 3.9394 0.032411
Current PLN exchange rates
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GalleryEdit

Coins of Poland after the monetary reform of 1526–1528 and up to 1795
Name Value (in groszy) Introduced by Minted in Material Weight (in grams) Photos or graphics Notes
denar 118110 grosza Mieszko I or Boleslaus I the Brave 10th century – 1653 After 1527: copper 0.33 g (Sigismund III Vasa's coin);

0.53 g (John II Casimir)

 
Gdańsk Denar, 1573
Smallest coin in use
ternar 16 grosza Władysław II Jagiełło 14th century – 1407 (1414); 1526–1529; 1545–1548; 1623 1526 coins: silver (18%) alloy;

1623 coins: silver (7.8%) alloy;

0.57 g
szeląg 13 grosza Stefan Batory 1579–1627; 1659–1666; 1749–1792 Silver alloy (15.929%); copper from 1658 1.13 g (Stefan Batory szeląg);

1.3 g (boratynka)

0.62 g (local coins, such as the Gdańsk grosz)

 
Sigismund III Vasa szeląg
The John Casimir szeląg is also called boratynka
półgrosz 12 grosza Władysław II Jagiełło 1398 – early 17th century; 1766–1795 In 1393–1414 (in Lwów): silver alloy (up to 56.2%); then 43.7%.

In Kraków: either heavier with 50% silver or lighter with 37.5% silver.

From 1766 copper.

Kraków: 1.58 g (50% silver) or 0.96 g (37.5% silver);

Stanislaus II Augustus: 1.95 g

 
Półgrosz obverse, 1548
 
Półgrosz reverse, 1548
grosz srebrny 1 grosz srebrny = 7+12 groszy miednych Stanislaus Augustus 1764–1795 36.7% silver alloy 1.99 g ?
grosz

(grosz miedziany from Stanislaus II Augustus' reign)

1 grosz Casimir III the Great 1367–1849; 1918–present Casimir III Great: brass coins; later copper 1.3 (Kurland grosz) or 3.4 grams ("Kingdom" grosz);

3.89 g (Stanislaus II Augustus)

 
Grosz, 1536
 
Grosz of Sigismund III Vasa, 1626
 
Latin: "GROSI CRACOVIENSESS" ("Kraków grosz"); Casimir III the Great
 
Latin: "DEI GRATIA REX POLONIE", "KAZIMIRUS PRIMUS" ("By the grace of God, King of Poland", "Casimir I")
The base of the currency
półtorak 1+12 grosza Sigismund III Vasa 1614-1660; in the John II Casimir Vasa and Augustus III reigns Silver (46.9%) alloy 1.09 g (Augustus III)
 
Półtorak. Different designs of 17th century
Created as an intermediate between grosz and trojak
dwojak 2 grosze Sigismund II Augustus Around the 1520s; sporadically later; more minted at John II Casimir Vasa's reign; 1766–1784; 1923–1939; 1954– Sigismund I the Old: silver

Sigismund II Augustus: silver

Stanislaus II: 58.7% silver alloy

1.8 g (Sigismund I the Old)

ca. 3.5 g (Sigismund II Augustus);

3.4 g (Stanislaus II Augustus)

trojak 3 grosze Sigismund I the Old 1528–1849 Silver, most copper from Stanislaus II Augustus' reign;

some Gdańsk coins are copper

2.16 g ("Kingdom" trojak)

1.53 g (Gdańsk trojak); 11.69 g (Stanislaus Augustus)

1.52 g (silver Gdańsk and Toruń trojak)

 
Trojak of Stefan Batory, 1580
Also called "dutka", "babka", "dydek" in Lithuania
czworak 4 grosze Sigismund II Augustus 1565–1568; 1614; 1766–1795 Silver;

55% silver alloy (Stanislaus II Augustus)

4.29 g;

5.51 g (Stanislaus II Augustus)

szóstak 6 groszy Sigismund I the Old 1528–1795 Silver 2.34 g (Toruń szóstak)

2.94 g (Gdańsk and Elbląg szóstak);

3.7 g (Kurland szóstak)

4.32 g ("Kingdom" szóstak); in 1794–1795 1.52 g

 
Szóstak
2 złote [Stanislaus II and Augustus III] 8 groszy Augustus III 1753-1795 62.67% silver alloy 9.35 g (Stanislaus II)

7.31 g (Augustus III)

półurcie 9 groszy ? ? ? ?
10 copper Kingdom groszy 10 groszy Stanislaus II Augustus 1787-95 37.3% silver alloy 2.49 g, then 4.48 g
ort 18 groszy Sigismund III Vasa 1608–1766 Silver Augustus III reign:

5.84 g ("Kingdom")

6.1 g or 7.7 g (Gdańsk)

 
Obverse, Sigismund III Vasa; Gdańsk mint, 1618
 
Reverse with the Gdańsk coat of arms, 1618
Coins of 1618 were minted by Stanisław Berman
półkopek 30 groszy;

Stanislaus II Augustus' złoty - 4 grosze

Sigismund II Augustus 1564–1841 Silver alloy (49.955%) 6.726 g (John III Sobieski)

5.84 g ("Kingdom") or 6.1 g (Gdańsk) tymf;

złotówka gdańska: 9.85 g

 
Złoty of 1663
From 1663 on also called tymf
kopa 60 groszy = 2 złote ? ? Silver ?
półtalar 15–120 groszy (de facto 15–290, more expensive as time passed) Sigismund II Augustus 1567–1794 Silver ca. 12.5 g;

14.62 g (Augustus III reign);

14.03 g, later 13.07 g (Stanislaus II Augustus)

 
Półtalar of Gdańsk, 1577
+23 of talar only commemorative Augustus III 1738; 1747 Silver
talar 30–240 groszy (de facto 30–580, more expensive as time passed) Sigismund I the Old 1533; 1580–1795 Silver;

83.3% silver alloy (from 1766)

ca. 24.3–29.3 g
 
Stefan Batory talar, 1578
2 talars 480 groszy (de facto 1160 groszy) Augustus III 1740 Silver 58 g
dukat (florin) 45–1,080 groszy Ladislaus the Short Early 14th century–1831 Gold;

98.6% gold alloy (1766–95)

3.46-3.5 g in the second half of the 18th century
 
The first red złoty of Władysław I the Elbow-high was issued in the 1320s.
 
40 ducats of Sigismund III Vasa; Latin: "Poloniæ et Suegiæ rex" (The King of Poland and Sweden)
 
The last red złoty, the "insurgent ducat" of 1831
2 ducats Augustus III 1753-4 Gold 7 g
6 ducats Augustus III 1742 Gold 21 g
portugał 10 ducats Sigismund II Augustus 1562–1652 Gold 35 g (Augustus III)
 
Riga portugał of Stefan Batory
 
15 ducats, Sigismund III Vasa (Portugał), 1617
12 ducats Augustus III 1740 Gold 29.17 g
półaugustdor 2+12 talars = 600 groszy (de jure); 1,450 groszy (de facto) Augustus III of Poland 1752–1756 Gold 3.32 g
augustdor 5 talars = 1,200 groszy (de jure); 2,900 groszy (de facto) Augustus III of Poland 1752–1756 Gold 3.32 g
double augustdor 10 talars = 2400 talars (de jure); 5800 groszy (de facto) Augustus III of Poland 1752–1756 Gold 13.3 g
semi-stanislasdor (półstanislasdor) 27 złotych Stanislaus II Augustus 1794–1795 Gold 6.17 g
stanislasdor 54 złotych Stanislaus II Augustus 1794–1795 Gold (83%) 12.35 g
Polish Banknotes, series 1919
Picture Denomination Size Colour Obverse Reverse Watermark Date of print Date of withdrawal
  1 złoty 93×63 Yellow Tadeusz Kościuszko, denomination in words, date of print Coat of arms, denomination in number 28 February 1919 31 January 1940
  2 złote 115×80 Blue Denomination in number
  5 złotych 125×80 Bright yellow,

orange

Józef Poniatowski, denomination in words, date of print Denomination in words, coat of arms 28 February 1919

15 July 1924

10 złotych 150×88 Yellow Tadeusz Kościuszko, denomination in words, date of print Some agricultural products[dubious ] As portrait 28 February 1919 (not released in public)
  Pink 28 February 1919, 15 July 1924
20 złotych 160×97 White, red around the coat of arms and watermark Denomination in numbers, coat of arms
  50 złotych 165×102 Brown, yellow around denomination in words 28 February 1919
  100 złotych 172×103 Blue
  500 złotych 180×110 Violet and olive
  1000 złotych 183×111 Brown 28 February 1919 (extremely rare, not released in public)
  5000 złotych 190×113 Different shades of green 28 February 1919 (not released in public)
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Coins of the Second Polish Republic
Pictures Denomination Diameter(mm) Thickness(mm) Mass(g) Composition Obverse Reverse Introduced Issued Withdrawn
1 grosz 14.7 1.01 1.5 bronze Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a simple plant ornament 1923 1923; 1925 1927

1928 1930-1939

1939
2 grosze 17.6 0.96 2 brass Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a simple plant ornament 1923 1923 1939
2 grosze 17.6 0.98 2 bronze Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a simple plant ornament 1923 1925 1927 1928

1930-1939

1939
  5 groszy 20 1.12 3 brass Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a simple plant ornament 1923 1923 1939
5 groszy 20 1.14 3 bronze Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a simple plant ornament 1923 1925 1928 1930

1931 1934-1939

1939
    10 groszy 17.6 0.92 2 nickel Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a complicated bush ornament 1923 1923 1939
  20 groszy 20 1.07 3 nickel Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a complicated bush ornament 1923 1923 1939
  50 groszy 23 1.35 5 nickel Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a complicated bush ornament 1923 1923 1939
  1 złoty 25 1.6 7 nickel Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with an ornament 1929 1929 1939
Banknotes of the Second Polish Republic, series 1925-1939
Pictures Denomination Dimension(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Watermark Date of introduction Date of printing Date of withdrawal Author
1 złoty 108×60 brown Bolesław I the Brave, denomination, the "Bank of Poland" and "Government note" inscriptions, date and place of issue Denomination As portrait 1 October 1938 20 May 1940 Leonard

Sowiński

2 złote 102×63 Gray-yellow Denomination, portrait of a Doubravka of Bohemia, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Denomination, Polish coat of arms Value(2 zł) 26 February 1936 Zdzisław Eichler
  5 złotych 127×83 Olive, yellow edges Portrait of a man[who?], denomination, place and date of issue A miner in the tunnel, denomination - 1 May 1925 1 May 1925, 25 October 1926 Wacław Borowski
144×78 Blue Denomination, portrait of a woman[who?], the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Denomination, coat of arms, "Bank of Poland" inscription Sigismund I the Old 2 January 1930 2.01.1930 or 26.02.1936 Ryszard Kleczewski
  10 złotych 160×80 Light brown Denomination, pictures of saints, coat of arms, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A woman with a model ship in her hands, a worker and a female peasant with a bunch of wheat Bolesław I the Brave, 10 ZŁ 20 July 1926 20 July 1926, 20 July 1929 Zdzisław Eichler
  158×80 Green Denomination, a picture of a woman[who?], the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A road in the field that passes between the trees As portrait Never introduced 2 January 1928 ?
  20 złotych 170×94 Obverse: brown, turquoise edges of picture; reverse: violet A female peasant with a bunch of wheat and a male with a spade, denomination, "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Bank of Poland buildings: the one at the left is the former bank building on the Plac Bankowy; the newer one on the Bielańska street. Casimir III the Great, 20 ZŁ 1 March 1926 1 March 1926, 20 June 1931 Zygmunt Kamiński
  163×86 Violet Portrait of a young girl, denomination, coat of arms, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Morskie Oko lake As portrait Never introduced 2 January 1928 ?
  170×94 Obverse: brown, light blue edges of picture; reverse: blue Fortuna with a bunch of wheat and Hermes with a spade, denomination, "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Bank of Poland buildings: the one at the left is the former bank building on the Plac Bankowy; the newer one on the Bielańska street. Casimir III the Great, 20 ZŁ 1 September 1929 Zygmunt Kamiński
  163×86 Blue obverse, light green reverse Portrait of Emilia Plater, denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A female peasant with a bunch of wheat and two boys, one of which holding a ship, other a hammer, coat of arms and denomination Casimir III the Great, 20 ZŁ 20 June 1931 Ryszard Kleczewski
    Grey and blue Emilia Plater, a woman with two daughters on the left with flowers, coat of arms, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Wawel Castle, Kraków, a figure of an architect and a poet (symbolize knowledge) As portrait and denomination 11 November 1936 Wacław Borowski
  50 złotych 188×99 green, blue and brown Fortuna with a bunch of wheat and Hermes with a rod of Asclepius, denomination, "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Bank of Poland buildings: the one at the left is the former bank building on the Plac Bankowy; the newer one on the Bielańska street. Stefan Batory, 50 złotych 28 August 1925 28 August 1925, 1 September 1929, Zygmunt Kamiński
  169×92 green Jan Henryk Dąbrowski portrait, coat of arms, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A peasant with a bunch of wheat, two women holding a ship, a boy with an airplane and a worker with a hammer As portrait and denomination Never introduced 11 November 1936 Wacław Borowski
100 złotych 175×98 Brown Józef Poniatowski's portrait, denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A picture of an oak representing the history of Poland Queen Jadwiga, 100 ZŁ 2 June 1932 2 June 1932, 9 November 1934 Józef Mehoffer
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Banknotes of the Polish government-in-exile, printed in 1939. Never introduced
Pictures Denomination Size (mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Watermark Date of print Designer
1 złoty 72×45 Bright red Denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Denomination None 15 August 1939 Włodzimierz Vacek
  2 złote 82×51 Bright green Denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Denomination, ornament[which?]
  5 złotych 97×60 Blue to cyan Denomination, portrait of a woman in the traditional costume, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Denomination
  10 złotych 141×67 Red Denomination, a picture of a woman with a necklace, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Płock Cathedral As portrait Edouard Meronti
  20 złotych 153×75 Grey to blue Denomination, a picture of a female Silesian with a cross, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A power plant, behind the typically rural landscape, with haystacks Edmund Dulac
  Obverse: different shades of blue, reverse: grey Denomination, a picture of a girl in the traditional costume, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Saintmost Trinity Church in Leszczyny (now in Palowice) - 20 August 1939 ?
  50 złotych 163×80 cyan A mountain peasant (góral), mountain flowers motive, denomination, Morskie Oko lake, coat of arms As portrait and denomination 15 August 1939 Clément Serveau
  50 złotych A female peasant with a sickle and a bunch of cereals Dunajec River Gorge - 20 August 1939 ?
  100 złotych 171×86 Brown A portrait of a Mazury peasant, denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Landscape nearby the Tyniec, near Kraków Portrait of a female on 50 zł (20.08.1939) 15 August 1939 Clément Serveau
  500 złotych 182×89 Grey A portrait of a fisherman with a pipe, denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Port in Gdynia Edouard Meronti
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Banknotes of Poland, issue 1944–1945 (Series I, also known as "Lublin series")
Obverse Reverse Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Date of issue Date of release Amount

printed

Date of withdrawal
50 groszy 81×52 Bright pink Denomination

"The National Bank of Poland"

inscription, date, coat of arms

Denomination 1944 28 February 1945 6,706,000

(3,503,000 zł)

8 November 1950
  1 złoty 136×66 Green Denomination,

"The National Bank of Poland" inscription

18 September 1944 47,726,000 (47,726,000 zł)
    2 złote 137×67 Red 18,725,000

(37,450,000 zł)

    5 złotych 142×71 Brown 81,183,000

(405,915,000 zł)

    10 złotych 160×80 Blue 27 August 1944 22,005,000

(220,050,000 zł)

    20 złotych 170×83 Teal 114,687,000

(2,293,740,000 zł)

    50 złotych 180×93 Blue-violet 26,342,000

(1,317,100,000 zł)

    100 złotych 188×100 Pink 71,237,000

(7,123,700,000 zł)

    500 złotych 193×102 Olive 19,787,000

(9,893,500,000 zł)

17 December 1946
    1000 złotych

(by Ryszard

Kleczewski)

182×97 Brown 1945 1 September 1945 ca. 19,000,000

(19,000,000,000 zł)

8 November 1950
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Banknotes of Poland, issue 1946 (Series II)
Pictures Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Date of print Date of release Date of withdrawal
    1 złoty 98×54 Red Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date Denomination 15 May 1946 2 December 1946 8 November 1950
    2 złote 104×57 Green 15 March 1947
    5 złotych 122×66 Grey-blue 5 February 1948
    10 złotych 128×70 Brown, red Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription 18 August 1947
    20 złotych 158×84 Blue to red Two planes; denomination 1 July 1948
    50 złotych 164×87 Brown, violet Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a steam boat and a sail boat Boats on the sea, anchors; denomination 22 September 1947
    100 złotych 170×91 Red, brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a female peasant with a bunch of cereals, a male peasant with a bunch of wheat and a sickle A peasant on a tractor in the field 2 December 1946
    500 złotych 176×94 Green to blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a sailor with an anchor and a model of ship; a fisherman The Old City in Gdańsk 15 January 1946 15 July 1946
    1000 złotych 182×97 Brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; miners Łódź factories panorama ?
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Banknotes of Poland, issue 1947 (Series III)
Pictures Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Date of print Date of release Date of withdrawal
  20 złotych 158×84 Dark green Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms A globe, a book, a machinery detail, a hammer and ralis, symbolising education and industrial work 15 July 1947 16 June 1949 8 November 1950
  100 złotych 170×91 Brown-red Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a female peasant Horses in a field 21 February 1949
  500 złotych 176×94 Blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a female sailor with an anchor Gdynia port 1 July 1947 20 January 1949
  1000 złotych 182×97 Olive, brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a miner with a hammer A picture of a factory 1 December 1948
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Banknotes of Poland, issue 1948 (Series IV)
Pictures Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Date of print Date of release Date of withdrawal
    2 złote 120×58 Pale green Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown) Buildings 1 July 1948 30 October 1950 30 September 1960
    5 złotych 142×67 Brown A peasant on a tractor in a field 31 December 1959
    10 złotych 148×70 Olive-brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); portrait of a peasant Peasants at harvesting cereals 31 December 1965
    20 złotych 160×76 Blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); portrait of a woman Cloth Hall, Kraków 30 June 1977
    50 złotych 164×78 Green to olive Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); portrait of a fisherman Gdynia port 30 June 1978
    100 złotych 172×82 Red Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); portrait of a miner A picture of a factory 30 June 1977
    500 złotych 178×85 Black-brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); portrait of a miner A picture of coal mining 31 December 1977
1000 złotych 150×74 Bright yellow, red, brown and grey Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); Mikołaj Kopernik Nicolaus Copernicus's heliocentric model of the Solar System 29 October 1965 1 June 1966 31 December 1978
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Coins of People's Republic of Poland (legal tender 1949-1994, stopped issuing by 1990)

Diameter (Ø) shown in mm, mass in grams. 1 - Minted both in Budapest and Warsaw in numbers of 300,100,600 coins.

Pictures Denomination Ø Mass Metal Edge Obverse Reverse Issued in Budapest Issued in Warsaw Issued in Basel Issued in Kremnica Issued in Leningrad Introduced Issued Withdrawn With inscription "... Ludowa"?
  1 grosz 14.7 0.5 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, leaf ornament 400,000,000 116,000 1954 1949 1 January 1995 No
  2 grosze1 16 0.57 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, leaf ornament 1954 1949 1 January 1995 No
  5 groszy 20 3 bronze smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, leaf ornament 300,000,000 1950 1949 1956 No
  5 groszy 20 1 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, leaf ornament 200,000,000 1960 1949 1 January 1995 No
5 groszy 16 0.6 aluminium smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, leaf ornament 310,364,378 1958 1958-63; 1965; 1967–1968; 1970–1972 1 January 1995 Yes
  10 groszy 17.6 2 cupronickel smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 200,000,000 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
  10 groszy 17.6 0,7 aluminium smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 31,046,685 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
10 groszy 17.6 0,7 aluminium smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 1,179,713,719 100,000,000 1961 1961-3; 1965–1981; 1983; 1985 1 January 1995 Yes
  20 groszy 20 3 cupronickel smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 133,383,000 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
  20 groszy 20 1 aluminium smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 197,491,750 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
20 groszy 20 1 aluminium smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 879,964,867 50,000,000 1957 1957; 1961–1963; 1965–1973; 1975–1978; 1980–1981; 1983; 1985 1 January 1995 Yes
  50 groszy 23 5 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 109,000,000 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
  50 groszy 23 1.6 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 59,392,950 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
50 groszy 23 1.6 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 376,793,589 66,800,000 1957 1957; 1965; 1967–1968; 1970–1978; 1982–1985 1 January 1995 Yes
50 groszy 23 1.6 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 49,052,000 1986 1986-7 1 January 1995 Yes
  1 złoty 25 7 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 87,053,000 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
  1 złoty 25 2.12 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 43,000,000 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
1 złoty 25 2.12 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 1,110,555,639 60,000,106 1957 1957, 1965–1978, 1980–1988 1 January 1995 Yes
1 złoty 16 0.57 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 1989 1989-90 1 January 1995 Yes
2 złote 27 2.7 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch and cereal ornament 189,955,432 1958 1958-60; 1970–1974 1 January 1995 Yes
2 złote 21 3 brass rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch and cereal ornament 633,950,957 137,600,000 1975 1975-1988 1 January 1995 Yes
2 złote 18 0.7 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch and cereal ornament 132,217,000 1989 1989-90 1 January 1995 Yes
  5 złotych 29 3.45 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, fisher 126,439,614 1958 1958-60; 1971; 1973–1974 1 January 1995 Yes
5 złotych 24 5 brass rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 315,831,723 135,000,000 1975 1975-88 1 January 1995 Yes
5 złotych 20 0.88 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 68,501,000 1989 1989-90 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 31 12.9 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; Nicolaus Copernicus 15,558,855 1959 1959; 1965 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; Nicolaus Copernicus 20,129,000 1967 1967-9 1 January 1995 Yes
Analogical to the one lower 10 złotych 31 12.9 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; Tadeusz Kościuszko 44,808,153 1959 1959-60; 1966 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; Tadeusz Kościuszko 45,111,000 1969 1969-73 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 25 7.7 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, Bolesław Prus 136,314,606 1975 1975-8;

1981-4

1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 25 7.7 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination,

Adam Mickiewicz

>55,000,000 1975 1975-7 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 25 7.7 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 224,209,255 1984 1984-8 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 22 4.27 manganese brass rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 187,692,000 1989 1989-90 1 January 1995 Yes
20 złotych 29 10.15 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; a skyscraper and cereals 20,000,000 37,000,000 1973 1973-4; 1976 1 January 1995 Yes
20 złotych 29 10.15 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; Marceli Nowotko 56,152,000 30,000,000 1974 1974-7; 1983 1 January 1995 Yes
20 złotych 26.5 8.7 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 103,383,710 1984 1984-8 1 January 1995 Yes
20 złotych 24 5.65 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 200,686,000 1989 1989-90 1 January 1995 Yes
Banknotes of Poland, issues starting from 1974 (Series V)
Pictures Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Dates of print Date of introduction Date of withdrawal Date of lapse
10 złotych 139×63 Blue to green Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Józef Bem Denomination 1 June 1982 11 June 1982 31 December 1994 31 December 2010
20 złotych Mainly red to blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Romuald Traugutt Denomination 1 June 1982 11 June 1982
50 złotych Green Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Karol Świerczewski Order of the Cross of Grunwald 9 May 1975; 1 June 1979; 1 June 1982; 1 June 1986; 1 December 1988 25 November 1975
100 złotych Red Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Ludwik Waryński "Proletaryat" 15 January 1975; 17 May 1976; 1 June 1979; 1 June 1982; 1 June 1986; 1 December 1988 1 July 1975 31 December 1996
200 złotych Violet Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Jarosław Dąbrowski Communards' Wall; "Za waszą wolność i naszą"(For our liberty and yours). 25 May 1976;

1 June 1979; 1 June 1982; 1 June 1986; 1 December 1988

26 July 1976
500 złotych Brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Tadeusz Kościuszko The insurrection flag 16 December 1974; 15 June 1976; 1 June 1979; 1 June 1982 1 January 1975
1,000 złotych Blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Mikołaj Kopernik Nicolaus Copernicus's heliocentric model of the Solar System 2 July 1975; 1 June 1979; 1 June 1982 1 September 1975
2,000 złotych Dark brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Mieszko I Bolesław I the Brave with a sword 1 May 1977; 1 June 1979; 1 June 1982 27 July 1977
5,000 złotych Green Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Fryderyk Chopin Polonaise in notes(author: Fryderyk Chopin) 1 June 1982; 1 June 1986; 1 December 1988 11 June 1982
10,000 złotych Green and violet Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Stanisław Wyspiański Kraków(Planty) 1 February 1987; 1 December 1988 4 February 1987
20,000 złotych Orange Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Marie Curie Ewa reactor 1 February 1989 26 February 1989
50,000 złotych Brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Stanisław Staszic Staszic Palace in Warsaw 1 December 1989 11 December 1989 15 October 1994
16 November 1993 11 April 1994 31 December 1996
100,000 złotych Blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(with the crown); Stanisław Moniuszko The Grand Theatre in Warsaw 15 February 1990 26 February 1990 15 October 1994
16 November 1993 11 April 1994 31 December 1996
200,000 złotych Brown Denomination, date, coat of arms(without the crown) Warsaw, coat of arms of Warsaw, the "National Bank of Poland" inscription 1 December 1989 7 December 1989 17 May 1991
500,000 złotych Cyan and brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(with the crown); Henryk Sienkiewicz "The Trilogy", flags 15 April 1990 1 August 1990 15 October 1994
16 November 1993 24 January 1994 31 December 1996
1,000,000 złotych Light brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(with the crown); Władysław Reymont A rural landscape 15 February 1991 22 April 1991 15 October 1994
16 November 1993 24 January 1994 31 December 1996
2,000,000 złotych Multi-coloured Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(with the crown); Ignacy Jan Paderewski Coat of arms as of 1919 14 August 1992 10 November 1992 15 October 1994
16 November 1993 11 April 1994 31 December 1996
5,000,000 złotych Gray and yellow Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(with the crown); Józef Piłsudski Józef Piłsudski's orders 12 May 1995 24 April 2006(only as collection banknote) Never withdrawn Never lapsed
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Banknotes of Poland, issue 1990, not in circulation (Cities and sights of Poland)
Obverse Reverse Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Date of print
1 złoty 138×63 blue Gdynia Shipyard "Dar Pomorza" yacht 1 March 1990
2 złote dark red to brown A mining tower in Katowice The Silesian Uprising monument, by Gustaw Zemła
5 złotych dark green City hall in Zamość The Grunwald Cross Medal
10 złotych dark red Royal Castle in Warsaw Mermaid of Warsaw
20 złotych yellow Żuraw Gate in Gdańsk (seen from the Motława) Neptune's statue on the Neptune's fountain
50 złotych violet Town hall in Wrocław Picture of the 16th-century seal of the city magistrate in Wrocław
100 złotych orange Town hall in Poznań Picture of the old seal of the city magistrate in Poznań
200 złotych light blue Wawel Castle Picture of the Piast dynasty seal
500 złotych teal Gniezno Cathedral Picture of the seal of Gniezno in Piast dynasty times
1,000 złotych multicoloured -

mainly yellow

Kalisz Picture of the seal of Kalisz city authorities
2,000 złotych brown Biskupin archaeological site - fortress Dishes from the site
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Banknotes of Poland, issue 1994, "Sovereigns of Poland" (first version)[49]
Obverse picture Reverse picture Value Dimensions Colour Watermark Obverse Reverse Symbol printing issue annul
10 zł 120 × 60 mm Green and brown As portrait Mieszko I Silver denar coin during the reign of Mieszko I Square 25 March 1994 1 January 1995 current
20 zł 126 × 63 mm Pink, violet and blue Bolesław I the Brave Silver denar coin during the reign of Bolesław I the Brave; St. Nicholas Church in Cieszyn Circle
50 zł 132 × 66 mm Mainly blue Casimir III the Great White Eagle from the royal seal of Casimir III the Great and the regalia of Poland: sceptre and globus cruciger;

Kraków drawing from a medieval book

Rhombus
100 zł 138 × 69 mm Mainly green Władysław II Jagiełło Shield bearing a White Eagle from the tombstone of Władysław II Jagiełło, coat of the Teutonic Knights and the Grunwald Swords; Malbork castle on the left Plus 1 June 1995
200 zł 144 × 72 mm Mainly yellow Sigismund I the Old Eagle intertwined with the letter S in a hexagon, from the Sigismund's Chapel in Kraków Triangle
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Coins of the Republic of Poland
Obverse pictures Reverse pictures Denomination Diameter(mm) Mass(g) Composition Edge Obverse Reverse Issued Producer
1 grosz 15.5 1.64 manganese brass rifled denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-3

1995

1997-2005

2007-14

Mennica Warszawska
steel galvanized by brass Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting (design different from the one of earlier issues) 2013-6 The Royal Mint
2 grosze 17.5 2.13 manganese brass smooth denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-2

1997-2005

2007-14

Mennica Warszawska
steel galvanized by brass Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting (design different from the one of earlier issues) 2013-6 The Royal Mint
5 groszy 19.5 2.59 manganese brass milled: 4 rows, each has 12 dents denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-3

1998-2005

2007-14

Mennica Warszawska
steel galvanized by brass Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting (design different from the one of earlier issues) 2013-6 The Royal Mint
10 groszy 16.5 2.51 cupronickel milled: 4 rows, each has 10 dents denomination with a bush ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-3

1998-2005

2007-15

Mennica Warszawska
20 groszy 18.5 3.22 cupronickel rifled denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-2

1996-2016

Mennica Warszawska
50 groszy 20.5 3.94 cupronickel rifled denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-2

1995

2006

2008-15

Mennica Warszawska
1 złoty 23 5.00 cupronickel milled: 2 rows, each has 16 dents denomination with a leaf ornament, in a circle Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-5

2008-10

2012-5

Mennica Warszawska
2 złote 21.5

the centre diameter: 12

5.21 Centre: cupronickel;

Ring: aluminium bronze

smooth denomination Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1994-5

2005-10

2014-5

Mennica Warszawska
5 złotych 24

the centre diameter: 16

6.54 Ring: cupronickel;

Centre: aluminium bronze

irregularly rifled denomination Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1994

1996

2008-10

2015

Mennica Warszawska
Issue of Polish coins (Note. Coins from 1990-1994 are valid. They were released on 1 January 1995)
Year\coin 5 zł 2 zł 1 zł 50 gr 20 gr 10 gr 5 gr 2 gr 1 gr Total amount Worth
1990 20,240,000 29,152,000 25,100,000 43,055,000 70,240,000 34,400,000 29,140,000 251,327,000 48,632,900 PLN
1991 60,080,000 99,120,000 75,400,000 123,164,300 171,040,000 97,410,000 79,000,000 705,214,300 148,326,630 PLN
1992 102,240,000 116,000,000 106,100,001 210,000,005 103,784,000 157,000,003 362,000,000 1,157,124,009 214,409,200.76 PLN
1993 20,904,000 84,240,008 20,280,101 80,780,000 206,204,109 31,149,805.85 PLN
1994 112,896,033 79,644,000 69,956,000 262,496,033 793,724,165 PLN
1995 122,880,020 99,740,122 101,600,113 102,280,109 426,500,364 377,323,019.59 PLN
1996 52,940,003 29,745,000 82,685,003 270,649,015 PLN
1997 59,755,000 92,400,002 103,080,002 255,235,004 14,829,800.06 PLN
1998 52,500,000 62,695,000 93,472,002 154,840,050 257,640,003 621,147,055 27,116,301.13 PLN
1999 25,985,000 47,040,000 99,024,000 187,900,000 203,970,000 563,919,000 20,649,900 PLN
2000 52,135,000 104,060,000 75,600,000 94,500,000 210,100,000 536,395,000 28,604,000 PLN
2001 41,980,001 62,820,000 67,368,000 84,000,000 210,000,020 466,168,021 21,826,400.40 PLN
2002 10,500,000 10,500,000 67,200,000 83,910,000 240,000,000 412,110,000 10,588,200 PLN
2003 20,400,000 31,500,000 48,000,000 80,000,000 250,000,000 429,900,000 13,730,000 PLN
2004 40,000,025 70,500,000 62,500,000 100,000,000 300,000,000 573,000,025 23,175,005 PLN
2005 5,000,000 37,000,025 94,000,000 113,000,000 163,003,250 375,000,000 787,003,275 39,460,070 PLN
2006 5,000,000 35,000,000 40,000,000 80,000,000 35,500,000 PLN
2007 20,000,000 68,000,000 100,000,000 116,000,000 160,000,000 330,000,000 794,000,000 75,900,000 PLN
2008 5,000,000 15,000,000 5,000,000 13,000,000 91,000,000 103,000,000 107,000,000 172,000,000 316,000,000 827,000,000 106,950,000 PLN
2009 59,000,000 62,000,000 34,000,000 57,000,000 133,000,000 146,000,000 160,000,000 222,000,000 338,000,000 1,211,000,000 538,520,000 PLN
2010 30,000,000 15,000,000 3,000,000 12,000,000 45,000,000 62,000,000 100,000,000 120,000,000 150,000,000 537,000,000 213,100,000 PLN
2011 10,000,000 15,000,000 80,000,000 90,000,000 150,000,000 270,000,000 615,000,000 26,200,200 PLN
2012 10,000,000 12,000,000 38,000,000 136,000,000 60,000,000 100,000,000 365,000,000 721,000,000 45,850,000 PLN
2013 21,000,000 30,000,000 36,000,000 142,000,000 88,000,000 150,000,000 323,000,000 790,000,000 68,030,000 PLN
2014 28,000,000 35,250,000 28,400,000 46,000,000 88,000,000 96,004,500 137,084,750 420,924,900 879,664,150 135,201,169 PLN
2015 38,040,000 34,350,000 39,000,000 44,010,000 78,030,000 112,050,000 115,050,000 129,870,000 388,560,000 978,960,000 358,951,500 PLN
Total 297,876,036 386,874,020 520,410,122 587,282,113 1,166,630,052 1,912,624,313 1,923,562,003 2,670,318,055 5,704,475,034 15,170,052,718 -
Worth 1,489,380,180 zł 773,748,040 zł 520,410,122 zł 293,641,056.50 zł 233,326,010.40 zł 191,262,431.30 zł 96,178,100.15 zł 53,406,361.10 zł 57,044,750.34 zł - 3,708,396,951.79 zł
Banknotes of Poland, issue 2012-, "Sovereigns of Poland" (second version, modernized)
Obverse picture Reverse picture Colour Value Dimensions Watermark Obverse Reverse Symbol printing issue annul
Green and brown 10 zł 120 × 60 mm As portrait Mieszko I Silver denar coin during the reign of Mieszko I Square 5 January 2012 7 April 2014 current
Pink, violet and blue 20 zł 126 × 63 mm Bolesław I the Brave Silver denar coin during the reign of Bolesław I Chrobry; St. Nicholas Church in Cieszyn Circle
Mainly blue 50 zł 132 × 66 mm Casimir III the Great White Eagle from the royal seal of Casimir III the Great and the regalia of Poland: sceptre and globus cruciger;

Kraków drawing from a medieval book

Rhombus
Mainly green 100 zł 138 × 69 mm Władysław II Jagiełło Shield bearing a White Eagle from the tombstone of Władysław II Jagiełło, coat of the Teutonic Knights and the Grunwald Swords; Malbork castle on the left Plus
Mainly yellow 200 zł 144 × 72 mm Sigismund I the Old Eagle intertwined with the letter S in a hexagon, from the Sigismund's Chapel on Wawel Triangle consisting of 12 dots 30 March 2015 12 February 2016
Multicoloured 500 zł[50] 150 × 75 mm John III Sobieski Wilanow Palace, coat of arms from the reign of John III Sobieski Two vertical lines of four dots each (when the note is laid horizontally) 16 February 2016 10 February 2017
unknown 1000 zł[42] unknown unknown Jadwiga of Poland unknown unknown planned
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Commemorative banknotes of Poland[51]
Obverse Reverse Value Dimensions

(mm)

Main Color Obverse Reverse Watermark Emission Issue date
10 zł 138×69 Pink, orange Polish coat of arms, Belweder Palace, Commander Józef Piłsudski White eagle, Monument of the Heroic Deed of Polish Legions in Kielce. Józef Piłsudski, electrotype denomination 80,000 3 November 2008
19 zł 150×77 Blue and yellow Arms, medal, Ignacy Jan Paderewski Polish Security Printing Works building in Warsaw Eagle up to 55,000 2 October 2019
20 zł 138×69 Orange, yellow, brown Polish coat of arms, Chalet in Krzemieniec, Juliusz Słowacki Cranes, an excerpt of the poem Sedation, Statue of Sigismund III Vasa at Castle Square in Warsaw. Juliusz Słowacki, electrotype denomination 80,000 23 September 2009
20 zł 138×69 Light blue, Light brown, black Frédéric Chopin, the mansion in Żelazowa Wola where the composer was born, reproduction of the first edition of Mazurka in B-flat major, Opus 7 No 1, Chopin's autograph. Facsimile of a fragment of Étude in f-minor, Opus 10, No 9; landscape in Central Poland with Masovian willows. Chopin 120,000 26 February 2010
20 zł 138×69 Brown and green Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Sorbona w Paryżu (Sorbonne school building in Paris), Coat of arms, Ra (atomic symbol for radium) in SPARK patch in concentric circles. Curie quotation ("I have detected the radium, but not created it; the glory does not belong to me, but it is the property of the whole mankind."), Instytut Radowy w Warszawie (Radium Institute building in Warsaw); Nobel Prize medal for chemistry. Marie Skłodowska Curie and electrotype denomination 60,000 12 December 2011
20 zł 147×67 Green, brown, yellow and blue Belvedere Palace hologram; coat of arms with crowned eagle; Commander Józef Klemens Piłsudski wearing military uniform. Eagle badge of the Polish Legions; Grand Cross (with Star) of the Order of Virtuti Militari; badge of the First Brigade of the Polish Legions; Belvedere Palace hologram. None 50,000 5 August 2014
20 zł 138×69 Brown, green, gold and violet 1415 as registration device; open book; coat of arms with crowned eagle; Jan Długosz Wieniawa coat of arms; Wawel cathedral in Kraków; stained glass window Shield with crowned eagle 30,000 24 August 2015
20 zł 144×77 Blue and red Coat of arms with crowned eagle; Dobrawa (Doubravka of Bohemia) and King Miezko I; ornate cross; floor plan of church as registration device Floor plan of church; Gniezno Cathedral; royal chalice of Trzemeszno Unknown with electrotype 20 35,000 12 April 2016
20 zł 150×77 Yellow and blue Diadems, arms Częstochowa Filigree with electrotype 20 up to 55,000 21 August 2017
20 zł 150×77 Teal and yellow Józef Piłsudski, arms Arms, flag Eagle up to 50,000 31 August 2018
20 zł 150×77 Yellow, teal and red Józef Piłsudski, arms Medal, scene from the Battle of Warsaw Eagle with electrotype 20 up to 60,000 11 August 2020
50 zł 144×72 Blue, yellow Pope John Paul II, Polish coat of arms Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski, a quotation from Letter to Poles, Jasna Góra Monastery and church Papal arms of John Paul II 2,000,000 16 October 2006
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Commemorative coins of the Republic of Poland
Pictures Value Diameter(mm) Mass(g) Composition Edge Obverse Reverse(designer's name) Amount Year of minting
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination A cemetery with a lot of crosses; Katyń - Miednoje - Charków(places of execution of Polish soldiers); (Roussanka Nowakowska) 300,000 1995
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Catfish(Roussanka Nowakowska) 300,000 1995
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 75 years of the Battle of Warsaw(1920); (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 300,000 1995
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Łazienki Palace; (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 287,300 1995
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 100 years of the modern Olympic Games(Robert Kotowicz) 350,000 1995
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 1996 Summer Olympics - wrestlers(Robert Kotowicz) 350,000 1995
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Sigismund II Augustus (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 200,000 1996
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Erinaceus europaeus (Roussanka Nowakowska) 300,000 1996
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Castle in Lidzbark Warmiński(Andrzej Nowakowski) 300,000 1996
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Henryk Sienkiewicz (Robert Kotowicz) 300,000 1996
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Stephen Báthory (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 315,000 1997
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Lucanus cervus (Andrzej Nowakowski) 315,000 1997
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Pieskowa Skała castle(Roussanka Nowakowska) 315,000 1997
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 200 years from the birth of Paweł Edmund Strzelecki; Australia and its endemite animals(Roussanka Nowakowska) 420,000 1997
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 1998 Winter Olympics - snowboarder(Robert Kotowicz) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Sigismund III Vasa (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Bufo calamita (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 100 years of polonium and radium discovery; Marie and Pierre Curie (Robert Kotowicz) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Kórnik Castle(Ewa Olszewska-Borys) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 80 years of independence(Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 200 years from the birth of Adam Mickiewicz (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 420,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 100 years of Ernest Malinowski's death, inscription: "The creator of the Ferrocarril Central Andino"(Robert Kotowicz) 420,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 150 years of Julisz Słowacki's death(Robert Kotowicz) 420,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Wolf(Canis lupus)(Roussanka Nowakowska) 420,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 150 years of Fryderyk Chopin's death(Roussanka Nowakowska) 420,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Poland's admission to NATO; soldiers going out of a helicopter; a globe (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 450,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Jan Łaski - the Church reformer(Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 450,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Radzyń Podlaski Castle (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 450,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Władysław IV Vasa (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 500,000 1999

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ The nominative plural, used for numbers ending in 2, 3 and 4 (except those in 12, 13 and 14), is złote [ˈzwɔtɛ]; the genitive plural, used for all other numbers, is złotych [ˈzwɔtɘx]
  3. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3rd ed., p. 2078.
  4. ^ "Dollar (USD) to Polish złoty (PLN) Currency Converter". www.currency-calc.com.
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FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Singular: grosz, alternative plural forms: groszy, grosze.

External linksEdit