1998 Winter Olympics
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (February 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially the XVIII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (Japanese: 第十八回オリンピック冬季競技大会 Dai Jūhachi-kai Orinpikku Tōkikyōgi Taikai), and commonly known as Nagano 1998, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 7 to 22 February 1998 in Nagano, Japan. The city of Nagano had previously been a candidate to host the 1940 Winter Olympics (which were later cancelled), as well as the 1972 Winter Olympics, but each time Nagano was eliminated at the national level by Sapporo.
Emblem of the 1998 Winter Olympics[a]
|Host city||Nagano, Japan|
|Motto||Coexistence with Nature|
(Japanese: 自然との共存, Shizen to no Kyōzon)
|Athletes||2,176 (1,389 men, 787 women)|
|Events||68 in 7 sports (14 disciplines)|
|Stadium||Nagano Olympic Stadium|
The games hosted 2,176 athletes from 72 nations competing in 7 sports and 68 events . The number of athletes and participating nations were a record at the time. The Games saw the introduction of women's ice hockey, curling and snowboarding. National Hockey League players were allowed to participate in the men's ice hockey for the first time. Five countries, Azerbaijan, Kenya, Macedonia, Uruguay, and Venezuela made their debut at the Winter Olympics.
The athlete who won the most medals at these games was the Russian cross-country skier Larisa Lazutina who won five medals, including three gold. The Norwegian cross-country skier Bjørn Dæhlie won four medals, including three gold, which took his total Olympic medal total to 12, including eight gold, which is a record for Winter Olympics. In ice hockey, professionals from the North American National Hockey League participated for the first time. Despite their participation, the Czech men's ice hockey team won the gold medal. In Ski Jumping, Kazuyoshi Funaki won two gold for host Japan. The American Figure skater Tara Lipinski became the youngest champion in Olympic history at the age of 15 years and 255 days. Germany dominated the medal table with 29 medals, including 12 gold. Germany was followed by Norway and Russia, who won 25 and 18 medals respectively. Canada, which finished fourth in the medal table with 15 medals, including six gold, had its most successful Winter Olympics up until that point.
The host was selected on June 15, 1991, over Salt Lake City, Östersund, Jaca and Aosta. They were the third Olympic Games and second Winter Olympics to be held in Japan, after the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo and the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo. Nagano is so far the southernmost city to host a Winter Olympics, next to Squaw Valley, host of the 1960 Winter Olympics. The games were succeeded by the 1998 Winter Paralympics from 5 to 14 March. These were the final Winter Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch.
The hosting of the games improved transportation networks with the construction of the high-speed Shinkansen, the Nagano Shinkansen, now the Hokuriku Shinkansen, between Takasaki and Nagano. In addition, upgrades and new highways were built, including the Nagano Expressway and the Jōshin-etsu Expressway.
Host city selectionEdit
In 1932, Japan won the rights to host the 1940 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. At that time, organizers of the Summer Olympics were also able to organize the Winter Olympics the same year. Several Japanese cities, including Nagano, prepared a bid. Sapporo was chosen; however, the games never took place because of World War II. In 1961, Nagano declared its intention to host the 1968 Winter Olympics but lost to Sapporo, the winning Japanese big, who lost to the [[France|French city of Grenoble. Sapporo eventually won the right to host the 1972 Winter Olympics.
In 1985, Nagano Prefecture decided to began the process to bid, for its third time, for a Winter Olympics. The bid committee was established in July 1986, they submitted their bid the Japanese Olympic Committee (JOC) in November of the same year. Other Japanese cities who were bidding were Asahikawa, Yamagata, and Morioka. June 1st 1988, the JOC selected Nagano in the first round of national voting, receiving 34 of 45 votes. In 1989, the bid committee was reorganized, with the Japanese Prime Minister as head of the committee. The number of committee members was 511.
On February 12, 1990, the bid delegation presented its candidature at the IOC in Lausanne before Juan Antonio Samaranch. Other candidate cities for the 1998 Olympics were Aosta, Italy; Jaca, Spain; Östersund, Sweden; and Salt Lake City, United States. The host city selection was held in Birmingham, United Kingdom, on 15 June 1991, at the 97th IOC session. After the first round of voting, Nagano led, with Aosta and Salt Lake City tied for last. Aosta was eliminated in a run-off against Salt Lake City. After the second round of voting, Nagano led with Salt Lake City in second, and Jaca was eliminated. Following round 3, Nagano continued to lead, with Salt Lake City in second, and Östersund was eliminated. Finally, Nagano prevailed over Salt Lake City by just 4 votes in the fifth round of voting, becoming the third Japanese city to host the games after Tokyo in 1964 Summer Olympics and Sapporo in 1972. In June 1995, Salt Lake was chosen as the host of the following 2002 Winter Olympics.
Following a corruption scandal after the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Nagano was also suspected of bribing voting members of the IOC. The Nagano Olympic bid committee spent approximately $14 million to entertain the 62 International Olympic Committee members and many of their companions. The precise figures are unknown since Nagano, after the IOC asked that the entertainment expenditures not be made public, destroyed the financial records.
|1998 Winter Olympics bidding results|
|City||Country||Round 1||Run-off||Round 2||Round 3||Round 4|
|Salt Lake City||United States||15||59||27||29||42|
Five months after the city was selected, the "Organizing Committee of the 18th Winter Olympics" was created. Eishiro Saito was selected as president of the committee. There were four Vice Presidents, Goro Yoshimura, the Governor of Nagano Prefecture, Hironoshin Furuhashi, president of the Japanese Olympic Committee, president of the Ski Association of Japan Yoshiaki Tsutsumi, Mayor of Nagano City, Tasuku Tsukada; and one director-general, Vice Minister of the Interior, Tadashi Tsuda. Tsuda was replaced by Makoto Kobayashi in 1993.
The organizing committee recognized three goals fo the games, which they referred to as "Games from the Heart": promote youth participation, coexistence with nature, create a festival with peace and friendship at its centre. To realize the first goal, a camp bringing together 217 young people from 51 countries was created, along with the program of "One school, one country" in Nagano Prefecture. This program organized cultural exchanges with other countries. In addition, more than 100,000 tickets were reserved for children. For the second point, the organizers attempted to minimize the impact on their nature and the local ecosystem. Regarding the third point, an international truce organized by the United Nations in 1997 was adopted during the games.
The Nagano Olympics Games are a link to the 21st century, inspiring our search for wisdom for the new ear, respect for the beauty and bounty of nature, furtherance of peace and goodwill. Friends worldwide are welcome to share, in the spirit of competition and fair play, the joys and glory of the XVIII Olympic Winter Games.
The costs of construction and of the land of the Olympic venues totaled 106.6 billion yen, approximately 914 million US dollars. Of this, the national government spent 51.1 billion, the prefectural government spent 29.6 billion, and the cities and towns of Nagano, 23.4 billion; Hakuba, 1 billion; and Nozawa Onsen, 1.1 billion; shared the remaining 25.5 billion. The most expensive venue was M-Wave, which hosted the long-track speed skating events. It cost 34.8 billion. The two ice hockey venues, Big Hat and Aqua Wing Arena cost 19.1 and 9.1 billion respectively. The White Ring (arena), which hosted figure skating and short-track speed skating cost 14.2 billion, the Spiral, which hosted bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton, cost 10.1 billion. Another 8.6 billion was spent on the ski jumping venue, 7 billion for the cross-country skiing venue, and 3 billion for the biathlon venue.
The organizing committee finance all costs, totaling 113.9 billion yen. It spent 99.4 billion for operational expenses, 21.6 billion for public relations, 20.7 billion for installations, 18.4 billion for telecommunications, 15.9 billion for running the competitions, and 14.4 billion for administration. Television rights were worth 34.5 billion, and marketing earned 31.3 billion. Ticket sales were worth 10.5 billion. The total cost of the Nagano Games is estimated to have been US$15.25 billion (in 2015), of which the largest factor in the cost of the games was the extension of the shinkansen to Nagano. This compares, for example, with US$2.5 billion for the 2002 Winter Olympics, US$4.35 billion for the 2006 Winter Olympics, US$7.56 billion for the 2010 Winter Olympics, and US$51 billion for the 2014 Winter Olympics
Nagano is situated in a mountainous area of Japan that receive large snowfalls. These combined to make transportation an important challenge for the organizing committee. In addition, the athletes village was a distance of 7 kilometers from the center of the city, and sporting events were spread over five surrounding communities. Complicating matters is that many of the venues had one single road in-out, which limited possibilities and led to traffic jams.
To improve access to Nagano, the government decided to link Nagano with the high-speed shinkansen train network. The the Nagano Shinkansen, now the Hokuriku Shinkansen was inaugurated five months before the start of the Games. The reduced by half the travel time between Tokyo and Nagano, to 79 minutes for 221 kilometers. Two highways were also built in the Nagano region and 114.9 kilometers of roads within Nagano Prefecture were improved.
Transportation systems for the Games ran for 33 days, from the opening of the Athletes Village until February 25, 3 days after the closing ceremony. Approximately 64% of the athletes arrived between February 1 and February 6, and 74% left Nagano between February 22 and February 25. Transportation operations were directed from a transportation centre situated at the center of the organizing committee. Two regional transportation hubs were created in Hakuba and Yamanouchi, as well as a traffic center for vehicles in Karuizawa. The media, as well as representatives of different national Olympic committees generally were transported by car, from their arrival airport, usually Tokyo but also Kansai and Nagoya, to their lodging, either in Nagano or Karuizawa. The members of the IOC traveled by Shinkansen.
To improve transportation for spectators, the number and hours of local trains were extended. During the heaviest traffic days, more cars were put in service and up to 68 parking areas, for 8,000 vehicles were at available for various Olympic delegations, and another 17 parking areas for 23,000 cars for spectators. Approximately 1,200 vehicles had navigation systems which transmitted their locations in real time.
As one of the principal aims of the Games was to respect nature, many vehicles were considered ecological or semi-ecological. In addition, there were more than 100 electric vehicles, hybrid mini-buses and other environmentally-friendly vehicles.
The emblem of the 1998 Winter Olympics consisted of a stylized snow flower with each petal representing an athlete participating in a winter sport. The figure could also represent a snowflake, or a mountain flower, which refers to the importance of the natural environment to the city of Nagano. Similarly, Tokyo used cherry blossoms in its logo for its candidature for the 2020 Summer Olympics.
Landor Associates conceived the official mascots that were used by the communication team for the Games. They consisted of four owlets, Sukki, Nokki, Lekki and Tsukki, also called Snowlets. The names were chosen from more than 47,000 suggestions. Four represents the number of years between each Olympic Games, and also represent the four elements, fire, are, earth, and water.
The official poster for the Games was designed by the graphic designer Masuteru Aoba presented a thrush perched on ski poles with light in the background shining on snow-capped mountain peaks. Here, as with the emblem and the mascots, the importance of the natural environment in these Olympic Games and a desire to create harmony between athletes and the natural surroundings are shown. In addition to the official poster, a separate posted was created for the opening ceremony. Marketing for the games cot the organizing committee 5.9 billion yen.
These Olympic Games were sponsored by 11 worldwide partners, 8 gold partners, and 18 official supports and suppliers. Marketing revenues for sponsoring or for the rights to use the emblems and mascots of the Games totaled 31.3 billion yen.
Sukki, Nokki, Lekki and Tsukki, also known as the Snowlets are the 1998 Winter Olympic mascots and are four snowy owls. They represent respectively fire (Sukki), air (Nokki), earth (Lekki) and water (Tsukki) and together they represent the four major islands of Japan.
Sponsors of the 1998 Winter OlympicsEdit
|Worldwide Olympic Partners||Gold Sponsors||Official Supporters and Suppliers|
|The Coca-Cola Company||Amway||Bridgestone|
|John Hancock Financial||Hachijuni Bank||Brother Industries|
|McDonald's||Kirin Company||Hanamaruki Foods|
|Panasonic||Mizuno Corporation||Hitachi Zosen Corporation|
|Samsung Electronics||Nippon Telegraph and Telephone||Idemitsu Kosan|
|Time Inc.||Seiko||Japan Agricultural Cooperatives|
|United Parcel Service||Toyota||Japan Airlines|
|Xerox (Fuji Xerox)||MAYEKAWA|
|Oji Paper Company|
|Snow Brand Milk Products|
From February 7, 1997, the organizing committee put up for sale 1,286,000 tickets for the various competitions and ceremonies. The number of tickets sold was 1,149,615, which represented 89.4% of available tickets. Including people connected to the Games, the total number of spectators was 1,275,529. This number was slightly higher than in 1994 but slightly lower than the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. Tickets sales were a success in Japan with a reservation list of 6 million. For the most popular sports, a lottery was used. In total, ticket sales raised 10.5 billion yen for the organizing committee.
The ice hockey matches represented 295,802 tickets sold, 26% of the total. Tickets sold for alpine skiing totaled 166,092; for ski jumping, 96,000, and speed skating, 93,000. For multiple sports, ski jumping, Nordic combined jumps, freestyle skiing, all three skating disciplines, bobsleigh, and curling, as well as the ceremonies, all tickets were sold. By contrast, on 56.6% of the 146,000 available tickets for cross-country skiing were sold.
Cost and cost overrunEdit
The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Nagano 1998 Winter Olympics at US$2.2 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 56% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Nagano 1998 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, and costs of US$51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%.
For the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan, a total of fourteen sports venues, all within Nagano Prefecture, were used. Construction of these venues, and of the Olympic Stadium which hosted the ceremonies, began in 1990 and lasted until 1997, with construction and land costs totaling 106.6 billion yen. The most expensive venue constructed for the games was the long-track speed skating venue, M-Wave built 5 kilometers from Nagano Station. Between March 1996 and November 1997, these sites were tested with 16 different world champion events, world cups, and other international competitions to allow the organizers to prepare for the running of the Games.
Five sites, all constructed for the Games, are located in the city of Nagano. Minami Nagano Sports Park, built to serve as a baseball park, was constructed in the south section of the city, near Shinonoi Station, and approximately 9 kilometers from Nagano Station. The stadium, which held the opening and closing ceremonies, resembles a cherry blossom, a symbol of Japan. The stadium can accommodate 50,000 with temporary stands added, but usually accommodates 35,000 spectators. Big Hat, named for its shape, was the principal site of ice hockey. Big Hat, located approximately 2 kilometers from Nagano Station, has a capacity of 10,104 spectators. Aqua Wing Arena was the second ice hockey arena at the Games. Shaped like a wing, it had a capacity of 6000 during the Olympics. After the Games, it was modified into an interior swimming pool. Aqua Wing is approximately 5 kilometers from Nagano Station. Its closest stations are Kita-Nagano Station and Asahi Station. M-Wave, used for speed skating, is the first indoor, long-track speed skating venue in Japan. It was built to accommodate 10,000 spectators. The venue, which gets its name from its M-shape, representing the surrounding mountains, is approximately 5 kilometers from Nagano Station. Finally, White Ring, with a maximum capacity of 7,351 spectators, was built for figure skating and short track speed skating. White Ring, which is used as a public gymnasium, is approximately 6 kilometers from Nagano Station.
Hakuba village is situated 50 kilometers west of the city of Nagano. Hakuba hosted three Olympics sites. Alpine skiing's Downhill, Super G and Combined were situated at Happo'one Resort. Three courses between altitudes of 840 meters and 1,765 meters were used, one for the men's, women's and Combined for both men's and women's. The site has a capacity of 20,000 spectators. Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium was the first ski jump built in Japan with parallel 90 and 120 K-point hills. The ski jumping stadium can accommodate 45,000 spectators. Snow Harp Kamishiro was built for cross country skiing and Nordic combined. It includes three tracks of 4.8, 4.8, and 7.8 kilometers, 6 meters wide. The stadium is another 1.2 kilometers. In total, Snow Harp has 19 kilometers of tracks. Up to 20,000 spectators can be accommodated.
Nozawa Onsen Ski Resort, in the town of Nozawaonsen, was site of biathlon. Nozawa is approximately 50 kilometers north of Nagano. At Nozawa Onsen, the stadium was built around six existing tracks. Two tracks, of 4 kilometers and 7 kilometers, were used for the Games. The stadium can accommodate 20,000 spectators.
Two sites in the town of Yamanouchi, approximately 30 kilometers northeast of Nagano, were used. Giant Slalom was held at Mount Yakebitai at Shiga Kogen Resort, at an altitude between 1,530 and 1,969 meters. The site can accommodate 20,000 spectators. Also in Shiga Kogen, at Mount Higashidate, giant slalom events in Alpine skiing and snowboarding were held. Kanbayashi Snowboard Park was the site of the half pipe events. The track is 120 meters long and 15 meters wide, with walls of 3.5 meters. 10,000 spectators can be accommodated at Kanbayashi.
The town of Iizuna, approximately 12 kilometers northwest of Nagano, was the site of freestyle skiing and bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton at Iizuna Kogen Ski Area. 8,000 spectators can watch the free style skiing on a course that 250 meters long and 12,000 can watch the jumps. The Spiral, which held the sledding events, was the first artificially refrigerated track in Asia. It is 1700 meters long, with a difference in height of 114 meters and 15 turns. At the Spiral, approximately 40,000 saplings, mainly beech and oak, were planted two per square meter, as part of the environmental stewardship committed during the Winter Games. The site can accommodate 10,000 spectators.
Finally, the town of Karuizawa, approximately 80 southwest of Nagano, hosted the curling events at Kazakoshi Park Arena. The venue was built as a multi-purpose venue. Its ice surface is 60 meters by 30. Its maximum capacity is 1,924 spectators. The town of Karuizawa also hosted the equestrian events at the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first place in the world to host both the Summer Olympics and Winter Olympics.
To accommodate the athletes and officials during the Games, the Olympic Village was constructed in Imai district, approximately 7 kilometers south of Nagano Station. Along with the construction of the village, Imai Station was opened in 1997. The village was constructed by the city of Nagano as public residential housing, and loaned to the organizing committee during the Games. The Village occupies an area that is 19 hectares, composed of 23 buildings with a total of 1,032 apartments. Temporary restaurants and shops were also available during the Games. The Village was open from January 24 to February 25, 1998, and accommodated 3,200 people. Because the curling arena was in Karuizawa, 90 kilometers away, a satellite village was built in Karuizawa, 7 kilometers from the arena. It was open from February 4 to February 16, 1998. In addition, a section of the Shiga Kogen Prince Hotel, 58 kilometers from the Olympic Village, was reserved for 180 snowboarders and officials.
In addition to athletes and officials, members of the Olympic family and other personnel were housed in 900 hotels in Nagano and surrounding region, which represented 234,207 nights between January 24 to February 25, 1998. The members of the IOC stayed athletes the Kokusai 21 Hotel in downtown Nagano. In total, the Olympic family included 18,350 people. Finally, two media villages were built in the districts of Yanagimachi, near Nagano Station, and Asahi, across the street from the M-Wave.
The Olympic Torch RelayEdit
The Olympic Torch was lit by sunlight during a ceremony organized by the Temple of Hera at Olympia, Greece on December 19, 1997. A Greek alpine skier started the relay towards Athens where a ceremony was held at the Panathenaic Stadium. On December 22, the flame was transported to Japan by airplane. On January 4, the 1998 Winter Olympics torch relay flame was divided into three parts in order for it to pass through every Japanese prefecture by three distinct routes: the Sea of Japan Route, the Pacific Route, and the Eastern Route. The start, on January 6, was from Okinawa, Kagoshima, and Hokkaido. By January 23, the relay had travelled through all 120 municipalities of Nagano Prefecture, and finally arrived in Nagano City on February 5. The following day, after traveling through each district of the city, the relay arrived at the central square where three former athletes passed the flames to three members of the organizing committee. These three committee members then lit a torch held by Juan Antonio Samaranch. On February 7, the flame travelled another 10 kilometers, and the figure skater Midori Ito lit the cauldron at Nagano Olympic Stadium during the opening ceremonies.
The Olympic Flame Relay in Japan was sponsored by Coca-Cola, lasted 33 days and travelled 1,162 kilometers. A group of 5.5 million people took part in relay activities. Over the distance of the relay, which was run or skied, the flame was always followed by a group of six people: the runner who carried the flame, some who accompanied the carrier, and four people in supporting roles, for a total of 6,901 people. In addition, each relay was followed by two groups of 11 vehicles and more than 20 people.
The shape of the torch represented a traditional Japanese torch called taimatsu. It was built with aluminum, was 55 centimeters long, and weighed 1.3 kilograms. The exterior of the torch was painted silver, to represent winter. Runners were blue and white uniforms symbolizing the color of the games and of snow. The runners' uniforms included logos for the Nagano Olympics and the Olympic Games, a logo of the relay, and of Coca Cola.
Participating National Olympic CommitteesEdit
72 nations participated in the 1998 Winter Olympic Games for a total of 2,176 athletes, of which 787 were female and 1,389 were male. With the addition of five countries and another 439 athletes since the 1994 Winter Olympic Games at Lillehammer, Norway, these were the largest Winter Olympics ever at the time. The nations of Azerbaijan, Kenya, Macedonia, Uruguay, and Venezuela participated in their first Winter Olympic Games. Iran returned to the Winter games after a 22-year absence, and North Korea, India, Ireland, and Yugoslavia returned after 8 years. Five countries, Fiji, Mexico, San Marino, American Samoa, and Senegal, which were at the 1994 Games, did not participate in 1998.
The number in parentheses represents the number of athletes participating in official events.
The 1998 Winter Olympics were held from Saturday, February 7 to Sunday, February 22. This was 16 days and included three weekends. The number of events increased from 61 at the 1994 Winter Olympics to 68 in 1998. Two sports, curling and snowboarding were added to the program, as women's ice hockey. This increased the number of sports to seven, and the number of disciplines to 14. The sporting program started and ended with ice hockey. The first matches starting at 4:00 pm on February 7 featured Kazakstan defeating Italy 5-3, and Slovakia tying Austria 2-2. The final match was played on Sunday February 22 from 1:45 pm, and say Czech Republic defeat Russia 1-0.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Event finals||CC||Closing ceremony|
|Cross country skiing||1||1||1||2||1||1||1||1||1||10|
|Daily medal events||3||3||5||7||4||3||4||6||5||6||4||5||5||6||2||68|
The 1998 Winter Olympics featured 68 medal events over 14 disciplines in 7 sports.
- Biathlon (6) ( )
- Bobsleigh (2) ( )
- Curling (2) ( )
- Ice hockey
- Ice hockey (2) ( )
- Luge (3) ( )
Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline.
24 of the 72 participating nations at these Games won at least one medal, as shown in the table below. 15 countries won at least one gold medal and 18 nations won 2 or more medals. In total, 205 medal were distributed. Germany finished on top of the table with 29, including 12 gold, 9 silver, and 8 bronze. Germany, which finished in third place in the medal standings in 1994, won most of its medals in Alpine skiing, speed skating, and luge, in which it won all three gold medals. German female athletes won 22 of the country's 29 medals. Norway finished in second, as in 1994, with 25 medals, including 9 won in cross-country skiing and five in biathlon. Russia, which finished atop the medals standing in 1994, finished in third in 1998, with 18 medals, including 5 gold in the women's cross-country skiing. Canada moved from events in 1994 to fourth with 15 medals, and the United States remained in fifth place. Netherlands finished in 6th place, 12 places higher than in 1994, thanks to 11 medals, all in speed skating. Host Japan beat its previous record of medals at a Winter Games, with 10 medals, including 5 gold. Denmark won its first ever medal in the Winter Olympics with a silver in women's curling, and Bulgaria and the Czech Republic each won their first gold medals at a Winter Olympics in women's biathlon and men's ice hockey resperively.
|Totals (24 nations)||69||68||68||205|
CBS Sports, Turner Sports (In the United States, this was CBS' last of three cycles as Winter Olympic broadcast partner. Turner Sports, through TNT, had been its cable television partner for the three competitions CBS was contracted to carry. NBC, which had aired the Summer Olympics since 1988, took over the Winter Olympics beginning with the Salt Lake City Games, and its family of networks has been the exclusive home for the Olympics in the United States ever since.)
- The emblem represents a flower, with each petal representing an athlete practicing a different winter sport. It can also be seen as a snowflake, thus the name "Snowflower" was given to it.
- "French and English are the official languages for the Olympic Games.", .(..)
- "The Olympic Winter Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- "Transport infrastructure provides lasting legacy of Nagano 1998". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2019, April 18. Check date values in:
- Jordan, Mary; Sullivan, Kevin (21 January 1999), "Nagano Burned Documents Tracing '98 Olympics Bid", Washington Post, pp. A1, retrieved 20 August 2016
- Macintyre, Donald (1 February 1999). "Japan's Sullied Bid". Time Magazine. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
- The XVIII Olympics Winter Games: Official Report Nagano 1998 / The Organizing Committee for the XVIII Olympics Winter Games Nagano 1998, NAOC, Nagano, 1999
- Baade, R. & Matheson, V. "Going for the gold: The economics of the Olympics" (PDF). Retrieved 19 April 2019.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN 2804554.
- "Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "1998 Nagano Winter Games". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1998 Winter Olympics.|
- "Nagano 1998". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- "Results and Medalists — 1998 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- The Organizing Committee for the XVIII Olympic Winter Games, Nagano 1998 (1998). The XVIII Winter Olympic Games: Official Report. The Organizing Committee for the XVIII Olympic Winter Games. Downloadable PDF: Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3, Appendix, retrieved on 17 January 2010.
- 1998 Winter Olympics Official website
| Winter Olympics
XVIII Olympic Winter Games (1998)
Salt Lake City