List of IOC country codes

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) uses three-letter abbreviation country codes[1] to refer to each group of athletes that participate in the Olympic Games. Each geocode usually identifies a National Olympic Committee (NOC), but there are several codes that have been used for other instances in past Games, such as teams composed of athletes from multiple nations, or groups of athletes not formally representing any nation.

The flag of the international Olympic movement
The flag of the international Paralympic movement

Several of the IOC codes are different from the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes. Other sporting organisations like FIFA use similar country codes to refer to their respective teams, but with some differences. Still others, such as the Commonwealth Games Federation or the Association of Tennis Professionals, use the IOC list verbatim.

Because French is the first reference language of the IOC, followed by English, followed by the host country's language when necessary, most IOC codes have their origins in either French or English.[2][3]


The 1956 Winter Olympics and 1960 Summer Olympics were the first Games to feature Initials of Nations to refer to each NOC in the published official reports.[4] However, the codes used at the next few Games were often based on the host nation's language (e.g., GIA for Japan at the 1956 Winter Olympics and 1960 Summer Olympics, both held in Italy, from Italian Giappone) or based on the French name for the nation (e.g., AUT for Austria, from Autriche). By the 1972 Winter Olympics, most codes were standardized on the current usage, but several have changed in recent years. Additionally, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, division and unification of Germany, breakup of Yugoslavia, dissolution of Czechoslovakia, and several other instances of geographical renaming have all resulted in code changes.

In addition to this list of over 200 NOCs, the participation of National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) at the Paralympic Games requires standardised IOC codes, such as Macau (or as "Macau, China" since 1999) and the Faroe Islands, coded MAC and FRO respectively.[5][6]

Current NOCsEdit

There are 206 current NOCs (National Olympic Committees) within the Olympic Movement. The following tables show the currently used code for each NOC and any different codes used in past Games, per the official reports from those Games. Some of the past code usage is further explained in the following sections. Codes used specifically for a Summer Games only or a Winter Games only, within the same year, are indicated by "S" and "W" respectively.

Code National Olympic Committee Other codes used Link
AFG   Afghanistan [1]
ALB   Albania [2]
ALG   Algeria
  • AGR (1964)
  • AGL (1968 S) from Spanish Argelia
AND   Andorra [4]
ANG   Angola ANO (As referenced in IAAF World Championships Beijing 2015 Statistics Handbook)[7] [5]
ANT   Antigua and Barbuda [6]
ARG   Argentina [7]
ARM   Armenia [8]
ARU   Aruba [9]
ASA   American Samoa AMS[7] [10]
AUS   Australia [11]
AUT   Austria current code from French Autriche [12]
AZE   Azerbaijan [13]
BAH   Bahamas [14]
BAN   Bangladesh [15]
BAR   Barbados BAD (1964) [16]
BDI   Burundi [17]
BEL   Belgium [18]
BEN   Benin
  • DAY (1964)
  • DAH (1968–1976) as Dahomey
BER   Bermuda [20]
BHU   Bhutan [21]
BIH   Bosnia and Herzegovina BSH (1992 S), BOS[7] current code from Bosnian Bosna i Hercegovina [22]
BIZ   Belize HBR (1968–1972) from French Honduras britannique as British Honduras Also BHO[7] [23]
BLR   Belarus [24]
BOL   Bolivia [25]
BOT   Botswana [26]
BRA   Brazil [27]
BRN   Bahrain BHR[7] [28]
BRU   Brunei [29]
BUL   Bulgaria [30]
BUR   Burkina Faso VOL (1972–1984) as Upper Volta Also BKF[7] [31]
CAF   Central African Republic AFC (1968) [32]
CAM   Cambodia
CAN   Canada [34]
CAY   Cayman Islands [35]
CGO   Republic of the Congo [36]
CHA   Chad CHD (1964) [37]
CHI   Chile
  • CIL (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Cile
CHN   China PRC (1952 S) as People's Republic of China [39]
CIV   Ivory Coast
  • IVC (1964)
  • CML (1968) from Spanish Costa de Marfil
current code from French Côte d'Ivoire
CMR   Cameroon [41]
COD   Democratic Republic of the Congo
COK   Cook Islands CKI[7] [43]
COL   Colombia [44]
COM   Comoros [45]
CPV   Cape Verde CVD[7] [46]
CRC   Costa Rica COS (1964) [47]
CRO   Croatia [48]
CUB   Cuba [49]
CYP   Cyprus [50]
CZE   Czechia [51]
DEN   Denmark
  • DAN (1960 S
  • 1968 W)
  • DIN (1968 S)
previous codes taken from Italian Danimarca, French Danemark and Spanish Dinamarca
DJI   Djibouti [53]
DMA   Dominica DMN[7] [54]
DOM   Dominican Republic [55]
ECU   Ecuador [56]
EGY   Egypt
previous codes taken from Italian Repubblica Araba Unita, French République Arabe Unie and Spanish República Árabe Unida
ERI   Eritrea [58]
ESA   El Salvador SAL (1964–1976) [59]
ESP   Spain
  • SPA (1956–1964
  • 1968 W)
current code taken from French Espagne or Spanish España
EST   Estonia [61]
ETH   Ethiopia
  • ETI (1960
  • 1968)
FIJ   Fiji FIG (1960) from Italian Figi [63]
FIN   Finland [64]
FRA   France [65]
FSM   Federated States of Micronesia [66]
GAB   Gabon [67]
GAM   The Gambia [68]
GBR   Great Britain
  • GRB (1956 W–1960)
  • GBI (1964)
GBS   Guinea-Bissau [70]
GEO   Georgia [71]
GEQ   Equatorial Guinea [72]
GER   Germany [73]
GHA   Ghana [74]
GRE   Greece [75]
GRN   Grenada [76]
GUA   Guatemala GUT (1964) [77]
GUI   Guinea [78]
GUM   Guam [79]
GUY   Guyana
  • GUA (1960)
  • GUI (1964)
HAI   Haiti [81]
HKG   Hong Kong, China HOK (1960–1968) [82]
HON   Honduras [83]
HUN   Hungary
  • UNG (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Ungheria
INA   Indonesia INS (1960) [85]
IND   India [86]
IRI   Iran
  • IRN (1956–1988)
  • IRA (1968 W)
current code from Islamic Republic of Iran
IRL   Ireland current code taken from French Irlande [88]
IRQ   Iraq
  • IRK (1960
  • 1968) from French/Spanish Irak
ISL   Iceland
  • ICE (1960 W
  • 1964 S)
current code taken from French Islande, Icelandic Ísland or Spanish Islandia
ISR   Israel [91]
ISV   Virgin Islands current code taken from French Îles Vierges (des États-Unis) [92]
ITA   Italy [93]
IVB   British Virgin Islands current code taken from French Îles Vierges britanniques [94]
JAM   Jamaica [95]
JOR   Jordan [96]
JPN   Japan
  • GIA (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Giappone
  • JAP (1960 W)
KAZ   Kazakhstan [98]
KEN   Kenya [99]
KGZ   Kyrgyzstan [100]
KIR   Kiribati [101]
KOR   South Korea
  • COR (1956 W
  • 1960 S
  • 1968 S
  • 1972 S)
previous code taken from Italian Corea, French Corée and Spanish Corea
KOS   Kosovo [103]
KSA   Saudi Arabia
  • ARS (1968–1976) from French Arabie saoudite
  • SAU (1980–1984)
current code from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
KUW   Kuwait [105]
LAO   Laos [106]
LAT   Latvia [107]
LBA   Libya
  • LYA (1964)
  • LBY (1968 W)
LBN   Lebanon
  • LEB (1960 W
  • 1964 S)
  • LIB (1964–2016) from French Liban
LBR   Liberia [110]
LCA   Saint Lucia [111]
LES   Lesotho [112]
LIE   Liechtenstein
  • LIC (1956 W
  • 1964 S
  • 1968 W)
LTU   Lithuania LIT (1992 W) [114]
LUX   Luxembourg [115]
MAD   Madagascar MAG (1964) [116]
MAR   Morocco MRC (1964); current code from French Maroc [117]
MAS   Malaysia MAL (1964–1988) [118]
MAW   Malawi [119]
MDA   Moldova MLD (1994) [120]
MDV   Maldives [121]
MEX   Mexico [122]
MGL   Mongolia MON (1968 W) [123]
MHL   Marshall Islands [124]
MKD   North Macedonia current code taken from Macedonian Македонија/Makedonija [125]
MLI   Mali [126]
MLT   Malta MAT (1960–1964) [127]
MNE   Montenegro [128]
MON   Monaco [129]
MOZ   Mozambique [130]
MRI   Mauritius From French Maurice [131]
MTN   Mauritania [132]
MYA   Myanmar
  • BIR (1948–1960
  • 1968–1988) from French Birmanie
  • BUR (1964) as Burma
NAM   Namibia [134]
NCA   Nicaragua
  • NCG (1964)
  • NIC (1968)
NED   Netherlands
  • OLA (1956 W) from Italian Olanda
  • NET (1960 W)
  • PBA (1960 S) from Italian Paesi Bassi
  • NLD (1964 S)
  • HOL (1968–1988) as Holland
current code taken from Dutch Nederland
NEP   Nepal [137]
NGR   Nigeria
  • NIG (1960 S)
  • NGA (1964)
NIG   Niger NGR (1964) [139]
NOR   Norway [140]
NRU   Nauru [141]
NZL   New Zealand
  • NZE (1960
  • 1968 W)
OMA   Oman [143]
PAK   Pakistan [144]
PAN   Panama [145]
PAR   Paraguay [146]
PER   Peru [147]
PHI   Philippines
  • FIL (1960
  • 1968) from Spanish Filipinas and Italian Filippine
PLE   Palestine [149]
PLW   Palau [150]
PNG   Papua New Guinea
  • NGY (1976–1980)
  • NGU (1984–1988)
POL   Poland [152]
POR   Portugal [153]
PRK   North Korea
  • NKO (1964 S
  • 1968 W)
  • CDN (1968) from French Corée du Nord or Spanish Corea del Norte
current code from People's Republic of Korea
PUR   Puerto Rico
  • PRI (1960)
  • PRO (1968)
QAT   Qatar [156]
ROU   Romania
  • ROM (1956–1960
  • 1972–2006)
  • RUM (1964–1968) from obsolete spelling Rumania
current code from French Roumanie
RSA   South Africa SAF (1960–1972)
current code from Republic of South Africa
RUS   Russia From 1994 to 2016 [159]
RWA   Rwanda [160]
SAM   Samoa WSM (1984–1996) as Western Samoa [161]
SEN   Senegal SGL (1964) [162]
SEY   Seychelles [163]
SGP   Singapore SIN (1959–2016) [164]
SKN   Saint Kitts and Nevis [165]
SLE   Sierra Leone SLA (1968) [166]
SLO   Slovenia [167]
SMR   San Marino SMA (1960–1964) [168]
SOL   Solomon Islands [169]
SOM   Somalia [170]
SRB   Serbia [171]
SRI   Sri Lanka
  • CEY (1948–1964
  • 1972) as Ceylon
  • CEI (1968 S) from Spanish Ceilán
SSD   South Sudan [173]
STP   São Tomé and Príncipe [174]
SUD   Sudan [175]
SUI   Switzerland
  • SVI (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Svizzera
  • SWI (1960 W
  • 1964 S)
current code from French Suisse
SUR   Suriname [177]
SVK   Slovakia [178]
SWE   Sweden
  • SVE (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Svezia
  • SUE (1968 S) from Spanish Suecia
SWZ   Eswatini current code from former name Swaziland [180]
SYR   Syria SIR (1968) from Spanish Siria [181]
TAN   Tanzania [182]
TGA   Tonga TON (1984) [183]
THA   Thailand [184]
TJK   Tajikistan [185]
TKM   Turkmenistan [186]
TLS   East Timor current code taken from Portuguese Timor-Leste [187]
TOG   Togo [188]
TPE   Chinese Taipei[8]
TTO   Trinidad and Tobago
  • TRT (1964–1968)
  • TRI (1972–2012)
TUN   Tunisia [191]
TUR   Turkey [192]
TUV   Tuvalu [193]
UAE   United Arab Emirates [194]
UGA   Uganda [195]
UKR   Ukraine [196]
URU   Uruguay URG (1968) [197]
USA   United States
  • SUA (1960 S) from Italian Stati Uniti d'America
  • EUA (1968 S) from French États-Unis d'Amérique or Spanish Estados Unidos de América
UZB   Uzbekistan [199]
VAN   Vanuatu [200]
VEN   Venezuela [201]
VIE   Vietnam
VIN   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines [203]
YEM   Yemen [204]
ZAM   Zambia NRH (1964) as Northern Rhodesia [205]
ZIM   Zimbabwe RHO (1960–1972) as Rhodesia [206]

Current NPCsEdit

Most National Paralympic Committees (NPC) cover a territory with an active NOC. In these cases the NPC codes matches the IOC codes shown above. The two current NPCs without a corresponding NOC use the following NPC codes.

Code National Paralympic Committee Link
MAC   Macau, China Associação Recreativa dos Deficientes de Macau
FRO   Faroe Islands The Faroese Sport Organisation for Disabled

Historic NOCs and teamsEdit

Codes still in useEdit

Fourteen historical NOCs or teams have codes that are still used in the IOC results database[9] to refer to past medal winners from these teams.

Code Nation/Team Other codes used
AHO   Netherlands Antilles
  • ATO (1960)
  • NAN (1964)
code from French Antilles hollandaises
ANZ   Australasia Also AUA[7]
BOH   Bohemia
BWI   British West Indies
  • ANT (1960
  • 1968) from Antilles
  • WID (1964)
EUA   United Team of Germany GER (1956–1964)
code taken from French Équipe unifiée d'Allemagne
EUN   Unified Team code from the French Équipe unifiée or Spanish Equipo Unificado
FRG   West Germany
  • ALL (1968 W) from French Allemagne
  • ALE (1968 S) from Spanish Alemania
  • GER (1972–1976)
code FRG taken from Federal Republic of Germany
GDR   East Germany ADE (1968) from Spanish Alemania Democrática
code GDR taken from German Democratic Republic
RU1   Russian Empire
SCG   Serbia and Montenegro code from Serbian Србија и Црна Гора / Srbija i Crna Gora
TCH   Czechoslovakia
  • CSL (1956 W)
  • CZE (1960 W)
  • CSV (1960 S)
  • CZS (1964 S)
  • CHE (1968 S) from Spanish Checoslovaquia
code taken from French Tchécoslovaquie
URS   Soviet Union SOV (1968 W)
code from French Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques (URSS)
VNM   South Vietnam Code of the State of Vietnam and then Republic of Vietnam from 1952 to 1975.[10][11][12]
YUG   Yugoslavia
  • JUG (1956–1960
  • 1968 W) from Југославија/Jugoslavija in native languages
  • YUS (1964 S)
ZZX   Mixed team

Obsolete codesEdit

Unlike the previous list, these codes no longer appear in the IOC results database. When a past athlete from one of these teams has won a medal, the new code is shown next to them instead.

Code Nation (NOC) Years Notes
BIR   Burma
From French Birmanie
1948–1988 Now   Myanmar (MYA)
CEY   Ceylon
From French Ceylan
1948–1972 Now   Sri Lanka (SRI)
DAH   Dahomey 1964–1976 Now   Benin (BEN)
GUI   British Guiana 1948–1964 Now   Guyana (GUY).
The code former GUI has been reassigned to   Guinea (GUI) in 1965 when its new NOC was recognized by the IOC and used publicly in their first competed games in 1968. All formerly known by BGU[7]
HBR   British Honduras
From French Honduras britannique
1968–1972 Now   Belize (BIZ)
IHO   Dutch East Indies
code from French Indes orientales hollandaises
1934–1938 Now   Indonesia (INA)
KHM   Khmer Republic
From French République khmère
1972 Now   Cambodia (CAM)
MAL   Malaysia
From French Malaisie
1956–1960 Competed independently before the formation of Malaysia in 1963.
Now   Malaysia (MAS)
NBO   North Borneo 1956
NRH   Northern Rhodesia 1964 Now   Zambia (ZAM)
RAU   United Arab Republic
code from French République arabe unie
1960 Now   Egypt (EGY) and   Syria (SYR)
RHO   Rhodesia
also Southern Rhodesia and Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland until it became Zimbabwe in 1980
1960–1972 Now   Zimbabwe (ZIM)
ROC   Republic of China 1932–1976 Medal winners from 1948 and earlier display as   China (CHN), while medal winners from after 1948 display as   Chinese Taipei (TPE) under which the team now competes.
SAA   Saar 1952 Competed independently before rejoining   West Germany (FRG) in 1957
UAR   United Arab Republic 1964–1968 Now   Egypt (EGY)
VOL   Upper Volta 1972–1984 Now   Burkina Faso (BUR)
WSM   Western Samoa 1984–1996 Now   Samoa (SAM)
YAR   North Yemen
code from Yemen Arab Republic
1984–1988 Competed independently before Yemeni unification in 1990.
Now   Yemen (YEM)
YMD   South Yemen
code from Yemen Democratic Republic
ZAI   Democratic Republic of the Congo
From French Zaïre
1972–1996 Now   Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD)

Two other significant code changes have occurred, both because of a change in the nation's designation as used by the IOC:

  • HOL was changed to NED for the Netherlands for the 1992 Games, reflecting the change in designation from Holland.
  • IRN was changed to IRI for Iran for the 1992 Games, reflecting the change in designation to Islamic Republic of Iran.

Special codes for OlympicsEdit

Code Nation/team Years Notes
ANZ   Australasia 1908–1912 Used in the IOC's medal database[9] to identify the team from Australasia, composed of athletes from both Australia and New Zealand for the 1908 and 1912 Games. Both nations competed separately by 1920.
COR   Korea
from French Corée
2018 Used for the unified Korean women's ice hockey team at the 2018 Winter Olympics.[13]
EOR   Refugee Olympic Team
from French Équipe olympique des réfugiés
2020 Used for the IOC Refugee Olympic Team at the 2020 Summer Olympics for athletes to compete who have been displaced from their home countries. The IOC code was changed from ROT which was used in 2016.
EUA   United Team of Germany
from French Équipe unifiée d'Allemagne
1956–1964 Used in the IOC's medal database[9] to identify the United Team of Germany, composed of athletes representing the NOCs of both East Germany and West Germany for the 1956–1964 Games. The team was simply known as Germany in the official reports for those six games at the time.
EUN   Unified Team
from French Équipe unifiée
1992 Used in 1992 (both Summer and Winter Games) for the Unified Team, composed of athletes from most of the ex-republics of the Soviet Union that chose to compete as a unified team. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania entered separately in 1992, whereas Russia and eleven other post-Soviet nations competed independently for the first time in 1994 and/or 1996.
IOP   Independent Olympic Participants
  • 1992
  • 2014
Used for independent Olympic participants at the 1992 Summer Olympics as a designation used for athletes from FR Yugoslavia who could not compete as a team due to United Nations sanctions. At the 1992 Summer Olympics IOP was used as a designation for athletes from the Republic of Macedonia too. IOP was also used during the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi by Indian athletes due to the Indian Olympic Association suspension.
IOA   Independent Olympic Athletes
  • 2000
  • 2012
  • 2016
Used for Individual Olympic Athletes in 2000,[14] a designation used for athletes from Timor-Leste before the formation of its NOC. IOA was used again in the 2012 Games, when it stood for Independent Olympic Athletes,[15] comprising athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles and a runner from South Sudan. The Netherlands Antilles Olympic Committee's membership from the IOC was withdrawn the previous year, and South Sudan had not yet formed an NOC at the time. IOA was used again in 2016 for athletes from Kuwait as a result of the suspension of its National Olympic Committee.[16]
IOC   Athletes from Kuwait 2010–2012 Used as the country code for Athletes from Kuwait, when the Kuwait Olympic Committee was suspended the first time, at the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, the 2010 Asian Games and the 2011 Asian Winter Games; for the second suspension in 2015–2017, athletes from Kuwait were also competing in several international competitions under the IOC flag, but this time in the team of Individual Olympic Athletes (IOA), including (but not only) in the 2016 Summer Olympics.
MIX   Mixed-NOCs 2010– Used as the country code for Mixed NOCs at the Youth Olympics.[17][18]
OAR   Olympic Athletes from Russia 2018 Used for Olympic Athletes from Russia competing as neutral athletes due to the state-sponsored doping scandal.[19]
from the abbreviation for Russian Olympic Committee
2020– Used for Russian Olympic Committee athletes at the 2020 Summer Olympics and 2022 Winter Olympics following the sanctions due to the state-sponsored doping scandal.[20][21] The delegation used a flag depicting the logo of the Russian Olympic Committee.
ROT   Refugee Olympic Team 2016 Used for the Refugee Olympic Team at the 2016 Summer Olympics for athletes to compete who have been displaced from their home countries.[22]
ZZX   Mixed team 1896–1904 Used in the IOC's medal database[9] to identify medals won by mixed teams of athletes from multiple nations (such as the combination of France and Great Britain, for example), a situation that happened several times in the Games of 1896, 1900, and 1904.

Special codes for ParalympicsEdit

Code Nation/Team Years Notes
IPP   Independent Paralympic Participants 1992 Used for Independent Paralympic Participants at the 1992 Summer Paralympics as a designation used for athletes from FR Yugoslavia and Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia who could not compete as a team due to United Nations sanctions.
IPA   Individual Paralympic Athletes
  • 2000
De facto independent East Timor was not yet recognised as a sovereign state, and did not have a recognised National Paralympic Committee. Two athletes from the country gained the opportunity to in the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, but they competed officially as Individual Paralympic Athletes, rather than as representatives of an NPC.
IPA   Independent Paralympic Athletes
  • 2016
A team consisting of refugee and asylee Paralympic athletes competed at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro as Independent Paralympic Athletes.
NPA   Neutral Paralympic Athletes
  • 2018
Used in 2018 for Russian athletes competing as neutral athletes due to the state-sponsored doping scandal. Was to be used in 2022 for Russian athletes competing as neutral athletes due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine,[23] however the Russian athletes were ultimately banned before the start of the 2022 Games.
PNA   Paralympic Neutral Athletes Was to be used for Belarusian athletes competing as neutral athletes due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine,[23] however the Belarusian athletes were ultimately banned before the start of the 2022 Winter Paralympics and the code was not used.
from the abbreviation for Russian Paralympic Committee
  • 2020
Used for Russian Paralympic Committee athletes at the 2020 Summer Paralympics following the sanctions due to the state-sponsored doping scandal. Was to be used in 2022 as well, however the Russian athletes were ultimately banned due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. The delegation used a flag depicting a specially created emblem representing the Russian Paralympic Committee.
RPT   Refugee Paralympic Team 2020

Special codes for World GamesEdit

The World Games are a multi-sport event comprising sports and sporting disciplines that are not contested in the Olympic Games. The World Games are governed by the International World Games Association, under the patronage of the International Olympic Committee.

Code Nation/Team Years Notes
HNL[24]   Iroquois 2022 The Haudenosaunee Nationals (also known as the Iroquois), who invented the sport of lacrosse and which has spiritual significance to them, were initially denied a spot to compete at the 2022 World Games, despite the Haudenosaunee national team's placement at the 2018 World Lacrosse Championship, due to not having a recognized NOC and issues concerning other countries recognizing sovereignty; they were given a spot to compete after Ireland agreed to drop out of competition in a show of solidarity.[25][26][27]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Olympic Documents - Athletes, Olympic Games, IOC and More" (PDF). 18 May 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09.
  2. ^ As per rule 24 of the Olympic Charter, which writes "The official languages of the IOC are French and English. In the case of divergence between the French and English texts of the Olympic Charter and any other IOC document, the French text shall prevail unless expressly provided otherwise in writing"
  3. ^ "Le français, langue officielle des JO". Retrieved 2022-02-22.
  4. ^ Mallon, Bill; Karlsson, Ove (May 2004). "IOC and OCOG Abbreviations for NOCs" (PDF). Journal of Olympic History. 12 (2): 25–28. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  5. ^ Faroe Islands Archived 2012-12-04 at
  6. ^ Macau, China Archived 2013-01-03 at
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "IAAF World Championships Beijing 2015 Statistics Handbook" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved 2022-02-22.
  8. ^ Official name given to the Republic of China for international organizations
  9. ^ a b c d "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ IOC. "Olympic Korean Peninsula Declaration" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  14. ^ "The Results" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-27.
  15. ^ "Independent Olympic Athletes". London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Archived from the original on 2013-02-28.
  16. ^ "Independent Olympic Athletes". Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
  17. ^ "Mixed NOCs". Archived from the original on 2014-02-25.
  18. ^ "Medals - Youth Olympic Games, Buenos Aires 2018 | Olympic Channel". Archived from the original on 2019-07-12. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  19. ^ "IOC suspends Russian NOC and creates a path for clean individual athletes to compete in PyeongChang 2018 under the Olympic Flag". 24 January 2018.
  20. ^ "Russian team to be branded as 'ROC' during Tokyo Olympics as part of doping sanctions". The Japan Times. 20 February 2021. Retrieved 2022-02-22.
  21. ^ "Olympics: Russia to compete under ROC acronym in Tokyo as part of doping sanctions". Reuters. Reuters. 2021-02-19. Archived from the original on 2021-02-20. Retrieved 2021-02-20.
  22. ^, 3 June 2016 Archived 2016-08-05 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ a b "Russian and Belarusian athletes to still receive medals at Beijing 2022".
  24. ^ "World Games 2022: Qualified Nations List". International World Games Association. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  25. ^ Glennon, Michael (2020-09-05). "Ireland sacrifice place for good of 'Medicine Game'".
  26. ^ "World Lacrosse Announces Teams for Men's Lacrosse Competition at TWG 2022; Iroquois Nationals Accept Invitation to Compete". TWG 2022 Birmingham. 7 Sep 2020. Retrieved 2020-09-30.
  27. ^ Hamby, Bo (October 1, 2020). "Ireland Lacrosse Bows Out Of 2022 World Games So Iroquois Nationals Can Play". National Public Radio.