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2018 Winter Olympics

The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIIIèmes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as PyeongChang 2018, is a major international multi-sport event scheduled to take place from 9 to 25 February 2018 in Pyeongchang County, South Korea.

XXIII Olympic Winter Games
PyeongChang 2018 Winter Olympics.svg
Host city Pyeongchang, South Korea
Motto Passion. Connected.
Korean: 하나된 열정. (Hanadoen Yeoljeong)
Nations participating 92 (estimated)
Events 102 in 7 sports (15 disciplines)
Opening ceremony 9 February (20 days from now)
Closing ceremony 25 February
Stadium Pyeongchang Olympic Stadium
Winter
Sochi 2014 Beijing 2022  >
Summer
Rio de Janeiro 2016 Tokyo 2020  >
Pyeongchang is located in South Korea
Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
Location in South Korea
Pyeongchang Winter Olympics
Hangul 평창 동계 올림픽
Hanja 平昌 冬季 올림픽
Revised Romanization Pyeongchang Donggye Ollimpik
McCune–Reischauer P'yŏngch'ang Tonggye Ollimp'ik
XXIII Olympic Winter Games
Hangul 제23회 동계 올림픽
Revised Romanization Je-isipsamhoe Donggye Ollimpik

The elected host city was announced on 6 July 2011 by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) after the 123rd IOC Session in Durban, South Africa. Pyeongchang won its bid on the first round of voting, receiving more votes than both Munich, Germany and Annecy, France combined.

These will be South Korea's second Olympic Games and its first Winter Games; Seoul hosted the Summer Games in 1988. Pyeongchang will be the third Asian city to host the Winter Games; the first two were in Japan, at Sapporo (1972) and Nagano (1998).[1]

Contents

BiddingEdit

Pyeongchang bid to host both the 2010 and 2014 Winter Olympic Games but lost in the final rounds of voting, by three and four votes respectively. Pyeongchang won its bid for the 2018 Winter Olympic Games in the first round of voting, receiving 63 of the 95 votes cast, giving it the majority required to be elected host city.

Munich also launched a bid to host these Games. Prior to Beijing's successful 2022 Winter Olympics bid, Munich would have become the first city to host both the Winter and the Summer Games, having previously hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics, but received 25 votes. Annecy (in southeastern France) launched a bid, but failed to secure public support from local citizens. Their bid received seven votes.

Host city electionEdit

Pyeongchang was elected as the host city at the 123rd IOC Session in Durban, earning the necessary majority of at least 48 votes in just one round of voting.

2018 Winter Olympics bidding results
City Nation Votes
Pyeongchang   South Korea 63
Munich   Germany 25
Annecy   France 7

TicketsEdit

Ticket prices for the 2018 Winter Olympics were announced in April 2016 and went on sale in October 2016, ranging from 20,000 (approximately US$17) to ₩900,000 (US$776). Tickets for the opening and closing ceremonies range from ₩220,000 (US$190) to ₩1.5 million (US$1293). The exact prices were determined through market research; around 50% of the tickets are expected to cost about ₩80,000 (US$69) or less, and tickets in sports that are relatively unknown in the region, such as biathlon and luge, will be made cheaper in order to encourage attendance. By contrast, figure skating and the men's hockey gold-medal game carry the most expensive tickets of the Games.[2]

As of 11 October 2017, domestic ticket sales for the Games have been slow. Of the 750,000 seats allocated to South Koreans, only 20.7% have been sold. International sales have been better, with 59.7% of the 320,000 allocated tickets sold. In total, 69% of tickets have been sold. Sales of tickets to the Paralympic Games are increasing, with 70% of them sold.[3]

PreparationsEdit

 
Olympic venues 2018

On 5 August 2011, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) announced the formation of the Pyeongchang 2018 Coordination Commission.[4][5] On 4 October 2011, it was announced that the Organizing Committee for the 2018 Winter Olympics would be headed by Kim Jin-sun. The Pyeongchang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games (POCOG) was launched at its inaugural assembly on 19 October 2011. The first tasks of the organizing committee were putting together a master plan for the games as well as forming a design for the venues.[6] The IOC Coordination Commission for the 2018 Winter Olympics made their first visit to Pyeongchang in March 2012. By then, construction was already underway on the Olympic Village.[7][8] In June 2012, construction began on a high-speed rail line that will connect Pyeongchang to Seoul.[9]

The International Paralympic Committee met for an orientation with the Pyeongchang 2018 organizing committee in July 2012.[10] Then-IOC President Jacques Rogge visited Pyeongchang for the first time in February 2013.[11]

On 27 June 2014 the Pyeongchang Olympic Committee announced their mascot selection contest.[12] The contest ran from 15 September 2014 to 30 September 2014. The 2013 Special Olympics World Winter Games were held in Pyeongchang.

The Pyeongchang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games created Pyeongchang WINNERS in 2014 by recruiting university students living in South Korea to spread awareness of the Olympic Games through social networking services and news articles.[13]

Torch relayEdit

The torch relay started on 24 October 2017 and will end at the start of the Olympics on 9 February 2018. On 1 November 2017 the relay entered Korea.[14]

VenuesEdit

 
Dragon Valley Ski Resort

Pyeongchang (Mountain cluster)Edit

Alpensia Sports ParkEdit

The Alpensia Resort in Daegwallyeong-myeon will be the focus of the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics.[15][16]

Stand-alone venuesEdit

Gangneung (Coastal cluster)Edit

The coastal cluster is located in the city of Gangneung. The Gangneung Olympic Park will include the following four venues:

In addition, a stand-alone venue is located on the grounds of Catholic Kwandong University:

SportsEdit

The 2018 Winter Olympics will feature 102 events in 15 sports. Four new disciplines in existing sports will be introduced in Pyeongchang, including big air snowboarding, mixed doubles curling, mass start speed skating, and mixed team alpine skiing.[18] It will also feature two eSports tournaments (for StarCraft II and Steep) organized by Intel (part of the Intel Extreme Masters series) and supported by the IOC as a demonstration sport prior to the Opening Ceremony.[19]

For the first time since 1998, the National Hockey League will not provide accommodations (including a break in the season for all teams during the Olympics) to allow its players to participate in the men's ice hockey tournament. The NHL's decision stemmed from their demands that the IOC cover the cost of insuring the NHL players who participate in the Games. Although it did pay to insure NHL players in Sochi, the IOC was unwilling to do so for Pyeongchang, and was concerned that the NHL's demand could set a precedent for other professional sports bodies to follow. NHL Commissioner Gary Bettman added that a factor in the decision was that the IOC did not allow the NHL to promote the involvement of its players in the Olympics.[20][21][22] The NHL secured the cooperation of the International Ice Hockey Federation and the IOC, who agreed to establish a blacklist forbidding national teams from nominating or accepting players under NHL contract to their Olympic rosters.[23][24]

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each sports discipline.

Participating National Olympic CommitteesEdit

  • A total of 94 teams have qualified at least one athlete so far (93 nations, and the delegation from Russia which will compete under the IOC flag).
  • Six nations: Ecuador, Eritrea, Kosovo, Malaysia, Nigeria and Singapore are scheduled to make their Winter Olympics debut.
  • North Korean athletes will be allowed to cross the DMZ into South Korea.[25][26] North Korea agreed in negotiations with South Korea to send the qualified athletes for the Winter Olympics.[27] The two nations will march under one flag during the opening ceremony and are trying to get approval to send combined teams in ice hockey and bobsleigh.[28][29]
  • On 5 December 2017 it was announced that the Russian Olympic Committee was suspended effective immediately. Individual athletes who qualified and can demonstrate they have complied with the IOC's doping regulations will be allowed to compete as "Olympic Athletes from Russia," (OAR) under a neutral flag and with the Olympic anthem played in any ceremony.[30]
Participating National Olympic Committees[31][32][33][34][35][36]

CalendarEdit

All dates are KST (UTC+9)


OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Event finals EG Exhibition gala CC Closing ceremony
February 8th
Thu
9th
Fri
10th
Sat
11th
Sun
12th
Mon
13th
Tue
14th
Wed
15th
Thu
16th
Fri
17th
Sat
18th
Sun
19th
Mon
20th
Tue
21st
Wed
22nd
Thu
23rd
Fri
24th
Sat
25th
Sun
Events
  Ceremonies OC CC N/A
  Alpine skiing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11
  Biathlon 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11
  Bobsleigh 1 1 1 3
  Cross country skiing 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 12
  Curling 1 1 1 3
  Figure skating 1 1 1 1 1 EG 5
  Freestyle skiing 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 10
  Ice hockey 1 1 2
  Luge 1 1 1 1 4
  Nordic combined 1 1 1 3
  Short track speed skating 1 1 2 1 3 8
  Skeleton 1 1 2
  Ski jumping 1 1 1 1 4
  Snowboarding 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 10
  Speed skating 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 14
Total events 5 7 8 8 6 7 5 9 6 3 5 7 8 6 8 4 102
Cumulative total 5 12 20 28 34 41 46 55 61 64 69 76 84 90 98 102
February 8th
Thu
9th
Fri
10th
Sat
11th
Sun
12th
Mon
13th
Tue
14th
Wed
15th
Thu
16th
Fri
17th
Sat
18th
Sun
19th
Mon
20th
Tue
21st
Wed
22nd
Thu
23rd
Fri
24th
Sat
25th
Sun
102 events


MarketingEdit

BrandingEdit

 
Gold medal of the 2018 Olympics

The emblem for the Games was unveiled on 3 May 2013. It is a stylized representation of the hangul letters p and ch, being the initial sounds of 평창 Pyeongchang. Additionally the left symbol is said to represent the Korean philosophical triad of heaven, earth and humanity (Korean: 천지인 cheon-ji-in), and the right symbol a crystal of ice.[37]

The name of the host city has been intentionally formatted in all official materials as "PyeongChang", rather than "Pyeongchang". This is to alleviate potential confusion with Pyongyang, the similarly-named capital of neighbouring North Korea.[38]

The official pictograms for 24 sports across 15 disciplines were revealed in January 2017 and are designed using the Korean alphabet as inspiration.[39]

MascotsEdit

The official mascots for the Games, Soohorang (수호랑), a white tiger, and Bandabi (반다비), an Asiatic black bear, were unveiled on 2 June 2016.[40]

Broadcasting rightsEdit

Broadcast rights to the 2018 Winter Olympics in some countries were already sold as part of long-term broadcast rights deals, including the Games' local rightsholder SBS—which extended its rights to the Olympics in July 2011 through 2024. SBS affilate G1 in Gangwon will provide its international feed. [41]

On 29 June 2015, the IOC announced that Discovery Communications had acquired exclusive rights to the Olympics across Europe, excluding Russia, from 2018 through 2024 on all platforms. Discovery's rights deal will, initially, not cover France due to pre-existing rights deals with France Télévisions that run through the 2020 Games. Unlike previous pan-European deals, such as with the European Broadcasting Union and Sportfive, Discovery will not serve solely as a reseller, as it intends to carry coverage on its regional properties, such as Eurosport and DMAX,[42] but it has committed to sub-license at least 100 hours of coverage to free-to-air networks.[43][44][45] In the United Kingdom, Discovery will hold exclusive pay television rights under license from the BBC; in return, the BBC will sub-license the free-to-air rights to the 2022 and 2024 Olympics from Discovery.[46]

In the United States, the Games will once again be broadcast by NBC under a long-term contract with NBCUniversal; it will be NBC's first Olympics without long-time primary host Bob Costas, who announced on 7 February 2017 his retirement from the role in favour of Mike Tirico.[47][48] On 28 March 2017, NBC also said that it would air most primetime coverage simultaneously in all time zones in the United States, and not broadcast on a tape delay as they had in past Olympics.[49]

Concerns and controversiesEdit

SecurityEdit

On 20 September 2017, South Korea's President Moon Jae-in said the country is pushing to ensure security at the Pyeongchang Winter Olympic Games amid rising tensions over North Korea's nuclear tests and a series of missile launches.[50] However, on the next day, French Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports Laura Flessel-Colovic said France's Winter Olympics team will not travel to South Korea if the security of the delegation cannot be guaranteed.[51]

On 22 September 2017, Austria and Germany joined France in considering not attending the Games. Karl Stoss, head of Austria's national Olympic committee, said that "if the situation worsens and the security of our athletes is no longer guaranteed, we will not go to South Korea." The German interior ministry said the security question and the possibility of keeping the German team at home would be addressed "in good time" by the government. Several days later, Laura Flessel-Colovic reaffirmed France's participation in the games. Both countries have yet to decide on reaffirming.[52]

In early December 2017, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, Nikki Haley, told Fox News that it was an "open question" whether the United States was going to participate in the games, citing security concerns in the region.[53] However, days later the White House Press Secretary, Sarah Huckabee Sanders, stated that the United States "looks forward to participating" and will attend.[54] It was later announced that Vice President Mike Pence will attend the opening ceremony.[55]

Jeongseon Alpine Centre Ecological IssuesEdit

Environmental groups have raised concerns surrounding the deforestation from the slopes of Gariwang mountain to build the Jeongseon Alpine Centre. Officials claim it is necessary as it is the only slope that will accommodate Olympic requirements and the forest will be restored after the games are done. Environmental groups are sceptical as the forest includes old growth of ancient and rare species.[56]

Russian dopingEdit

Official sanctionsEdit

 
Proposed OAR logo

On 5 December 2017, the IOC announced that the Russian Olympic Committee had been suspended effective immediately from the 2018 Winter Olympics.[57] Athletes who had no previous drug violations and a consistent history of drug testing were to be allowed to compete under the Olympic Flag as an "Olympic Athlete from Russia" (OAR).[57][58] Under the terms of the decree, Russian government officials were barred from the Games, and neither the country's flag nor anthem would be present.[58] The Olympic Flag and Olympic Anthem will be used instead,[57] and on 20 December 2017 the IOC proposed an alternate logo for the uniforms (seen at right).[59] IOC President Thomas Bach said that "after following due process [the IOC] has issued proportional sanctions for this systematic manipulation while protecting the clean athletes."[60] As of January 2018, the IOC had sanctioned 43 Russian athletes from the 2014 Winter Olympics and banned them from competing in the 2018 edition. All but one of these athletes appealed against their bans to the Court of Arbitration for Sport[61].

Reaction in RussiaEdit

In the past, Vladimir Putin, the President of Russia, and other officials had said that it would be a humiliation for Russia if its athletes were not allowed to compete under the Russian flag.[62] However, his spokesman later said that no boycott had been discussed.[58] After the IOC decision was announced, Ramzan Kadyrov, the head of Chechnya, announced that no Chechen athletes would participate under a neutral flag.[63] On 6 December, Putin stated that the Russian government would not prevent any athletes from participating at the Games as individuals, but there were calls from other politicians for a boycott.[64][65][66][67] Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov has said that the United States "fears honest competition",[68] affirming Vladimir Putin's position who had said that the United States used its influence withing the International Olympic Committee to "orchestrate the doping scandal".[69]

CriticismEdit

The IOC's decision was criticized by Jack Robertson, primary investigator of the Russian doping program on behalf of the World Anti-Doping Agency, who said that the IOC has issued "a non-punitive punishment meant to save face while protecting the [IOC’s] and Russia’s commercial and political interests". He also emphasized that Russian whistleblowers provided empirical evidence that "99 percent of [their] national-level teammates were doping." According to Robertson, "[WADA] has discovered that when a Russian athlete [reaches] the national level, he or she [has] no choice in the matter: [it is] either dope, or you’re done". "There is currently no intelligence I have seen or heard about that indicates the state-sponsored doping program has ceased", he added.[70] It was also reported that Russian officials intensively lobbied US politicians in an apparent attempt to achieve Grigory Rodchenkov's (main whistleblower) extradition to Russia.[71]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Longman, Jeré; Sang-hun, Choe (6 July 2011). "2018 Winter Games to Be Held in Pyeongchang, South Korea". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 7 June 2017. 
  2. ^ "Pyeongchang 2018 reveal ticket prices for Winter Olympic Games". 
  3. ^ "PyeongChang Olympics ticket sales get icy reception". The Korea Herald. Herald Media Inc. 11 October 2017. 
  4. ^ "Gunilla Lindberg to Chair PyeongChang 2018 Coordination Commission". Archived from the original on 18 September 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  5. ^ "Coordination Commissions". Olympic.org. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  6. ^ "PyeongChang 2018 Organizing Committee Launched". GamesBids.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  7. ^ "PyeongChang 2018 Praised". Gamesbids.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  8. ^ "Pyeongchang 2018 have "good grasp of what is expected" says Lindberg after first IOC Coordination Commission visit". Insidethegames.biz. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  9. ^ "Construction Begins on High-Speed Railway, Critical for PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Games". Gamesbids.com. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  10. ^ "IPC Orientates PyeongChang 2018". Gamesbids.com. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  11. ^ "Pyeongchang 2018 on "right track" declares Rogge after first visit". Insidethegames.biz. 1 February 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  12. ^ "2018평창동계올림픽대회 및 장애인동계올림픽대회 마스코트 아이디어 공모". 
  13. ^ "Pyeongchang 2018 recruits college student reporters: WINNERS". 18 June 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  14. ^ Let Everyone Shine
  15. ^ "PyeongChang 2018 Alpensia Resort and water park complete and full for summer season". Sportsfeatures.com. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  16. ^ "Pyeongchang2018 Volume 2 (Sport and Venues)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  17. ^ a b "Pyeongchang 2018 move venue for Opening and Closing Ceremonies | Winter Olympics 2018". insidethegames.biz. 6 July 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  18. ^ "Winter Olympics: Big air, mixed curling among new 2018 events". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 21 June 2017. 
  19. ^ Zaccardi, Nick (3 November 2017). "Esports event in PyeongChang before Olympics supported by IOC". NBC News. Retrieved 5 November 2017. 
  20. ^ "NHL will not participate in 2018 Pyeongchang Olympic Games". Sportsnet. Rogers Media. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  21. ^ "Olympics and N.H.L. Face Off Over Who Pays to Insure Players". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016. 
  22. ^ "IOC decides not to cover costs for NHL players at Olympics". Sportsnet. Rogers Media. 23 April 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016. 
  23. ^ Whyno, Stephen (15 September 2017). "Capitals' Ovechkin says Olympic decision out of his hands". Associated Press. Retrieved 15 September 2017. 
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  25. ^ "Pyeongchang 2018: Athletes to travel through demilitarised zone". BBC News. 18 May 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  26. ^ "North Korean skaters qualify for Pyeongchang 2018". insidethegames.biz. Dunsar Media Company Limited. 
  27. ^ Sang-Hun, Choe (8 January 2018). "North Korea to Send Athletes to Olympics in South Korea Breakthrough". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2018. 
  28. ^ "Koreas to carry single Olympic flag". BBC News. 2018. Retrieved 2018-01-17. 
  29. ^ "Mixed 4-man bobsleigh team from North and South Korea could forerun Olympic races". ISU.org. Retrieved 2018-01-18. 
  30. ^ "IOC suspends Russian NOC and creates a path for clean individual athletes to compete in Pyeongchang 2018 under the Olympic flag". IOC. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  31. ^ "Quota allocation for Alpine skiing". www.data.fis-ski.com/. International Ski Federation (FIS). 8 August 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017. 
  32. ^ "2018 Winter Olympics". IIHF. iihf.com. Retrieved 18 May 2015. 
  33. ^ "Quota allocation for Cross-country skiing". www.data.fis-ski.com/. International Ski Federation (FIS). 8 August 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017. 
  34. ^ "Pyeongchang 2018 Winter Olympics". worldcurling.org. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  35. ^ "ISU Communication no. 2136". International Skating Union. Retrieved 31 December 2017. 
  36. ^ "Quotas - Olympic Winter Games Pyeongchang 2018". IBSF.org. Retrieved 15 January 2018. 
  37. ^ "PyeongChang 2018 Launches Official Emblem". olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 12 August 2016. 
  38. ^ "Olympics: 2018 Winter Olympics … not in Pyongyang". The Manila Bulletin. Agence France-Presse. 26 January 2016. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  39. ^ "PyeongChang 2018 Pictograms". The PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  40. ^ "Tiger and bear mascots unveiled for Pyeongchang 2018 Winter Olympics and Paralympics". insidethegames.biz. Dunsar Media Company Limited. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2017. 
  41. ^ "IOC awards SBS broadcast rights for 2018, 2020, 2022 and 2024 Olympic Games - Olympic News". International Olympic Committee. 9 December 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2017. 
  42. ^ "DMAX emitirá los Juegos Olímpicos de invierno de Pyeongchang 2018. Noticias de Televisión". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2017. 
  43. ^ "IOC awards European broadcast rights to SPORTFIVE". ESPN.com. ESPN Internet Ventures. 18 February 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  44. ^ "Discovery Lands European Olympic Rights Through '24". Sports Business Journal. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  45. ^ "BBC dealt another blow after losing control of TV rights for Olympics". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  46. ^ "Olympics coverage to remain on BBC after Discovery deal". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  47. ^ "Bob Costas steps down as NBC host of Olympics; Mike Tirico to replace him". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  48. ^ "Brennan: Bob Costas has been the face of the Olympics for Americans". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  49. ^ "NBC to Broadcast Winter Olympics Live Across All Time Zones". Variety. PMC. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  50. ^ "South Korea's Moon says pushing to guarantee safety at Pyeongchang Olympics". Reuters. 20 September 2017. 
  51. ^ "Olympics - France to skip 2018 Winter Games if security not assured". Reuters. 22 September 2017. 
  52. ^ "Olympics: North Korea triggers 2018 Winter Olympics security scare". The Straits Times. 23 September 2017. 
  53. ^ "US ambassador to UN says it's an 'open question' whether U.S. athletes will participate in Winter Olympics over safety concerns". Business Insider. 7 December 2017. 
  54. ^ Mitchell, Ellen (7 December 2017). "White House walks back remarks that US athletes might not participate in 2018 Olympics". The Hill. Retrieved 4 January 2018. 
  55. ^ "Pence to lead US delegation to Olympics". Associated Press. 10 January 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2018. 
  56. ^ "Olympics: Olympic organisers destroy 'sacred' South Korean forest to create ski run". The Guardian. 3 January 2018. 
  57. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  58. ^ a b c Ruiz, Rebecca C.; Panja, Tariq (5 December 2017). "Russia Banned From Winter Olympics by I.O.C". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  59. ^ "IOC's OAR implementation group releases guidelines for uniforms accessories and equipment's". olympic.org. 20 December 2017. 
  60. ^ "IOC Bars Russian Athletes and Officials From Winter Olympic Games". The Moscow Times. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  61. ^ http://www.tas-cas.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Media_Release__IOC_Russian_Athlete_Appeals_09.01.18.pdf
  62. ^ "Putin says US pressured IOC to ban Russia from Winter Games". Yahoo Sports. Agence France-Presse. 19 October 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  63. ^ "Кадыров: ни один чеченский спортсмен не будет выступать под нейтральным флагом". Championat.com (in Russian). Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  64. ^ "Владимир Путин: "Никакой блокады Олимпиады не будет". ОЛИМПИАДА - Пхенчхан-2018. СПОРТ-ЭКСПРЕСС" (in Russian). Sport-express.ru. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  65. ^ "Путин: Россия не будет объявлять "никакой блокады" Олимпиады - BBC Русская служба" (in Russian). BBC. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  66. ^ "Жириновский предложил отказаться от участия в Олимпиаде-2018" (in Russian). Interfax.ru. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  67. ^ "Vladimir Putin won't tell Russian athletes to boycott Winter Olympics". CNN. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  68. ^ "US fears honest competition in energy, arms industry and sports, Lavrov warns". TASS. 15 January 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
  69. ^ "Putin: Doping allegations 'US plot against Russian election'". bbc.com. 9 November 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
  70. ^ "The 2018 Winter Olympics Are Already Tainted". The New York Times. 27 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017. 
  71. ^ "IOC accused of cowardice for failing to address Russian retaliation against Rodchenkov". Inside the Games. 26 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017. 

External linksEdit

Preceded by
Sochi
Winter Olympics
Pyeongchang

XXIII Olympic Winter Games (2018)
Succeeded by
Beijing