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5G is the marketing term for upcoming mobile technologies that will offer very high data transmission rates.

Contents

StandardsEdit

ITU has divided 5G network services into three categories: enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) or handsets, Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications (URLLC), which includes industrial applications and autonomous vehicles, and Massive Machine Type Communications (MMTC) or sensors.[1] Initial 5G deployments will focus on eMBB[2] and fixed wireless,[3] which makes use of many of the same capabilities as eMBB.

5G will use spectrum in the existing LTE frequency range (600 MHz to 6 GHz) and also in Millimeter wave bands (24-86 GHz). Millimeter wave can support data rates of up to 20 gigabits per second (Gbit/s). 5G infrastructure will use Massive MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) to significantly increase network capacity.

5G technologies have to satisfy ITU IMT-2020 requirements and/or 3GPP Release 15. IMT-2020 specifies speeds of 20 gigabits down, which essentially means millimeter wave. 3GPP, an association of companies, chose to include any systems that supports "New Radio" software. That includes almost all systems developed in 2018 or later.

"5G" picks up high throughput and low latency features of 4G LTE Release 14. New 5G software allows high connection density. Speed in bands below 6 GHz is similar to or slightly higher than 4G.[4][5]

CapabilitiesEdit

5G systems in line with IMT-2020 specifications,[6] are expected to provide enhanced device- and network-level capabilities, tightly coupled with intended applications. The following eight parameters are key capabilities for IMT-2020 5G:

Capability Description 5G Target Usage Scenario
Peak data rate Maximum achievable data rate 20 Gbit/s eMBB
User experienced data rate Achievable data rate across coverage area 100 Mbit/s eMBB
Latency Radio network contribution to packet travel time 1 ms URLLC
Mobility Maximum speed for handoff and QoS requirements 500 km/h eMBB/URLLC
Connection density Total number of devices per unit area 106/km2 MMTC
Energy efficiency Data sent/received per unit energy consumption (by device or network) Equal to 4G eMBB
Spectrum efficiency Throughput per wireless bandwidth and per network cell 3-4x 4G eMBB
Area traffic capacity Total traffic across coverage area 10 (Mbit/s)/m2 eMBB

Note that 5G as defined by 3GPP includes spectrum below 6GHz, with performance closer to 4G. The 3GPP definition is commonly used.

DeploymentEdit

Development of 5G is being led by companies[7] such as Intel[8] and Qualcomm[9] for modem technology and Nokia,[10] Huawei,[11] Ericsson,[12] ZTE,[13] and Samsung[14] for infrastructure.

Worldwide commercial launch is expected in 2020. Numerous operators have demonstrated 5G as well, including Korea Telecom for the 2018 Winter Olympics.[15][16] In the United States, the four major carriers have all announced deployments: AT&T's[17] millimeter wave commercial deployments in 2018, Verizon's 5G fixed wireless launches in four U.S. cities and millimeter-wave deployments,[18] Sprint's launch in the 2.5 GHz band, and T-Mobile's 600 MHz 5G launch in 30 cities.[19] Vodafone performed the first UK trials in April 2018 using mid-band spectrum,[20] and China Telecom's initial 5G buildout in 2018 will use mid-band spectrum as well.[21]

Beyond mobile operator networks, 5G is also expected to be widely utilized for private networks with applications in industrial IoT, enterprise networking, and critical communications.

SpectrumEdit

In order to support increased throughput requirements of 5G, large quantities of new spectrum (5G NR frequency bands) have been allocated to 5G, particularly in mmWave bands.[22] For example, in July 2016, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of the United States freed up vast amounts of bandwidth in underutilised high-band spectrum for 5G. The Spectrum Frontiers Proposal (SFP) doubled the amount of millimeter-wave (mmWave) unlicensed spectrum to 14 GHz and created four times the amount of flexible, mobile-use spectrum the FCC had licensed to date.[23] In March 2018, European Union lawmakers agreed to open up the 3.6 and 26 GHz bands by 2020.[24]

Mobile networksEdit

Initial 5G launches in the sub-6 GHz band will not diverge architecturally from existing LTE 4G infrastructure. Leading network equipment suppliers are Nokia,[10] Huawei,[11] and Ericsson.[12]

5G modemsEdit

Traditional cellular modem suppliers have significant investment in the 5G modem market. Qualcomm announced its X50 5G Modem in October 2016,[25] and in November 2017, Intel announced its XMM8000 series of 5G modems, including the XMM8060 modem, both of which have expected productization dates in 2019.[8][26] In February 2018, Huawei announced the Balong 5G01 terminal device[27] with an expected launch date for 5G-enabled mobile phones of 2018[28] and Mediatek announced its own 5G solutions targeted at 2020 production.[29] Samsung is also working on the Exynos 5G modem, but has not announced a production date.[30]

TechnologyEdit

New radio frequenciesEdit

The air interface defined by 3GPP for 5G is known as New Radio (NR), and the specification is subdivided into two frequency bands, FR1 (<6 GHz) and FR2 (mmWave),[31] each with different capabilities.

Frequency range 1 (< 6 GHz)Edit

The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR1 is 100 MHz. Note that beginning with Release 10, LTE supports 100 MHz carrier aggregation (five x 20 MHz channels.) Both FR1 and LTE support a maximum modulation format of 256-QAM, meaning 5G does not achieve significant throughput improvements relative to LTE in the sub-6 GHz bands without its own carrier aggregation.

Frequency range 2 (24–86 GHz)Edit

The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR2 is 400 MHz, with two-channel aggregation supported in 3GPP Release 15. The maximum phy rate potentially supported by this configuration is approximately 40 Gbit/s.5G Networks. In Europe, 24.25-27.5 GHz is the proposed frequencies range. [32]

Massive MIMO antennasEdit

Massive MIMO (multiple input and multiple output Antennas) increases sector throughput and capacity density using large numbers of Antenna and Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). Each antenna is individually-controlled and may embed radio transceiver components. Nokia claims 5x capacity increase for a 64-Tx/64-Rx Antennas) system. The term “massive MIMO” was first coined by Nokia Bell Labs researcher Dr. Thomas L. Marzetta in 2010. and has been launched in 4G networks, such as Softbank in Japan.

Edge computingEdit

Main article: Mobile edge computing
Edge computing is a method of optimizing cloud computing systems "by taking the control of computing applications, data, and services away from some central nodes (the "core area"). In a 5G network it would promote faster speeds and low latency data transfer on edge devices.[33]

Small cellEdit

Main article: Small cell
The technology of small cell was already utilised to 3G and 4G mobile radio technology. However, small cell in 5G is now the crucial part of achieving several gigabits per second Bandwidth and low latency. It is now indispensable to use the small cell when you deploy high bandwidth 5G fixed wireless service because of characteries of the new 5G mobile band which is Millimeter wave frequencies(24-86GHz). The ITU released the new mobile Radio frequencies on the World Radio-communications Conference which is the range of Extremely high frequency. Technically, Millimeter-wave spectrum(EHF) has the functionality that "Extremely high frequency(EHF)’ could be able to handle breakneck 5G speeds." [34]

BeamformingEdit

Main article: Beamforming
It is one of the primary technologies for 5G networks; it will transmit data through targeted beams and advanced signal processing that could speed up data rates and boost bandwidth using massive MIMO antennas. It is a technique that sends the radio signals intensively to the places where lots of data is actually needed. [35]

Radio convergenceEdit

One perceived benefit of the transition to 5G is the convergence of multiple networking functions to achieve cost, power and complexity reductions. LTE has targeted convergence with Wi-Fi via various efforts, such as License Assisted Access (LAA) and LTE-WLAN Aggregation (LWA), but the differing capabilities of cellular and Wi-Fi have limited the scope of convergence. However, significant improvement in cellular performance specifications in 5G, combined with migration from Distributed Radio Access Network (D-RAN) to Cloud- or Centralized-RAN (C-RAN) and rollout of cellular small cells can potentially narrow the gap between Wi-Fi and cellular networks in dense and indoor deployments. Radio convergence could result in sharing ranging from aggregation of cellular and Wi-Fi channels to the use of a single silicon device for multiple radio access technologies.

5G NetworksEdit

A variety of operators have announced 5G trials and network launches. (Comprehensive list of 5G networks.)

United StatesEdit

US operators launch plans fall into two distinct categories: Fixed wireless and Mobile. Fixed wireless typically services residential broadband customers with speeds in excess of 1 Gbit/s using mmWave bands. Mobile launch will use sub-6 GHz spectrum in traditional LTE or newly-allocated bands with similar performance to LTE.

Fixed Wireless Mobile
Operator Launch Date Bands Launch Geographies Launch Date Bands Launch Geographies
AT&T TBD[36] 28/39 GHz[37][38] Trials: Austin, Waco, South Bend, Kalamazoo End 2018[39] TBD[40] Dallas, Waco, Atlanta (12 cities total)[41]
Verizon 2H 2018[42] 28 GHz 3-5 cities including Sacramento (2H18) 1H 2019[43] TBD[44] TBD
Sprint N/A N/A[45] 1H 2019[46] 2.5 GHz Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Washington, New York, Phoenix, Kansas City
T-Mobile End 2018 28/39 GHz[47] Trials: Bellevue, WA[48] End 2018[49] 600 MHz Los Angeles, New York, Las Vegas, Dallas (30 cities total)
Dish Networks N/A N/A 2020[50] 600 MHz
Charter Communications End 2018 28 GHz[51] Orlando, Reno, Clarksville TN, Columbus, Bakersfield and Grand Rapids

United KingdomEdit

EE, a large mobile network operator in the UK, plans to trial a 5G network in October 2018. A small number of businesses and homes in East London Tech City will take part in the trial.[52] BT Group, who owns EE, had previously said during a presentation in May 2018 that they plan to launch a commercial 5G product "within 18 months".[53] The UK first plans to deploy 5G to London and other major cities (e.g, Bristol, Birmingham) as a starting point, and then it will establish a 5G network in other major cities. The next step will be for small- and medium-sized towns.[54]

South KoreaEdit

South Korea successfully launched the trial of 5G showcases during the 2018 Winter Olympics.[15][16]

Fixed Wireless Mobile
Operator Launch Date Bands Launch Geographies Launch Date Bands Launch Geographies
KT, LG U+, and SK Telecom By no later than the middle of 2019 T.B.D Seoul, Incheon, Dae-Joen, Dae-Gu, Pusan T.B.D T.B.D T.B.D

South Korea's three major mobile companies which are KT, LG U+, and SK Telecom, agreed to collaborate on a single nationwide 5G infrastructure by no later than the middle of 2019. Previously South Korea's three mobile companies constructed their 3G or 4G network independently. South Korea Government recommended sharing some of their infrastructure (examples: 3G/4G base-station and mobile tower) where it is possible. However, South Korea’s Ministry of Science and ICT analysed that 5G requires "small cell" base stations, which is expected to about 8~12 times of more significant numbers of stations to cover the current coverage of 4G base stations. It potentially involves a lot of infrastructure cost and redundant investments.[55] South Korea agreed to collaborate with China and Japan for the 5G standardisation.[56]

AustraliaEdit

To enable the 5G Mobile service, the new spectrum bands were assigned by ACMA. The spectrum in the 3.6 GHz and 5.6 GHz were approved to use for new 5G service in metropolitan and regional Australia from the end of 2018. However, the millimeter wave bands (24-86 GHz) are still under consideration for the allocation of 5G mobile services.[57]

PhilippinesEdit

On June 7, 2018, a Philippine telecommunications company, Globe Telecom announced its plans to adopt 5G (with a partnership with Huawei) and its slated to available commercially by the 2nd quarter of 2019.[58]

Network bandwidth and deploymentsEdit

In 2016, Federal Communications Commission(FCC) approves the usage of the new Extremely high frequency (EHF) frequencies range (in another word; Millimeter wave) in next-gen 5G technologies. As the EHF frequencies range is finally accessible on the mobile network, there is an opportunity of the new bandwidth with the requirement of small cell infrastructure because of propagation characteristics of shortwave(example: Millimeter wave). [59]

Network bandwidthEdit

IMT-2020 systems demonstrated to June 2018 used millimetre wave. Systems using bands below 6 GHz have been estimated to reach 4 gigabits per second via 64 QAM modulation, not the 20 gigabits of IMT2020. However, it is the peak network bandwidth simulation with a 64 QAM modulation between 28 and 39 GHz(millimetre wave) that the approximated value was calculated at. [60]
The real-world 5G network test results from Qualcomm's the Frankfurt simulation are as follows. In a mobile 5G network, 90% of users could use an average speed of 100 Mbps. In the San Francisco simulation, 5G users were able to use 1.4 Gbps of speed at 5G mmWave coverage.[61] Ericsson and NTT DoCoMo also tested the practical 5G network speed.[62]

5G mobile infrastructureEdit

 
5G mobile network – cell stations design with existing 4G base station, 5G is principally linked with 4G infrastructure

When the mobile industry wants to deploy the 5G infrastructure, the Millimeter waves of 5G frequencies (e.g, 15-86 GHz band)[63] should be considered, As it requires the 1 to 10 mm waves compared to the 3G or 4G frequencies [64](e.g: 850 MHz,1.8 GHz,2.1 GHz,2.3 GHz, and 2.6 GHz) which are tens of centimetres in length.[65]
The 5G network cellular tower should be designed for much smaller cells, compared to the current 3G/4G base station tower. In the case of the 3G/4G network cellular tower, it is technically possible to cover up to 50km-150km by adjusting the output power [66] however the fixed wireless 5G cell stations should ideally be designed to cover distances of 250-300 m due to technical limitations.[67]

The Millimeter wave spectrum (15–300 GHz), can transmit only a relatively short distance due to the characteristics of the frequency. There are also technical challenges of the straightforward Millimeter wave such as radio waves being significantly blocked by weather or physical obstacles (example: buildings)[68] In order to overcome this problem, the proposed 5G standard design method is only capable of distributing small cell stations with a short distance. The 5G infrastructure is quite different from the previous 4G rollout, this will require significant network densification in the form of a large number of small cells, This differs significantly from prior 3G and 4G cellular launches, which used larger macrocells.[69]
The diagram left shows a possible concept for a 5G network: 5G cell stations linked with a 4G base station. Due to the line-of-sight nature of 5G frequencies additional towers are required to provide coverage to users behind obstacles such as buildings.

Deployment of small cellsEdit

 
The difference of the propagation between a longwave and a shortwave

Collision and dispersion could occur when there is an obstacle due to the linearity of the Millimeter wave. however, If you want to provide above 3~15 Gbps(Gigabit per second) lightning speed of broadband services, you need to use Millimeter wave. To avert the loss of the signal strength of Millimeter wave, there is a desideratum of Massive MIMO Antennas in the infrastructure of the 5G network, also it is known as 5G fixed wireless service.
FCC defined that the deployment of the small cell in 5G infrastructure is the indispensable component because the next-generation network should deliver ultra-high-speed using millimetre waves spectrum bands, such as 28, 24, and 39 GHz. [70]

  • An example of the difference between the propagation of longwave and shortwave(Millimeter wave)is explained in the figure on the left.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit