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5th generation wireless systems, abbreviated 5G, are improved wireless network technologies deploying in 2018 and later.[1] The primary technologies include: Millimeter wave bands (26, 28, 38, and 60 GHz) offer performance as high as 20 gigabits per second[2]; Massive MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output - 64-256 antennas) offers performance "up to ten times current 4G networks;"[3][4][5] "Low-band 5G" and "Mid-band 5G" use frequencies from 600 MHz to 6 GHz, especially 3.5-4.2 GHz.[6][7]

The 3GPP Release 15[8] of December, 2017 is the most common definition of 5G. Some prefer the more rigorous ITU IMT-2020 definition,[9] which only includes the high-frequency bands for much higher speeds.

The millimeter wave systems are designed for 20 gigabit peak downloads.[10] Their estimated median bandwidth is 3.5 gigabits. [11] The estimated median bandwidth for the band of 3.5 GHz-4.2 GHz with additional MIMO antennas is 490 megabits.[12] In mid-band frequencies, the modeled 5G speed is very similar to the 4G LTE speed, assuming the same bandwidth and antenna configuration.[13]

Most large mobile networks are testing all three approaches. Verizon[14] and AT&T[15] announced millimeter wave commercial deployments for 2018. Softbank deployed Massive MIMO beginning in 2016. In 2018 T-Mobile announced low band 5G for 30 cities.[16] China Telecom's initial 5G buildout will be mid-band.[17]

As of 2017, development of 5G is being led by several companies, including Samsung, Intel, Qualcomm, Nokia, Huawei, Ericsson, ZTE and others.[18] Although 5G is planned to be commercially available worldwide by 2020, South Korea demonstrated 5G at the 2018 Winter Olympics for the visitors.[19][20] In 2018 Verizon plans to roll out 5G FWA across the 4 cities in the U.S., Sacramento, L.A, Indianapolis and Houston.

Contents

HistoryEdit

  • In April 2008, NASA partnered with Geoff Brown and Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp to develop 5G communication technology.[21]
  • In 2008, the South Korean IbjngT R&D program of "5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation" was formed.[22]
  • In August 2012, New York University founded NYU WIRELESS, a multi-disciplinary academic research centre that has worked in 5G wireless communications.[23][24][25]
  • On 8 October 2012, the UK's University of Surrey secured £35M for a new 5G research centre, jointly funded by the British government's UK Research Partnership Investment Fund (UKRPIF) and a consortium of key international mobile operators and infrastructure providers, including Huawei, Samsung, Telefonica Europe, Fujitsu Laboratories Europe, Rohde & Schwarz, and Aircom International. It will offer testing facilities to mobile operators keen to develop a mobile standard that uses less energy and less radio spectrum while delivering speeds faster than current 4G with aspirations for the new technology to be ready within a decade.[26][27][28][29]
  • On 1 November 2012, the EU project "Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society" (METIS) started its activity towards the definition of 5G. METIS achieved an early global consensus on these systems. In this sense, METIS played an important role of building consensus among other external major stakeholders prior to global standardization activities. This was done by initiating and addressing work in relevant global fora (e.g. ITU-R), as well as in national and regional regulatory bodies.[30]
  • Also in November 2012, the iJOIN EU project was launched, focusing on "small cell" technology, which is of key importance for taking advantage of limited and strategic resources, such as the radio wave spectrum. According to Günther Oettinger, the European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society (2014–19), "an innovative utilization of spectrum" is one of the key factors at the heart of 5G success. Oettinger further described it as "the essential resource for the wireless connectivity of which 5G will be the main driver".[31] iJOIN was selected by the European Commission as one of the pioneering 5G research projects to showcase early results on this technology at the Mobile World Congress 2015 (Barcelona, Spain).
  • In February 2013, ITU-R Working Party 5D (WP 5D) started two study items: (1) Study on IMT Vision for 2020 and beyond, and; (2) Study on future technology trends for terrestrial IMT systems. Both aiming at having a better understanding of future technical aspects of mobile communications towards the definition of the next generation mobile.[32]
  • On 12 May 2013, Samsung Electronics stated that they have developed a "5G" system. The core technology has a maximum speed of tens of Gbit/s (gigabits per second). In testing, the transfer speeds for the "5G" network sent data at 1.056 Gbit/s to a distance of up to 2 kilometres.with the use of an 8*8 MIMO.[33][34]
  • On 6 November 2013, Huawei announced plans to invest a minimum of $600 million into R&D for next generation 5G networks capable of speeds 100 times faster than modern LTE networks.[35]
  • In September 2014 "Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications"[36] authored by researcher: Theodore Rappaport (NYU), Robert Heath (UTAustin), Robert Daniels (UTAustin), and James Murdock (UTAustin).
  • On 7 July 2016 European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society, Günther Oettinger received the 5G Manifesto for timely deployment of 5G in Europe which sets out industry recommendations on how the EU can support and foster 5G innovation and deployment, and timelines for 5G demonstrations and commercial deployment, signed by representatives of BT Group, Deutsche Telekom, Ericsson, Hutchison Whampoa Europe, Inmarsat, Nokia, Orange, Proximus, KPN, SES, Tele2, Telecom Italia, Telefónica, Telekom Austria, Telenor, Telia Company and Vodafone.[37]
  • On 14 July 2016, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) unanimously passed a proposal to free up vast amounts of new bandwidth in the underutilised high-band spectrum for the next generation of wireless communications (5G). The Spectrum Frontiers Proposal (SFP) will double the amount of millimeter-wave (mmWave) unlicensed spectrum to 14 GHz and create four times the amount of flexible, mobile-use spectrum the FCC has licensed to date.[38]
  • On 17 October 2016, Qualcomm announced the first 5G modem, the Snapdragon X50, as the first commercial 5G mobile chipset.[39][40]
  • On 18 July 2017, the 28 telecom ministers of the EU and Norway signed a declaration of intent in Tallinn, Estonia, seeking "…to establish a common baseline on future 5G standards and confirm the willingness of member states to position Europe as the lead market for 5G."[41]
  • On 19 January 2018, Nokia and Rostelecom started 5G test site in Skolkovo Innovation Center.[42]
  • On 9 February 2018, South Korea deployed 5G at the 2018 Winter Olympics.[19][20]
  • On 2 March 2018, European Union lawmakers struck a deal on opening up the 3.6 and 26 GHz bands by 2020 to make room for the new network.[43]

United KingdomEdit

On 5 April 2018, the UK telecoms regulator, Ofcom, announced the results of a spectrum auction of the 2.3 GHz band (for improved 4G capacity) and the 3.4 GHz band for future 5G mobile services.[44]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "ITU towards "IMT for 2020 and beyond" - IMT-2020 standards for 5G". International Telecommunications Union. Retrieved 2017-02-22. 
  2. ^ "5G Bytes: Millimeter Waves Explained". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. Retrieved 2018-03-07. 
  3. ^ "Sprint Unveils Six 5G-Ready Cities; Significant Milestone Toward Launching First 5G Mobile Network in the U.S. | Sprint Newsroom". Retrieved 2018-03-07. 
  4. ^ "What Is Massive MIMO Technology?". 5g.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  5. ^ "Massive MIMO for 5G - IEEE 5G". 5g.ieee.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  6. ^ "ITU towards "IMT for 2020 and beyond"". www.itu.int. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  7. ^ "T-Mobile to Use Low-Band Spectrum to Provide 5G Service". eWEEK. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  8. ^ Flynn, Kevin. "Release 15". www.3gpp.org. Retrieved 2018-03-15. 
  9. ^ "Press Release: ITU agrees on key 5G performance requirements for IMT-2020". www.itu.int. Retrieved 2018-03-15. 
  10. ^ Nelson, Patrick. "Next-generation 5G speeds will be 10 to 20 Gbps". Network World. Retrieved 2018-03-15. 
  11. ^ Dave. "Confirmation: 28 GHz 5G 1.4 Gbps Median: 3.5 GHz 5G Massive MIMO 490 Mbps". wirelessone.news. Retrieved 2018-03-15. 
  12. ^ Dave. "Confirmation: 28 GHz 5G 1.4 Gbps Median: 3.5 GHz 5G Massive MIMO 490 Mbps". wirelessone.news. Retrieved 2018-03-15. 
  13. ^ "Qualcomm Continues Gigabit LTE Leadership with World's First Announced 2 Gbps LTE Modem | Qualcomm". Qualcomm. Retrieved 2018-03-15. 
  14. ^ across 4 -cities including sacramento, L.A, Indianapois and Houston.-milimeter-wave "Verizon says it will have 5G service in five cities by the end of next year" Check |url= value (help). The Verge. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  15. ^ "AT&T to Launch Mobile 5G in 2018". about.att.com. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  16. ^ "T-Mobile Building Out 5G in 30 Cities This Year…and That's Just the Start – Company Announcement - FT.com". markets.ft.com. Retrieved 2018-02-28. 
  17. ^ "China Telecom Eyes 2M+ Base Stations for 5G | Light Reading". Light Reading. Retrieved 2018-03-15. 
  18. ^ "Top companies leading 5G development". Netscribes. 9 November 2017. 
  19. ^ a b Seong-Mok Oh (February 12, 2018). "KT showcases 5G innovation at the Olympics in PyeongChang". ITU News. Retrieved 2 March 2018. 
  20. ^ a b Kang, Seung-woo (20 February 2018). "KT showcasing 5G technology at PyeongChang Games". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2 March 2018. 
  21. ^ "NASA Ames Partners With M2MI For Small Satellite Development". 
  22. ^ The Korean IT R&D program of MKE/IITA: 2008-F-004-01 "5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation".
  23. ^ "The world's first academic research center combining Wireless, Computing, and Medical Applications". Nyu Wireless. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2016-01-14. 
  24. ^ "NYU Wireless' Rappaport envisions a 5G, millimeter-wave future - FierceWirelessTech". Fiercewireless.com. 2014-01-13. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-01-14. 
  25. ^ Alleven, Monica (2015-01-14). "NYU Wireless says U.S. falling behind in 5G, presses FCC to act now on mmWave spectrum". Fiercewireless.com. Retrieved 2016-01-14. 
  26. ^ Kelly, Spencer (13 October 2012). "BBC Click Programme - Kenya". BBC News Channel. Retrieved 15 October 2012. Some of the world biggest telecoms firms have joined forces with the UK government to fund a new 5G research center. The facility, to be based at the University of Surrey, will offer testing facilities to operators keen to develop a mobile standard that uses less energy and less radio spectrum, while delivering faster speeds than current 4G technology that's been launched in around 100 countries, including several British cities. They say the new tech could be ready within a decade. 
  27. ^ "The University Of Surrey Secures £35M For New 5G Research Centre". University of Surrey. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  28. ^ "5G research centre gets major funding grant". BBC News. BBC News Online. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  29. ^ Philipson, Alice (9 October 2012). "Britain aims to join mobile broadband leaders with £35m '5G' research centre". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  30. ^ "METIS projet presentation" (PDF). November 2012. 
  31. ^ "Speech at Mobile World Congress: The Road to 5G". March 2015. 
  32. ^ "5G Mobile Network Technology". April 2017. 
  33. ^ "삼성전자, 5세대 이동통신 핵심기술 세계 최초 개발". 12 May 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2013. 
  34. ^ "General METIS presentations available for public". 
  35. ^ Embley, Jochan (6 November 2013). "Huawei plans $600m investment in 10Gbps 5G network". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  36. ^ "Rappaport, Heath, Daniels & Murdock, Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications". www.pearsonhighered.com. Retrieved 2017-05-15. 
  37. ^ Commissioner OETTINGER welcomes 5G Manifesto European Commission July 7, 2016. Accessed February 28, 2017
  38. ^ "FCC Spectrum Frontier Proposal | NYU WIRELESS". NYU WIRELESS. 2016-07-15. Retrieved 2017-05-18. 
  39. ^ "Qualcomm Announces Its First 5G Modem". PCMAG. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  40. ^ "Snapdragon X50 5G Modem". Qualcomm. 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  41. ^ "iCOMPET: EU flagship initiative, the 5G declaration signed by EU ministers in Tallinn". Estonian Presidency of the Council of the European Union. 18 July 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017. 
  42. ^ "5G test suit is run in Skolkovo". 19 January 2018. 
  43. ^ Foo Yun Chee (3 March 2018). "EU countries, lawmakers strike deal to open up spectrum for 5G". Reuters. Retrieved 3 March 2018. 
  44. ^ "Results of principal stage of auction for mobile airwaves". Ofcom. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 

Major players of 5G [1]

Further readingEdit

  • Rappaport, Theodore; Heath Jr, Robert; Daniels, Robert; Murdock, James (28 September 2014). Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications (1 ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 704. ISBN 0132172283.  A technical overview of potential 5G technologies, including standards for major global 60 GHz wireless local-area networks (WLAN) and personal local-area networks (WPAN).
  • Osseiran, Afif; Monserrat, Jose F., Marsch, Patrick (2 June 2016). 5G Mobile and Wireless Communications Technology (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p 410. ISBN 9781107130098. Written by leading experts in 5G research, this book is a comprehensive overview of the current state of 5G.

External linksEdit