ZTE Corporation is a Chinese multinational telecommunications equipment and systems company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. It is one of China's leading telecom equipment manufacturers.
ZTE corporate campus in Shenzhen, Guangdong
|Zhongxing Telecommunication Equipment Corporation|
Telecommunications equipment |
|Founded||1985(as Zhongxing Semiconductor Co., Ltd.)|
|Founder||Hou Weigui (Chinese: 侯為貴; pinyin: Hóu Wéiguì)|
55 Hi-tech Road South|
Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
Yin Yimin (Chairman)|
Zhao Xianming (President and Executive Director)
|Products||Mobile phones, smartphones, tablet computers, hardware, software and services to telecommunications service providers and enterprises|
|Revenue||CN¥108.815 billion (2017)|
|CN¥6.752 billion (2017)|
|CN¥903.4 million (2017)|
|Total assets||CN¥143.962 billion (2017)|
|Total equity||CN¥31.647 billion (2017)|
Number of employees
Nubia Technology (49.9%)|
Footnotes / references|
In consolidated financial statement; shareholders' equity figure are excluding perpetual capital instrument
|Literal meaning||China-Prosperity Communications Company Limited by Shares|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||China-Prosperity Communications|
|Second alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||China-Prosperity [or the word itself: resurgence]|
ZTE operates in three business units: carrier networks (54%), terminals (29%) and telecommunication (17%), their core products being wireless, exchange, access, optical transmission, and data telecommunications gear; mobile phones; and telecommunications software.
It also offers products that provide value-added services, such as video on demand and streaming media. ZTE primarily sold products under its own name, but it is also an OEM. ZTE is one of the top five largest smartphone manufacturers in its home market.
As with Huawei, the company has faced criticism in the United States over potential ties to the Chinese government that could enable surveillance. In 2017, ZTE was fined for illegally exporting U.S. technology to Iran and North Korea. In April 2018, after the company failed to properly reprimand the employees involved, the U.S. Department of Commerce banned U.S. companies from exporting to ZTE for seven years. The ban was lifted in July after ZTE replaced its senior management, and agreed to pay additional fines and establish an internal compliance team.
ZTE, initially founded as Zhongxing Semiconductor Co., Ltd in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, in 1985, was incorporated by a group of investors associated with China's Ministry of Aerospace Industry.[not in citation given (See discussion.)] In March 1993, Zhongxing Semiconductor changed its name to Zhongxing New Telecommunications Equipment Co., Ltd with capital of RMB 3 million, and created a new business model as a "state-owned and private-operating" economic entity. Ties to the state notwithstanding, the firm evolved into the publicly traded ZTE Corporation, having made an initial public offering (IPO) on the Shenzhen stock exchange in 1997 and another on the Hong Kong stock exchange in December 2004.
While the company initially profited from domestic sales, it vowed to use proceeds of its 2004 Hong Kong IPO to further expand R&D, overseas sales to developed nations, and overseas production. Making headway in the international telecom market in 2006, it took 40% of new global orders for CDMA networks topping the world CDMA equipment market by number of shipments. That same year also saw ZTE find a customer in the Canadian Telus[non-primary source needed] and membership in the Wi-Fi Alliance. More customers in developed nations soon followed Telus' lead, and in 2007 ZTE sold to UK's Vodafone, Spain's Telefonica, and the Australian Telstra, in addition to garnering the greatest number of CDMA contracts globally. By 2008 ZTE had achieved a global customer base, with sales in 140 countries.
By 2009, the company had become the third-largest vendor of GSM telecom equipment worldwide, and about 20% of all GSM gear sold throughout the world that year was ZTE branded. As of 2011 it holds around 7% of the key LTE patents and that same year launched the world's first smartphone with dual GPS/GLONASS navigation, MTS 945. ZTE claims to devote 10% of its annual revenue to research and development, producing patents and utility licenses at a rapid pace. ZTE has filed 48,000 patents globally, with more than 13,000 granted. In two consecutive years (2011 and 2012), ZTE was granted the largest number of patent applications globally, which is a first for a Chinese company.
U.S. sanctions and import banEdit
In March 2017, ZTE pleaded guilty to illegally exporting U.S. technology to Iran and North Korea in violation of trade sanctions, and was fined a total of US$1.19 billion by the U.S. Department of Commerce. It was the largest-ever U.S. fine for export control violations.
ZTE was allowed to continue working with U.S. companies, provided that it properly reprimand all employees involved in the violations. However, the Department of Commerce found that ZTE had violated these terms and made false statements regarding its compliance, having fired only 4 senior officials and still providing bonuses to 35 other employees involved in the violations. On 16 April 2018, the Department of Commerce banned U.S. companies from providing exports to ZTE for seven years.
At least 25% of components on recent ZTE smartphones originate from the U.S.. The ban prevents ZTE from using common Qualcomm processors, and certified Android devices with Google Mobile Services software. An analyst stated that it would take a significant amount of effort for ZTE to redesign its products as to not use U.S.-originated components.
On 9 May 2018, ZTE announced that, although it was "actively communicating with the relevant U.S. government departments" to reverse the export ban, it had suspended its "major operating activities" (including manufacturing) and trading of its shares. On 13 May 2018, U.S. president Donald Trump stated that he would be working with Chinese president Xi Jinping to reverse the ban. It was argued that the export ban was being used as leverage by the United States as part of an ongoing trade dispute with China.
On 11 July 2018, ZTE agreed to a settlement with the Department of Commerce in order to lift the import ban. The company agreed to pay a US$1 billion fine, place an additional US$400 million of suspended penalty money in escrow, as well as establish a compliance department selected by the Department. The company also, prior to the settlement, replaced its entire senior management. The denial order was officially lifted two days later.
ZTE has several international subsidiaries.
As a subsidiary of ZTE Corporation, ZTEsoft engages in ICT industry and specializes in providing BSS/OSS, big data products and services to telecom operators, and ICT, smart city and industry products and services to enterprises and governments.
Nubia Technology was a fully owned subsidiary of ZTE Corporation. The company has subsequently disposed of the majority of its equity in the company. In 2017 it reduced its stake to 49.9%.
PT. ZTE IndonesiaEdit
PT ZTE Indonesia were representative of ZTE with has many customer with PT Telkom Indonesia tbk, PT Telekomunikasi Seluler tbk, PT Indosat tbk, PT Smartfren tbk, PT XL Axiata, and also supply hand held with ZTE Trademarks.
ZTE (Australia) Pty LtdEdit
ZTE entered the Australian market in 2005, and as of 2009 ZTE (Australia) Pty Ltd acts as the exclusive supplier of ZTE handsets, network cards, and as OEM Supplier to customers, such as Telstra, and Optus in Australia.
ZTE Deutschland GmbHEdit
ZTE Deutschland GmbH was founded in 2005 with headquarters in Düsseldorf; it, as of 2008, had hired 50 people, 60% of whom were recruited locally. ZTE Deutschland GmbH partners with German football club Borussia Mönchengladbach for the seasons of 2016/17 and 2017/18.
ZTE USA IncEdit
A North American subsidiary of ZTE, with headquarters in Richardson, Texas, ZTE USA Inc offers wireless handset and networking products in the US. ZTE USA partnered with NBA's Houston Rockets for the season of 2013–2014.
ZTE Telecom India Pvt LtdEdit
ZTE Telecom India Private Limited provides distributes telecom equipment and systems. The company also provides repair, support, and maintenance services for its telecom equipment. ZTE Telecom India Private Limited was formerly known as ZTE Kangxun Telecom Company India Private Limited. The company was founded in 2003 and is based in Gurgaon, India.
ZTE (HK) LtdEdit
ZTE (Hong Kong) Ltd. (China) serves in such areas as global contract manufacturing.
ZTE do Brasil Ltda.Edit
ZTE Myanmar is also a fully owned subsidiary of ZTE Corporation.
Zonergy is a renewables company with interests in electricity generation through solar parks in China and Pakistan and palm oil cultivation in Indonesia to produce biofuels. ZTE is a major shareholder and was instrumental in the creation of the company in 2007 but holds a minority of the shares in the entity.
ZTEsoft Technology India Pvt. Ltd.Edit
As a subsidiary of ZTE Corporation, ZTEsoft India engages in ICT industry and specializes in providing BSS/OSS, big data products and services to telecom operators, and ICT, smart city solutions and industry products and services to enterprises and governments. Company has several tie-ups with regional governments for implementation of smart city solutions.
ZTEsoft Singapore Technology Pte. Ltd.Edit
As a subsidiary of ZTE Corporation, ZTEsoft Singapore engages in ICT industry and specializes in providing BSS/OSS, big data products and services to telecom operators, and ICT, smart city solutions and industry products and services to enterprises and governments.
ZTE operates in three business segments – Carrier Networks(~54%)-Terminals(~29%)-Telecommunication(~17%) Products can be roughly arranged into three categories: equipment used by network operators (links and nodes, etc.), equipment used to access networks (terminals), and services, which includes software. On October 2010, ZTE's unified encryption module received U.S./Canada FIPS140-2 security certification, which made ZTE the first vendor from P.R. China to successfully validate modules according to the NIST FIPS140-2 standard under the CMVP program.
As of 2012, ZTE is the 4th largest mobile phone vendor. It also placed fifth on IDC's smartphone vendor leaderboard. Strategy Analytics counts ZTE as 4th largest smartphone vendor (5% market share) in 2Q2013. It also manufactures tablets.
In November 2017, ZTE announced the Axon M. The two screens can run separate applications, or spread one app over the combined display size of 6.75-inches. The second screen also works as a kickstand.
The MF60 and MF80 4G mobile hotspots were announced in August 2011.
Network Operators Equipment, Network Nodes and Network ElementsEdit
ZTE is also a provider of Core Routing and Core Network equipment, also known as Network Elements such as:
- GGSN (GSM / UMTS), PGW (LTE EPC), PDSN (CDMA)
- ZTE ZXR10-Series core switches and core routers
- MPLS routers
- Base stations, some of them developed with OBSAI – Open Base Station Architecture Initiative architecture, including China-specific Time-Division Long-Term evolution aka TD-LTE radio protocol support and CDMA-based EV-DO equipment
- Telephone switches
- legacy WAP and MMSC equipment
- WiMax products, based on ZTE SDR platform, part of the Uni-RAN technology, Uni-Core core network equipment, and services to support the WiMAX 4G network over 3.5 GHz frequencies.
- SDN / NFV products as seen through Open Daylight Project
A good number of ZTE's customers are outside of China. During the 2000s, the majority were developing country mobile network operators, but ZTE products see use in developed countries as well. The UK's Vodafone, Canadian Telus, Australia's Telstra, as well as France Telecom have all purchased equipment from ZTE.
ZTE began to release smartphones in the United States in 2011. The company elected to focus its efforts on low-cost products for discount and prepaid wireless carriers, including devices with premium features typically associated with high-end products, such as large high-resolution screens and fingerprint readers.
In May 2016, ZTE became the co-sponsor of German club Borussia Mönchengladbach, and its Nubia Technology brand signed footballer Cristiano Ronaldo as a brand ambassador for a reported fee of $4 million.
Since 2015, taking advantage of the league's appeal in China, several U.S. National Basketball Association teams have had sponsorship deals with ZTE, including the Houston Rockets (based in the home city of ZTE's U.S. subsidiary), Golden State Warriors, and New York Knicks.
Bribes for contractsEdit
Norwegian telecommunications giant Telenor, one of the world's largest mobile operators, banned ZTE from "participating in tenders and new business opportunities for 6 months because of an alleged breach of its code of conduct in a procurement proceeding" during a five-month time span ending in March 2009.
Surveillance system saleEdit
In December 2010, ZTE sold systems for eavesdropping on phone and Internet communications to the government-controlled Telecommunication Company of Iran. This system may help Iran monitor and track political dissidents.
ZTE, as well as Huawei, have faced scrutiny by the United States' government, due to allegations that Chinese government surveillance could be performed through its handsets and infrastructure equipment. In 2011, the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence issued a report recommending that the government be prohibited from purchasing equipment from the firms, citing them as possible threats to national security.
The shareholders of ZTE Holdings were Xi'an Microelectronics (Chinese: 西安微电子技术研究所; a subsidiary of China Academy of Aerospace Electronics Technology) for 34%, Aerospace Guangyu (Chinese: 深圳航天广宇工业有限公司; a subsidiary of CASIC Shenzhen Group) for 14.5%, Zhongxing WXT (Chinese: 深圳市中兴维先通设备有限公司; aka Zhongxing Weixiantong) for 49% and a private equity fund Guoxing Ruike (Chinese: 國興睿科) for 2.5%.:87 The first two entities were state-owned enterprise, nominating 5 out 9 directors of ZTE Holdings, while Zhongxing WXT was owned by the founders of ZTE, including Hou Weigui, which Zhongxing WXT nominated the rest of the directors (4 out 9) of ZTE Holdings.:110–112
The mixed ownership model of ZTE was described as "a firm is an SOE from the standpoint of ownership, but a POE from the standpoint of management.", according to an article of Curtis J. Milhaupt and Zheng Wentong of Columbia University, ZTE described itself as "state-owned and private-run". Other media and organizations simply described ZTE as "the state-owned company" (South China Morning Post) or "Chinese state-owned business" (Financial Times quoting the National Cyber Security Centre).
- "Annual Report 2017" (PDF). ZTE. 26 March 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- "ZTE to reach an amicable settlement with U.S. government". Peoples Daily. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- Product Portfolio ZTE
- ZTE Secures More than Half of China Unicom GSM Value-Added Service System 2008 Tender ZTE, 15 December 2008
- ZTE Corp's Company Description Bloomberg BusinessWeek
- UPDATE 3-LSI sees second half better than first reuters.com, Wed 26 January 2011 9:14 pm EST
- For top five in China, see "Apple Competes for Bigger Slice of China's Smartphone Market Share." Khaleej Times (Dubai, United Arab Emirates). Al Bawaba (Middle East) Ltd. 2014. 22 May. 2014
- McKenzie, Nick; Grigg, Angus (May 31, 2018). "China's ZTE was built to spy and bribe, court documents allege". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on May 31, 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
- 20 Years History of ZTE Corporation by Mr. Huang Guo in 2005
- UPDATE 1-ZTE says 2010 net profit up 32 pct on better sales reuters.com, Thu 27 January 2011
- A Global Telecom Titan Called...ZTE? Bloomberg BusinessWeek, 7 March 2005
- China-based Huawei and Murali make headway in global telecom market DigiTimes.com. 9 March 2007
- ZTE tops 2006 international CDMA market. CIOL Bureau. 8 March 2007
- "History". ZTE.
- ZTE joins Wi-Fi Alliance----- one of the first Chinese members ZTE, 30 August 2006
- ZTE Tops 2007 Global CDMA Market ZTE, 30 January 2008
- INTERVIEW-China's ZTE aims for fifth of global GSM gear market reuters.com, Tue 17 November 2009 10:53 pm EST
- China's ZTE targets 10 pct of LTE patents reuters, 11 January 2011
- "ZTE Ranked World No. 1 in Patent Applications for Second Straight Year". CNBC. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- Strong Growth in Demand for Intellectual Property Rights in 2012
- International Patent Filings Set New Record in 2011
- Yahoo reported ZTE as first Chinese company to rank No.1 in global patent applications
- Pettypiece, Shannon; Mayeda, Andrew (7 March 2017). "China's ZTE Pleads Guilty in U.S. on Iran Sanctions Settlement". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 7 March 2017. (Subscription required (. ))
- Brant, Tom (7 March 2017). "ZTE Will Pay Record Fine for Sales to Iran, North Korea". PC Magazine. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- "Secretary Ross Announces Activation of ZTE Denial Order in Response to Repeated False Statements to the U.S. Government". Department of Commerce. 16 April 2018. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- Heater, Brian (16 April 2018). "U.S. companies banned from selling components to ZTE". TechCrunch. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- Liao, Shannon (16 April 2018). "ZTE can no longer buy Qualcomm chips after US ban". The Verge. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- Gurman, Mark (17 April 2018). "ZTE Seeks Fix With U.S. Ban Threatening Access to Android". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Lee, Timothy B. (10 May 2018). "The Trump administration just forced smartphone maker ZTE to shut down". Ars Technica. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
- Kuo, Lily (10 May 2018). "China's ZTE may be first major casualty of trade war with US". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
- Zhong, Raymond (9 May 2018). "Chinese Tech Giant on Brink of Collapse in New U.S. Cold War". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
- Collins, Michael (13 May 2018). "President Trump pledges to help ZTE, Chinese maker of budget-friendly phones, after ban". USA Today. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
- Horowitz, Julia. "Companies become bargaining chips in US-China trade turmoil". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
- Russolillo, Steven; Xie, Stella Yifan (2018-05-28). "ZTE's Suspended Stock: 'A Headache for All Market Participants'". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
- "The U.S. and ZTE reach a deal that will lift export ban". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
- "Commerce Department Lifts Ban After ZTE Deposits Final Tranche of $1.4 Billion Penalty". US Department of Commerce. 13 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- "US lifts trade ban on ZTE in controversial deal with Chinese phone maker". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
- "ZTE's new management vows to uphold compliance as a top priority". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
- Lee, Timothy B. (August 14, 2018), New law bans US from buying tech from Chinese giants ZTE and Huawei, Ars Technica
- Moon, Mariella (August 13, 2018), US bans government personnel from using Huawei and ZTE devices, Engadget
- Sullivan, Mark (August 13, 2018), Trump bans ZTE and Huawei gear from use by the U.S. government, Fast Company
- Shu, Catherine (August 13, 2018), New Defense Bill Bans the US Government From Using Huawei and ZTE Tech, TechCrunch
- Musil, Steven (August 13, 2018), Trump signs defense bill with watered-down ZTE sanctions, CNET
- Disposal of 10.1% of the equity interest in Nubia Technology Limited, ZTE Corporation, 27 July 2017, Retrieved on 8 April 2018
- About ZTE ZTE Australia Official Site
- Global Sales Offices > Asia Pacific ZTE
- ZTE opens new office in Bonn, Germany ZTE, 18 November 2008
- ZTE Becomes Co-Sponsor of Top German Football Team Borussia Mönchengladbach
- Pocket Communications Launches ZTE's Tri-Band C79 and C78 ZTE,2009-04-02
- ZTE Opens LTE Laboratory in North America ZTE, 20 October 2009
- Brautigam, Deborah (2015). Will Africa Feed China?. New York: Oxford University Press.
- "ZTE Corp (ZTCOF.PK): Overview; Full description". Reuters. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- ZTE Unified Platform Cryptographic Library Version 1.1
- ZTE Unified Element Management Platform Cryptographic Module Version 4.11.10
- ATSEC participated in ZTE products security evaluations
- Wagstaff, Jeremy; Yee, Lee Chyen (18 May 2012). "ZTE confirms security hole in U.S. phone". Reuters. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- IDC: Samsung extends lead over Apple while Chinese vendors increase influence
- IDC: Growth Accelerates in the Worldwide Mobile Phone and Smartphone Markets in the second Quarter, 2013 Archived 26 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- Strategy Analytics: Global Smartphone shipments Hit Record 230 Million Units in Q2 2013
- ZTE Launches Two Android Tablets: Dual-core Z-pad and Android 3.0 V11 at MWC
- ZTE V9 Android tablet revealed androidcommunity.com, 12 October 2010
- V9 product page ZTE
- Unbox Therapy (8 November 2017). "The Dual Screen, Foldable Smartphone Is REAL!" – via YouTube.
- "Watch how ZTE Axon M's dual screen transforms your daily smartphone habits". TechRadar. 20 November 2017.
- Gartenberg, Chaim (17 November 2017). "ZTE Axon M review: double trouble". The Verge.
- "Foldable ZTE Axon M is official with dual touchscreens". GSMArena. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
- Velazco, Chris (30 November 2017). "ZTE's dual-screen Axon M is fascinating and flawed". Engadget. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
- Ali, Zara (17 October 2017). "ZTE Launches 'Axon M' The First Dual-Screen Foldable Smartphone". Wccftech.
- "ZTE to Launch Dongle that Connects Users within 15 Seconds". ZTE. 25 August 2011. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012.
- Collins, Mark (23 February 2014). "Microsoft Announces ZTE As New Windows Phone Hardware Partner". GSM Insider. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014.
- For Vodafone and France Telecom sales, see ZTE Wins China Mobile WAP Expansion Contract ZTE, 16 October 2007
- For Telus sales, see ZTE Breaks into North America with First Shipment of 3G Terminals for Canada ZTE, 2006/09/26
- For Public Mobile sales, see ZTE Partners with Public Mobile to Build CDMA Network in Canada ZTE, 3 June 2010
- China Netcom´s first IPTV agreement confirms ZTE as major international IPTV network provider ZTE, 30 August 2006
- ZTE to Build World's First AVSIPTV Commercial Network with China Netcom Group ZTE, 6 December 2007
- ZTE to Install the World´s Largest Optical Transmission Network ZTE, 30 August 2006
- ZTE and China Satcom to provide GoTa network for China´s 10th National Games ZTE, 30 August 2006
ZTE Bags Major Value Added Services Contracts in China ZTE, 2006/11/14
- ZTE bags China Telecom´s largest metropolitan NGN project ZTE, 30 August 2006
- ZTE Inks 1.33 billion RMB CDMA Contract with China Telecom ZTE, 20 November 2008
- ZTE Exclusively Awarded IPTV Project by China Telecom, Jiangsu Branch ZTE, 2006-08-30
- ZTE to install first polyphonic ringtone gateway for China Telecom ZTE, 2006-08-30
- ZTE Strengthens Competitive Position with Third China Telecom IPTV Project ZTE, 2006-08-30
- ZTE Helps China Telecom Achieve the Recognition as First in the World to Offer EPONbased 3G Services ZTE, 2009-04-07
- ZTE Collaborates with China Telecom to Build IMS Network Solution ZTE, 30 November 2009
- ZTE Network Equipment Destined for World´s Highest Railway ZTE, 30 August 2006
- ZTE Provides Green 3G Network through Innovative Wind and Solar Solutions ZTE, 8 December 2009
- ZTE to install China´s largest voice access platform ZTE, 2006-08-30
- ZTE to Build Three FibreOptic Networks for China Unicom ZTE, 2006-10-11
- ZTE inks deal with China Unicom for CDMA handsets ZTE, 7 February 2007
- "Chinese brand ZTE becomes co-sponsor of Borussia Mönchengladbach". GSM Insider. 22 May 2016.
- "Chinese brand Nubia signs Cristiano Ronaldo as brand ambassador". GSM Insider. 22 May 2016.
- "NBA team goes full court for Lunar New Year". China Daily. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
- "ZTE Looks to NBA Team Sponsorships for Marketing Assist". Recode. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
- Norway's telco giant bans ZTE for 6 months abs-cbnnews.com, 21 October 2008
- Arroyo suspends telecoms deal with Chinese firm reuters.com, 22 September 2007
- Stecklow, Steve (22 March 2012). "Special Report: Chinese firm helps Iran spy on citizens". Reuters. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- Salinas, Sara (2018-02-13). "Six top US intelligence chiefs caution against buying Huawei phones". CNBC. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Bradsher, Keith; Hauser, Christine (2012-10-08). "U.S. Panel Calls Huawei and ZTE 'National Security Threat'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
- "U.S. intelligence agencies are still warning against buying Huawei and ZTE phones". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
- "A new bill would ban the US government from using Huawei and ZTE phones". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
- "Niándù bàogào 2017" 年度報告2017 [Annual Report 2017] (PDF) (in Chinese). ZTE – via Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing website.
- Milhaupt, Curtis J.; Zheng, Wentong. "Beyond Ownership: State Capitalism and the Chinese Firm". Columbia University. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Huang Guo (2005). "20 Years History of ZTE Corporation". ZTE.
- "China-US ZTE deal – the calm before the storm". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. 15 June 2018. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
- "Cyber security watchdog warns UK telcos against using equipment from Chinese supplier ZTE". Financial Times. London. 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 June 2018.