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Wi-Fi Alliance is a non-profit organization that promotes Wi-Fi technology and certifies Wi-Fi products for conformity to certain standards of interoperability. Not every IEEE 802.11-compliant device is submitted for certification to the Wi-Fi Alliance, sometimes because of costs associated with the certification process. The lack of the Wi-Fi logo does not necessarily imply a device is incompatible with Wi-Fi devices.

Wi-Fi Alliance
Wi-Fi Alliance logo
Formation1999; 19 years ago (1999)
HeadquartersAustin, Texas, United States
Websitewww.wi-fi.org
Formerly called
Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance

The Wi-Fi Alliance owns the Wi-Fi trademark. Manufacturers may use the trademark to brand certified products that have been tested for interoperability.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Early 802.11 products suffered from interoperability problems because the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) had no provision for testing equipment for compliance with its standards. In 1999, pioneers of a new, higher speed variant, endorsed the IEEE 802.11b specification to form the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) and branded the new technology Wi-Fi.[1][2]

The group of companies included 3Com, Aironet (acquired by Cisco), Harris Semiconductor (now Intersil), Lucent (was Alcatel-Lucent, then acquired by Nokia), Nokia and Symbol Technologies (now Zebra Technologies).[3]

As key sponsors, the alliance lists Apple, Comcast, Samsung, Sony, LG, Intel, Dell, Broadcom, Cisco, Qualcomm, Motorola, Microsoft, Texas Instruments, and T-Mobile. The charter for this independent organization was to perform testing, certify interoperability of products, and to promote the technology.[4]

WECA renamed itself the Wi-Fi Alliance in 2002.[5] It is based in Austin, Texas.

Most producers of 802.11 equipment became members, and as of 2012, the Wi-Fi Alliance included over 550 member companies. Wi-Fi Alliance extended Wi-Fi beyond wireless local area network applications into point-to-point and personal area networking and enabled specific applications such as Miracast.

Wi-Fi certificationEdit

The Wi-Fi Alliance owns and controls the "Wi-Fi Certified" logo, a registered trademark, which is permitted only on equipment which has passed testing. Purchasers relying on that trademark may have greater chances of interoperation than otherwise. Testing involves not only radio and data format interoperability, but security protocols, as well as optional testing for quality of service and power management protocols.[6] Wi-Fi Certified products have to demonstrate that they can perform well in networks with other Wi-Fi Certified products, running common applications, in situations similar to those encountered in everyday use. Certification employs 3 principles:

  • Interoperability is the primary target of certification. Rigorous test cases are used to ensure that products from different equipment vendors can interoperate in a wide variety of configurations.
  • Backward compatibility has to be preserved to allow for new equipment to work with existing gear. Backward compatibility protects investments in legacy Wi-Fi products and enables users to gradually upgrade and expand their networks.
  • New certification programs allow newer technology and specifications come into the marketplace. These certification programs may be mandatory (e.g. WPA2) or optional (e.g. WMM).

The Wi-Fi Alliance definition of interoperability demands that products have to show satisfactory performance levels in typical network configurations and have to support both established and emerging applications. The Wi-Fi Alliance certification process includes three types of tests to ensure interoperability. Wi-Fi Certified products are tested for:

  • Compatibility: certified equipment has been tested for connectivity with other certified equipment . Compatibility testing has always been, and still is, the predominant component of interoperability testing, and it is the element that most people associate with "interoperability". It involves tests with multiple devices from different equipment vendors
  • Conformance: the equipment conforms to specific critical elements of the IEEE 802.11 standard. Conformance testing usually involves standalone analysis of individual products and establishes whether the equipment responds to inputs as expected and specified. For example, conformance testing is used to ensure that Wi-Fi equipment protects itself and the network when the equipment detects evidence of network attacks.
  • Performance: the equipment meets the performance levels required. Performance tests are not designed to measure and compare performance among products, but simply to verify that the product meets the minimum performance requirements. Specific performance tests results are not released by the Wi-Fi Alliance.

Certification typesEdit

The Wi-Fi Alliance provides certification testing in two levels:[7]

Mandatory:

  • Core MAC/PHY interoperability over 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n. (at least one)
  • Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) security,[8] which aligns with IEEE 802.11i. WPA2 is available in two types: WPA2-Personal for consumer use, and WPA2 Enterprise, which adds EAP authentication.

Optional:

  • Tests corresponding to IEEE 802.11h and 802.11d.
  • WMM Quality of Service,[9] based upon a subset of IEEE 802.11e.
  • WMM Power Save,[10] based upon APSD within IEEE 802.11e
  • Wi-Fi Protected Setup,[11] a specification developed by the Alliance to ease the process of setting up and enabling security protections on small office and consumer Wi-Fi networks.
  • Application Specific Device (ASD), for wireless devices other than Access Point and Station which has specific application, such as DVD players, projectors, printers, etc.
  • Converged Wireless Group–Radio Frequency (CWG-RF, offered in conjunction with CTIA), to provide performance mapping of Wi-Fi and cellular radios in converged devices.
  • Passpoint/Hotspot 2.0[12]

Certification programsEdit

There are a number of certification programs by Wi-Fi alliance:[13]

2.4/5GHz Wi-FiEdit

WiGigEdit

WiGig refers to 60 GHz Wireless local area network connection. It was initially announced back in year 2013 by Wireless Gigabit Alliance, however it have been took over by Wi-Fi alliance in year 2013 and Wi-Fi alliance started certifying it in year 2016. The current version of WiGig is IEEE 802.11ad with a newer version IEEE 802.11ay coming in year 2019.[14][15]

Wi-Fi DirectEdit

In October 2010, the Alliance began to certify Wi-Fi Direct, that allows Wi-Fi-enabled devices to communicate directly with each other by setting up ad-hoc networks, without going through a wireless access point or hotspot.[16][17] Since 2009 when it was first announced, some suggested Wi-Fi Direct might replace the need for Bluetooth on applications that do not rely on Bluetooth low energy.[18][19]

WPAEdit

Wi-Fi Protected Access is a security mechanism based on IEEE 802.11i amendment to the standard that the Wi-Fi Alliance started to certify from the year of 2003.[20]

IBSS with Wi-Fi Protected SetupEdit

IBSS with Wi-Fi Protected Setup would enable the creation of ad hoc network between devices directly without central access point.[21]

Wi-Fi PasspointEdit

Wi-Fi Passpoint, alternatively known as Hotspot 2.0, is a solution for roaming between different Wi-Fi access points.[22] It utilize IEEE 802.11u.

Wi-Fi Easy ConnectEdit

Wi-Fi Easy Connect is a protocol that would enable easily establishing connections via QR code.[23]

WPSEdit

Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is a network security standard to simply create a secure wireless home network, created and introduced by Wi-Fi Alliance in 2006.

MiracastEdit

Miracast is a standard for wireless connections from devices (such as laptops, tablets, or smartphones) to displays (such as TVs, monitors or projectors), introduced in 2012 by the Wi-Fi Alliance. Its goal is to replace cables connecting from the device to the display.[24]

Wi-Fi AwareEdit

Wi-Fi Aware is an interoperability certification program announced in January 2015 that enables device users, when in the range of a particular access point or another compatible device, to receive notifications of applications or services available in the proximity.[25][26] Later versions of this standard included new features such as the capability to establish a peer-to-peer data connection for file transfer.[27][27]

Fears were voiced immediately in media that it would be predominantly used for proximity marketing.[28]

Wi-Fi LocationEdit

Wi-Fi Location is a type of Wi-Fi positioning system, and the certification could help providing accuracy to in-door positioning.[29]

TDLSEdit

TDLS, or Tunneled Direct Link Setup, is "a seamless way to stream media and other data faster between devices already on the same Wi-Fi network" based on IEEE 802.11z and added to Wi-Fi Alliance certification program in 2012. Devices using it communicate directly with one another, without involving the wireless network's router.[30]

Wi-Fi Agile MultibandEdit

The certification of Wi-Fi Agile Multiband indicate devices can automatically connect and maintain connection in the most suitable way. It cover the IEEE 802.11k standard about access point information report, the IEEE 802.11v standard that enable exchanging information about state of network, IEEE 802.11u standard about additional information of a Wi-Fi network, IEEE 802.11r about fast transition roaming between different access points, as well as other technologies specified by Wi-Fi alliance.[31]

Wi-Fi EasyMeshEdit

Wi-Fi EasyMesh is a certification program based on its Multi-Access Point specification for creating Wi-Fi meshes from products by different vendors,[32] based on IEEE 1905.1. It it is intended to address the problem of Wi-Fi systems that need to cover large areas where several routers serve as multiple access points, working together to form a larger/extended and unified network.[33][34][35]

Wi-Fi VantageEdit

Formerly known as Carrier Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi Vantage is a certification program for operators to maintain and manges quality Wi-Fi connections in high usage environment.[36] It includes a number of certification, such as Wi-Fi certified ac (as in 802.11ac), Passpoint, Agile Multiband, and Optimized Connectivity.[37]

WMMEdit

Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) or known as Wireless Multimedia Extensions is a Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability certification based on the IEEE 802.11e standard. It provides basic Quality of service (QoS) features to IEEE 802.11 networks.

Wi-Fi Home DesignEdit

Wi-Fi Home Design is a set of guideline released by Wi-Fi alliance for inclusion of wireless network in home design.[38]

Wi-Fi HaLowEdit

Wi-Fi HaLow is a standard for low-power wide-area (LPWA) connection standard using sub-1GHz spectrum for IoT devices. It is based on IEEE 802.11ah.[39]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Marlyn Kemper Littman (2002). Building Broadband Networks. CRC Press. pp. 406–407. ISBN 9781420000016.
  2. ^ Wireless Access 2000. Information Gatekeepers. 2002. p. 111. ISBN 9781420000016.
  3. ^ "Wi-fi Alliance: Organization". Archived from the original on September 3, 2009. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  4. ^ John Cox (May 28, 2001). "Effort afoot to provide wireless LAN roaming". Network World. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  5. ^ Eric Griffith (October 2, 2002). "WECA becomes Wi-Fi Alliance". Internet News. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  6. ^ "An overview of Wi-Fi Alliance certification" (PDF). Senzafiliconsulting.com. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
  7. ^ "Insist on Wi-Fi CERTIFIED". wi-fi.org. Wi-Fi Alliance. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
  8. ^ "WPA2 – Featured Topics from Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-fi.org. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
  9. ^ "WMM – Article from Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-fi.org. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
  10. ^ "Power save – Article from Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-fi.org. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
  11. ^ "WPS – Article from Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-fi.org. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
  12. ^ "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Passpoint | Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-fi.org. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
  13. ^ Terms of Use Privacy Policy Careers Contact Us. "Programs | Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-fi.org. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  14. ^ "What is WiGig, and How Is It Different From Wi-Fi 6?". Howtogeek.com. 2018-10-21. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  15. ^ "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED WiGig™ brings multi-gigabit performance to Wi-Fi® devices". Marketwired.com. 2016-10-24. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  16. ^ "Wi-Fi gets personal: Groundbreaking Wi-Fi Direct launches today". Press release. WiFi Alliance. October 25, 2010. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  17. ^ "Wi-Fi Direct: what it is and why you should care". TechRadar. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
  18. ^ Tony Bradley (October 15, 2009). "Wi-Fi Direct could be death of Bluetooth". PC World. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  19. ^ Olga Kharif (October 14, 2009). "Wi-Fi Is About to Get a Whole Lot Easier". Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  20. ^ Bennett, Amy (2003-04-02). "Overview of WPA from Wi-Fi Alliance". Itworld.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  21. ^ "Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking: Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ IBSS with Wi-Fi Protected Setup™ (2012)". Wi-fi.org. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  22. ^ Thornycroft, Peter (2017-04-24). "Using Passpoint for private Wi-Fi networks". Networkworld.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  23. ^ Kyle Wiggers@Kyle_L_Wiggers June 25, 2018 9:00 PM (2018-06-25). "Wi-Fi Alliance introduces WPA3 and Wi-Fi Easy Connect". Venturebeat.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  24. ^ On Wifi-Display, Democratic Republics and Miracles, Patrick Herrmann, on the development of Miraclecast, 2014-02-17.
  25. ^ "Wi-Fi Aware | Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-fi.org. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
  26. ^ "Wi-Fi Aware Aims To Connect All Your Devices Instantly". TechCrunch. 2015-07-14. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
  27. ^ a b Alliance, Wi-Fi. "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Wi-Fi Aware™ enhances the Wi-Fi® mobile experience". GlobeNewswire News Room. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
  28. ^ "Wi-Fi Alliance ushers in new era of intrusive apps". Theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
  29. ^ Alliance introduces certification for better indoor positioning
  30. ^ KitKat Feature Spotlight: Wi-Fi TDLS Support Allows For Faster Direct Data Transfer On A Wi-Fi Network Without Slowing Other Devices, androidpolice.com
  31. ^ Wi-Fi Certified Agile Multiband™, Accton Technology Corporation
  32. ^ "Wi-Fi EasyMesh | Wi-Fi Alliance". www.wi-fi.org. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
  33. ^ "Wi-Fi EasyMesh | Wi-Fi Alliance". www.wi-fi.org. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
  34. ^ Hoffman, Chris (May 16, 2018). "What is the New EasyMesh Wi-Fi Standard? (and Why It Doesn't Matter Yet)". How to Geek. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
  35. ^ "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED EasyMesh™ delivers intelligent Wi-Fi® networks | Wi-Fi Alliance". www.wi-fi.org. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
  36. ^ "Carrier Wi-Fi is now Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Vantage™". Cablelabs.com. 2016-12-07. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  37. ^ "Wi-Fi Alliance Levels Up With Vantage 2.0". Lightreading.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  38. ^ New houses will have Alexa and Wi-Fi built into the walls
  39. ^ CONNECTIVITY Top wireless standards for IoT devices

External linksEdit