This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
The Wi-Fi Alliance is a non-profit organization that owns the Wi-Fi trademark. Manufacturers may use the trademark to brand products certified for Wi-Fi interoperability. It is based in Austin, Texas.
|Headquarters||Austin, Texas, United States|
|Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance|
Early 802.11 products suffered from interoperability problems because the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) had no provision for testing equipment for compliance with its standards.
The group of companies included 3Com, Aironet (acquired by Cisco), Harris Semiconductor (now Intersil), Lucent (was Alcatel-Lucent, then acquired by Nokia), Nokia and Symbol Technologies (now Zebra Technologies).
The alliance lists Apple, Comcast, Samsung, Sony, LG, Intel, Dell, Broadcom, Cisco, Qualcomm, Motorola, Microsoft, Texas Instruments, and T-Mobile as key sponsors. The charter for this independent organization was to perform testing, certify interoperability of products, and to promote the technology.
WECA renamed itself the Wi-Fi Alliance in 2002.
Most producers of 802.11 equipment became members, and as of 2012,[update] the Wi-Fi Alliance included over 550 member companies. The Wi-Fi Alliance extended Wi-Fi beyond wireless local area network applications into point-to-point and personal area networking and enabled specific applications such as Miracast.
Wi-Fi certification Edit
The Wi-Fi Alliance owns and controls the "Wi-Fi Certified" logo, a registered trademark, which is permitted only on equipment which has passed testing. Purchasers relying on that trademark may have greater chances of interoperation than otherwise. Testing involves not only radio and data format interoperability, but security protocols, as well as optional testing for quality of service and power management protocols. Wi-Fi Certified products have to demonstrate that they can perform well in networks with other Wi-Fi Certified products, running common applications, in situations similar to those encountered in everyday use. Certification employs 3 principles:
- Interoperability is the primary target of certification. Rigorous test cases are used to ensure that products from different equipment vendors can interoperate in a wide variety of configurations.
- Backward compatibility has to be preserved to allow for new equipment to work with existing gear. Backward compatibility protects investments in legacy Wi-Fi products and enables users to gradually upgrade and expand their networks.
- New certification programs allow newer technology and specifications come into the marketplace. These certification programs may be mandatory (e.g., WPA2) or optional (e.g., WMM).
The Wi-Fi Alliance definition of interoperability demands that products have to show satisfactory performance levels in typical network configurations and have to support both established and emerging applications. The Wi-Fi Alliance certification process includes three types of tests to ensure interoperability. Wi-Fi Certified products are tested for:
- Compatibility: certified equipment has been tested for connectivity with other certified equipment. Compatibility testing has always been, and still is, the predominant component of interoperability testing, and it is the element that most people associate with "interoperability". It involves tests with multiple devices from different equipment vendors.
- Conformance: the equipment conforms to specific critical elements of the IEEE 802.11 standard. Conformance testing usually involves standalone analysis of individual products and establishes whether the equipment responds to inputs as expected and specified. For example, conformance testing is used to ensure that Wi-Fi equipment protects itself and the network when the equipment detects evidence of network attacks.
- Performance: the equipment meets the performance levels required. Performance tests are not designed to measure and compare performance among products, but simply to verify that the product meets the minimum performance requirements. Specific performance tests results are not released by the Wi-Fi Alliance.
Certification types Edit
The Wi-Fi Alliance provides certification testing in two levels:
- Core MAC/PHY interoperability over 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n (at least one).
- Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) security, which aligns with IEEE 802.11i. WPA2 is available in two types: WPA2-Personal for consumer use, and WPA2 Enterprise, which adds EAP authentication.
- Tests corresponding to IEEE 802.11h and 802.11d.
- WMM Quality of Service, based upon a subset of IEEE 802.11e.
- WMM Power Save, based upon APSD within IEEE 802.11e
- Wi-Fi Protected Setup, a specification developed by the Alliance to ease the process of setting up and enabling security protections on small office and consumer Wi-Fi networks.
- Application Specific Device (ASD), for wireless devices other than Access Point and Station which has specific application, such as DVD players, projectors, printers, etc.
- Converged Wireless Group–Radio Frequency (CWG-RF, offered in conjunction with CTIA), to provide performance mapping of Wi-Fi and cellular radios in converged devices.
- Passpoint/Hotspot 2.0
Certification programs Edit
There are a number of certification programs by Wi-Fi alliance:
2.4/5/6GHz Wi-Fi Edit
|Wi-Fi 7||802.11be||(2024)||1376 to 46120||2.4/5/6|
|Wi-Fi 6E||802.11ax||2020||574 to 9608||6|
|Wi-Fi 5||802.11ac||2014||433 to 6933||5|
|Wi-Fi 4||802.11n||2008||72 to 600||2.4/5|
|(Wi-Fi 3)*||802.11g||2003||6 to 54||2.4|
|(Wi-Fi 2)*||802.11b||1999||1 to 11||2.4|
|(Wi-Fi 1)*||802.11||1997||1 to 2||2.4|
|*(Wi-Fi 1, 2, and 3 are by retroactive inference) |
The 802.11 protocols are IEEE standards, identified as 802.11b, 11g, 11n, 11ac, etc. In 2018 The Wi-Fi Alliance created the simpler generation labels Wi-Fi 4 - 6 beginning with Wi-Fi 5, retroactively added Wi-Fi 4 and later added Wi-Fi 6 and Wi-Fi 6E. Wi-Fi 5 had Wave 1 and Wave 2 phases. Wi-Fi 6E extends the 2.4/5 GHz range to 6 GHz, where licensed. Listed in historical and capacity order. See the individual 802.11 articles for version details or 802.11 for a composite summary.
WiGig refers to 60 GHz wireless local area network connection. It was initially announced in 2013 by Wireless Gigabit Alliance, and was adopted by the Wi-Fi Alliance in 2013. They started certifying in 2016. The first version of WiGig is IEEE 802.11ad, and a newer version IEEE 802.11ay was released in 2021.
Wi-Fi Direct Edit
In October 2010, the Alliance began to certify Wi-Fi Direct, that allows Wi-Fi-enabled devices to communicate directly with each other by setting up ad-hoc networks, without going through a wireless access point or hotspot. Since 2009 when it was first announced, some suggested Wi-Fi Direct might replace the need for Bluetooth on applications that do not rely on Bluetooth low energy.
IBSS with Wi-Fi Protected Setup Edit
Wi-Fi Passpoint Edit
Wi-Fi Easy Connect Edit
Wi-Fi Protected Setup Edit
Miracast, introduced in 2012, is a standard for wireless display connections from devices such as laptops, tablets, or smartphones. Its goal is to replace cables connecting from the device to the display.
Wi-Fi Aware Edit
Wi-Fi Aware is an interoperability certification program announced in January 2015 that enables device users, when in the range of a particular access point or another compatible device, to receive notifications of applications or services available in the proximity. Later versions of this standard included new features such as the capability to establish a peer-to-peer data connection for file transfer.
Wi-Fi Location Edit
TDLS, or Tunneled Direct Link Setup, is "a seamless way to stream media and other data faster between devices already on the same Wi-Fi network" based on IEEE 802.11z and added to Wi-Fi Alliance certification program in 2012. Devices using it communicate directly with one another, without involving the wireless network's router.
Wi-Fi Agile Multiband Edit
The certification of Wi-Fi Agile Multiband indicate devices can automatically connect and maintain connection in the most suitable way. It covers the IEEE 802.11k standard about access point information report, the IEEE 802.11v standard that enable exchanging information about state of network, IEEE 802.11u standard about additional information of a Wi-Fi network, IEEE 802.11r about fast transition roaming between different access points, as well as other technologies specified by Wi-Fi alliance.
Wi-Fi EasyMesh Edit
Wi-Fi EasyMesh is a certification program based on its Multi-Access Point specification for creating Wi-Fi meshes from products by different vendors, based on IEEE 1905.1. It is intended to address the problem of Wi-Fi systems that need to cover large areas where several routers serve as multiple access points, working together to form a larger/extended and unified network.
Wi-Fi Vantage Edit
Formerly known as Carrier Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi Vantage is a certification program for operators to maintain and manage quality Wi-Fi connections in high usage environment. It includes a number of certification, such as Wi-Fi certified ac (as in 802.11ac), Passpoint, Agile Multiband, and Optimized Connectivity.
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) or known as Wireless Multimedia Extensions is a Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability certification based on the IEEE 802.11e standard. It provides basic quality of service (QoS) features to IEEE 802.11 networks.
Wi-Fi Home Design Edit
Wi-Fi Home Design is a set of guidelines released by Wi-Fi alliance for inclusion of wireless network in home design.
Wi-Fi HaLow Edit
- "Governing Documents". Wi-Fi.org. Wi-Fi Alliance. Archived from the original on August 12, 2021. Retrieved August 29, 2021.
- Littman, Marlyn Kemper (2002). Building Broadband Networks. CRC Press. pp. 406–407. ISBN 9781420000016. Archived from the original on October 7, 2022. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
- Wireless Access 2000. Information Gatekeepers. 2002. p. 111. ISBN 9781420000016. Archived from the original on October 7, 2022. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
- "Wi-Fi Alliance: Organization". Archived from the original on September 3, 2009. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
- Cox, John (May 28, 2001). "Effort afoot to provide wireless LAN roaming". Network World. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
- Griffith, Eric (October 2, 2002). "WECA becomes Wi-Fi Alliance". Internet News. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
- "An overview of Wi-Fi Alliance certification" (PDF). SenzafiliConsulting.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "Insist on Wi-Fi Certified". Wi-Fi.org. Wi-Fi Alliance. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- "WPA2 – Featured Topics from Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-fi.org. Archived from the original on February 13, 2008. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "WMM – Article from Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-fi.org. Archived from the original on February 18, 2008. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "Power save – Article from Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-Fi.org. Archived from the original on February 6, 2008. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "WPS – Article from Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-Fi.org. Archived from the original on October 7, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Passpoint | Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-fi.org. Archived from the original on June 11, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "Programs". Wi-Fi.org. Wi-Fi Alliance. Retrieved March 17, 2023.
- "MCS table (updated with 80211ax data rates)". semfionetworks.com.
- Wi-Fi 6E is the industry name that identifies Wi-Fi devices that operate in 6 GHz. Wi-Fi 6E offers the features and capabilities of Wi-Fi 6 extended into the 6 GHz band.
- 802.11ac only specifies operation in the 5 GHz band. Operation in the 2.4 GHz band is specified by 802.11n.
- "Discover Wi-Fi". Wi-Fi Alliance. Retrieved August 10, 2023.
- Kastrenakes, Jacob (October 3, 2018). "Wi-Fi Now Has Version Numbers, and Wi-Fi 6 Comes Out Next Year". The Verge. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
- "Wi-Fi Generation Numbering". ElectronicNotes. Retrieved November 10, 2021.
- Phillips, Gavin (January 18, 2021). "The Most Common Wi-Fi Standards and Types, Explained". MUO - Make Use Of. Archived from the original on November 11, 2021. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
- "Wi-Fi Generation Numbering". ElectronicsNotes. Archived from the original on November 11, 2021. Retrieved November 10, 2021.
- "Wi-Fi Certified 6". Wi-Fi.org. Wi-Fi Alliance. Archived from the original on April 15, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
- Kastrenakes, Jacob (October 3, 2018). "Wi-Fi now has version numbers, and Wi-Fi 6 comes out next year". The Verge. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
- "Wi-Fi Alliance Brings Wi-Fi 6 into 6 GHz". Wi-Fi Alliance. January 3, 2020. Archived from the original on January 30, 2021. Retrieved November 11, 2021.
- "What Is WiGig, and How Is It Different from Wi-Fi 6?". HowToGeek.com. October 21, 2018. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED WiGig™ brings multi-gigabit performance to Wi-Fi devices". MarketWired.com. October 24, 2016. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- "Status of Project IEEE 802.11ay". Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. February 2, 2021. Archived from the original on January 19, 2022. Retrieved January 9, 2022.
- "Wi-Fi gets personal: Groundbreaking Wi-Fi Direct launches today". Press release. WiFi Alliance. October 25, 2010. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
- "Wi-Fi Direct: what it is and why you should care". TechRadar. Archived from the original on August 2, 2018. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Bradley, Tony (October 15, 2009). "Wi-Fi Direct could be death of Bluetooth". PC World. Archived from the original on November 14, 2013. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
- Kharif, Olga (October 14, 2009). "Wi-Fi Is About to Get a Whole Lot Easier". Bloomberg Business Week. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
- Bennett, Amy (April 2, 2003). "Overview of WPA from Wi-Fi Alliance". ITWorld.com. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- "Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking: Wi-Fi Certified IBSS with Wi-Fi Protected Setup (2012)". Wi-Fi.org. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- Thornycroft, Peter (April 24, 2017). "Using Passpoint for private Wi-Fi networks". NetworkWorld.com. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- "Wi-Fi Alliance introduces WPA3 and Wi-Fi Easy Connect". VentureBeat.com. June 25, 2018. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- Herrmann, Patrick (February 17, 2014). "On Wifi-Display, Democratic Republics and Miracles". Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- "Wi-Fi Aware | Wi-Fi Alliance". Wi-fi.org. Archived from the original on April 29, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "Wi-Fi Aware Aims to Connect All Your Devices Instantly". TechCrunch. July 14, 2015. Archived from the original on March 29, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- Alliance, Wi-Fi. "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Wi-Fi Aware™ enhances the Wi-Fi® mobile experience". GlobeNewswire News Room. Archived from the original on August 2, 2018. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- "Wi-Fi Alliance ushers in new era of intrusive apps". Theregister.co.uk. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- Alliance introduces certification for better indoor positioning
- Spradlin, Liam (October 31, 2013). "KitKat Feature Spotlight: Wi-Fi TDLS Support Allows for Faster Direct Data Transfer on a Wi-Fi Network without Slowing Other Devices". Android Police. Archived from the original on February 14, 2019. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- "Wi-Fi EasyMesh". Wi-Fi.org. Wi-Fi Alliance. Archived from the original on May 17, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
- "Wi-Fi EasyMesh". Wi-Fi.org. Wi-Fi Alliance. Archived from the original on July 4, 2018. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Hoffman, Chris (May 16, 2018). "What Is the New EasyMesh Wi-Fi Standard? (and Why It Doesn't Matter Yet)". How to Geek. Archived from the original on August 2, 2018. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- "Wi-Fi Certified EasyMesh Delivers Intelligent Wi-Fi Networks". Wi-Fi.org. Wi-Fi Alliance. Archived from the original on August 2, 2018. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- "Carrier Wi-Fi Is Now Wi-Fi Certified Vantage". CableLabs.com. December 7, 2016. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- "Wi-Fi Alliance Levels Up With Vantage 2.0". LightReading.com. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- "New houses will have Alexa and Wi-Fi built into the walls". Mashable. June 14, 2017. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- "CONNECTIVITY Top wireless standards for IoT devices". Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.