Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. (//; Chinese: 华为; pinyin: Huáwéi) is a Chinese multinational technology company that provides telecommunications equipment and sells consumer electronics, including smartphones and is headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong province.
Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen, Guangdong
|Liang Hua (chairman)|
Ren Zhengfei (founder & CEO)
Meng Wanzhou (CFO)
|Products||Mobile and fixed broadband networks |
consultancy and managed services
|Revenue||CN¥721.202 billion US$105.191 billion (2018)|
|CN¥73.287 billion US$10.689 billion (2018)|
|CN¥59.345 billion US$8.656 billion (2018)|
|Total assets||CN¥665.792 billion US$97.109 billion (2018)|
|Total equity||CN¥233.065 billion US$33.994 billion (2018)|
Number of employees
|Parent||Huawei Investment & Holding|
|Footnotes / references|
The company was founded in 1987 by Ren Zhengfei. Initially focused on manufacturing phone switches, Huawei has expanded its business to include building telecommunications networks, providing operational and consulting services and equipment to enterprises inside and outside of China, and manufacturing communications devices for the consumer market. Huawei had over 188,000 employees as of September 2018[update], around 76,000 of them engaged in Research & Development (R&D). It has 21 R&D institutes around the world, and in April 2019, opened the dedicated Ox Horn Campus in Dongguan. As of 2017[update], the company invested US$13.8 billion in R&D.
Huawei has deployed its products and services in more than 170 countries, and as of 2011[update] it served 45 of the 50 largest telecom operators.[need quotation to verify] Its networks, numbering over 1,500, reach one third of the world's population. Huawei overtook Ericsson in 2012 as the largest telecommunications-equipment manufacturer in the world, and overtook Apple in 2018 as the second-largest manufacturer of smartphones in the world, behind Samsung Electronics. It ranks 72nd on the Fortune Global 500 list. In December 2018, Huawei reported that its annual revenue had risen to US$108.5 billion in 2018 (a 21% increase over 2017).
Although successful internationally, Huawei has faced difficulties in some markets, due to cybersecurity allegations—primarily from the United States government—that Huawei's infrastructure equipment may enable surveillance by the Chinese government. Especially with the development of 5G wireless networks (which China has aggressively promoted), there have been calls from the U.S. to prevent the use of products by Huawei or fellow Chinese telecom ZTE by the U.S. or its allies. Huawei has argued that its products posed "no greater cybersecurity risk" than those of any other vendor and that there is no evidence of the U.S. espionage claims. Nonetheless, Huawei pulled out of the U.S. consumer market in 2018, after these concerns affected the ability to market their consumer products there.
U.S. measures intensified in May 2019; in the midst of an ongoing trade war between China and the United States, Huawei was restricted from doing commerce with U.S. companies due to alleged previous willful violations of U.S. sanctions against Iran. On 29 June 2019, U.S. President Donald Trump reached an agreement to resume trade talks with China and announced that he would ease the aforementioned sanctions on Huawei.
"Huawei" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
|Literal meaning||Huaxia does|
|Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.|
The name Huawei literally translates to "China doing"; Hua is a shortened form of Huaxia, a poetic name for China, while wei means "do, make". In Chinese pinyin, it is Huáwéi, and pronounced [xwǎwéi] in Mandarin Chinese; in Cantonese, the name is transliterated with Jyutping as Waa4-wai4 and pronounced [wȁːwɐ̏i]. However, pronunciation of Huawei by non-Chinese varies in other countries, for example "Hoe-ah-wei" in the Netherlands. The company had considered changing the name in English as it was concerned that non-Chinese may find the name hard to pronounce, but decided to keep the name, and launched a name recognition campaign instead to encourage a pronunciation closer to "Wah-Way" using the words "Wow Way".
During the 1980s, the Chinese government tried to modernize the country's underdeveloped telecommunications infrastructure. A core component of the telecommunications network was telephone exchange switches, and in the late 1980s, several Chinese research groups endeavored to acquire and develop the technology, usually through joint ventures with foreign companies.
Ren Zhengfei, a former deputy director of the People's Liberation Army engineering corps, founded Huawei in 1987 in Shenzhen. The company reports that it had RMB 21,000 in registered capital at the time of its founding.
Ren sought to reverse engineer foreign technologies with local researchers. At a time when all of China's telecommunications technology was imported from abroad, Ren hoped to build a domestic Chinese telecommunication company that could compete with, and ultimately replace, foreign competitors.
During its first several years the company's business model consisted mainly of reselling private branch exchange (PBX) switches imported from Hong Kong. Meanwhile, it was reverse-engineering imported switches and investing heavily in research and development to manufacture its own technologies. By 1990 the company had approximately 600 R&D staff and began its own independent commercialization of PBX switches targeting hotels and small enterprises.
The company's first major breakthrough came in 1993 when it launched its C&C08 program controlled telephone switch. It was by far the most powerful switch available in China at the time. By initially deploying in small cities and rural areas and placing emphasis on service and customizability, the company gained market share and made its way into the mainstream market.
Huawei also won a key contract to build the first national telecommunications network for the People's Liberation Army, a deal one employee described as "small in terms of our overall business, but large in terms of our relationships". In 1994, founder Ren Zhengfei had a meeting with Party general secretary Jiang Zemin, telling him that "switching equipment technology was related to national security, and that a nation that did not have its own switching equipment was like one that lacked its own military." Jiang reportedly agreed with this assessment.
Another major turning point for the company came in 1996 when the government in Beijing adopted an explicit policy of supporting domestic telecommunications manufacturers and restricting access to foreign competitors. Huawei was promoted by both the government and the military as a national champion, and established new research and development offices.
In 1997, Huawei won a contract to provide fixed-line network products to Hong Kong company Hutchison Whampoa. Later that year, Huawei launched its wireless GSM-based products and eventually expanded to offer CDMA and UMTS. In 1999, the company opened a research and development (R&D) center in Bangalore, India to develop a wide range of telecom software.
In May 2003, Huawei partnered with 3Com on a joint venture known as H3C, which was focused on enterprise networking equipment. It marked 3Com's re-entrance into the high-end core routers and switch market, after having abandoned it in 2000 to focus on other businesses. 3Com bought out Huawei's share of the venture in 2006 for US$882 million.
In 2005, Huawei's foreign contract orders exceeded its domestic sales for the first time. Huawei signed a Global Framework Agreement with Vodafone. This agreement marked the first time a telecommunications equipment supplier from China had received Approved Supplier status from Vodafone Global Supply Chain. [non-primary source needed] Huawei also signed a contract with British Telecom (BT) for the deployment of its multi-service access network (MSAN) and Transmission equipment for BT's 21st Century Network (21CN).
In 2007, Huawei began a joint venture with U.S. security software vendor Symantec Corporation, known as Huawei Symantec, which aimed to provide end-to-end solutions for network data storage and security. Huawei bought out Symantec's share in the venture in 2012, with The New York Times noting that Symantec had fears that the partnership "would prevent it from obtaining United States government classified information about cyberthreats".
In May 2008, Australian carrier Optus announced that it would establish a technology research facility with Huawei in Sydney. In October 2008, Huawei reached an agreement to contribute to a new GSM-based HSPA+ network being deployed jointly by Canadian carriers Bell Mobility and Telus Mobility, joined by Nokia Siemens Networks. Huawei delivered one of the world's first LTE/EPC commercial networks for TeliaSonera in Oslo, Norway in 2009.
In July 2010, Huawei was included in the Global Fortune 500 2010 list published by the U.S. magazine Fortune for the first time, on the strength of annual sales of US$21.8 billion and net profit of US$2.67 billion. 
In September 2017, Huawei created a NarrowBand IOT city-aware network using a "one network, one platform, N applications" construction model utilising IoT, cloud computing, big data, and other next-generation information and communications technology, it also aims to be one of the world's five largest cloud players in the near future.
As of the end of 2018, Huawei sold 200 million smartphones. They reported that strong consumer demand for premium range smart phones helped the company reach consumer sales in excess of $52 billion in 2018.
Huawei has been at the centre of espionage allegations over Chinese 5G network equipment. In 2018, the United States passed a defense funding bill that contained a passage barring the federal government from doing business with Huawei, ZTE, and several Chinese vendors of surveillance products, due to security concerns.
On 1 December 2018, Huawei vice-chairwoman and CFO Meng Wanzhou, daughter of company founder Ren Zhengfei, was arrested in Canada at the request of U.S. authorities. She faced extradition to the United States on charges of violating sanctions against Iran. On 22 August 2018 an arrest warrant was issued by the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York. Meng was charged with "conspiracy to defraud multiple international institutions", according to the prosecutor. The warrant was based on allegations of a conspiracy to defraud banks which were clearing money that was claimed to be for Huawei, but was actually for Skycom, an entity claimed to be entirely controlled by Huawei, which was said to be dealing in Iran, contrary to sanctions. None of the allegations have been proven in court. On 11 December 2018, Meng was released on bail.
On 28 January 2019, U.S. federal prosecutors formally indicted Meng and Huawei with thirteen counts of bank and wire fraud (in order to mask sale of U.S. technology in Iran that is illegal under sanctions), obstruction of justice, and misappropriating trade secrets. The Department also filed a formal extradition request for Meng with Canadian authorities that same day. Huawei responded to the charges and said that it "denies that it or its subsidiary or affiliate have committed any of the asserted violations", as well as asserted Meng was similarly innocent. The China Ministry of Industry and Information Technology believed the charges brought on by the United States were "unfair".
U.S. business restrictionsEdit
In August 2018, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (NDAA 2019) was signed into law, containing a provision that banned Huawei and ZTE equipment from being used by the U.S. federal government, citing security concerns. Huawei filed a lawsuit over the act in March 2019, alleging it to be unconstitutional because it specifically targeted Huawei without granting it a chance to provide a rebuttal or due process.
On 15 May 2019, the Department of Commerce added Huawei and 70 foreign subsidiaries and "affiliates" to its entity list under the Export Administration Regulations, citing the company having been indicted for "knowingly and willfully causing the export, re-export, sale and supply, directly and indirectly, of goods, technology and services (banking and other financial services) from the United States to Iran and the government of Iran without obtaining a license from the Department of Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)". This restricts U.S. companies from doing business with Huawei without a government license.
Various U.S.-based companies immediately froze their business with Huawei to comply with the regulation, including Google—which removes its ability to certify future devices and updates for the Android operating system with licensed Google Mobile Services (GMS) such as Google Play Store, as well as Broadcom, Intel, Qualcomm, Microsoft, Xilinx and Western Digital. The German chipmaker Infineon Technologies also voluntarily suspended its business with Huawei, pending "assessments". It was reported that Huawei did have a limited "stockpile" of U.S.-sourced parts, obtained prior to the sanctions.
On 17 May 2019, Huawei voluntarily suspended its membership to JEDEC, as a temporary measure, "until the restrictions imposed by the U.S. government are removed". Speaking to Chinese media, Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei accused U.S. politicians of underestimating the company's strength, and explained that "in terms of 5G technologies, others won't be able to catch up with Huawei in two or three years. We have sacrificed ourselves and our families for our ideal, to stand on top of the world. To reach this ideal, sooner or later there will be conflict with the US."
Kevin Wolf, an international trade lawyer and former assistant secretary of commerce for export administration during the Obama administration, argued that Huawei could not even use the open source Android Open Source Project (AOSP) code, as it could fall under U.S. trade regulations as technology of U.S. origin because Google is the majority developer. In China, it is normal for Android phones (including those of Huawei) to not include Google Play Store or GMS, as Google does not do business in the region. Phones are typically bundled with an AOSP-based distribution built around an OEM's own software suite, including either a first-party app store run by the OEM (such as Huawei's own AppGallery) or a third-party service.
Google issued a statement assuring that user access to Google Play on existing Huawei devices would not be disrupted. Huawei made a similar pledge of continued support for existing devices, including security patches, but did not make any statements regarding the availability of future Android versions (such as the upcoming Android 10, previously called Android Q). On 19 May 2019, the Department of Commerce granted Huawei a temporary, three-month license to continue doing business with U.S. companies for the purposes of maintaining its existing smartphone and telecom products without interruption, whilst long-term solutions are determined.
On 22 May 2019, Arm Holdings also suspended its business with Huawei, including all "active contracts, support entitlements, and any pending engagements". Although it is a Japanese-owned company based in the UK, Arm cited that its intellectual property contained technologies of U.S. origin that it believed were covered under the Department of Commerce order. This prevents Huawei from manufacturing chips that use the ARM architecture. It was also reported that several Asian wireless carriers, including Japan's SoftBank and KDDI, and Taiwan's Chunghwa Telecom and Taiwan Mobile, had suspended the sale of upcoming Huawei devices such as the P30 Lite, citing uncertainties over the effects of the U.S. sanctions on the availability of the Android platform. NTT docomo similarly suspended pre-orders of new Huawei phones, without citing any reasoning.
On 23 May 2019, it was reported that the SD Association had removed Huawei from its list of members—implicating a revocation of its membership to the association. The same day, Toshiba briefly suspended all shipments to Huawei, as a temporary measure while determining whether or not they were selling U.S. made components or technologies to Huawei. Panasonic also stated that it had determined its business relationship to be in compliance with U.S. law, and would not suspend it. The next day, the Wi-Fi Alliance also "temporarily restricted" Huawei's membership.
On 24 May 2019, Huawei told Reuters that FedEx attempted to divert two packages sent from Japan and addressed to Huawei in China to the United States, and tried to divert two more packages sent from Vietnam to Huawei offices elsewhere in Asia, all without their authorization. At first, FedEx China claimed that "media reports are not true". On May 28, however, they apologized on their Chinese social media account for the fact that "a small number of Huawei shipments were misrouted", and claimed that "there are no external parties that require FedEx to ship these shipments" .
On 29 May 2019, it was reported that Huawei was once again listed as member of JEDEC, the SD Association, and Wi-Fi Alliance. In addition, while the science organization IEEE had initially banned Huawei employees from peer-reviewing papers or handling papers as editors on May 30th 2019, citing legal concerns, that ban was also revoked on June 3rd 2019.
On 29 June 2019 at the G20 summit, Trump and Chinese president and general secretary Xi Jinping agreed to resume trade negotiations. Trump made statements implicating plans to ease the restrictions on U.S. companies doing business with Huawei, explaining that they had sold a "tremendous amount of products" to the company, that they "were not exactly happy that they couldn't sell", and that he was referring to "equipment where there's no great national security problem with it." BBC News considered this move to be a "significant concession".
Replacement operating systemsEdit
During the sanctions, it was noted that Huawei had been working on its own in-house operating system codenamed "HongMeng OS": in an interview with Die Welt, executive Richard Yu stated that an in-house OS could be used as a "plan B" if it were prevented from using Android or Windows as the result of U.S. action, but that he would "prefer to work with the ecosystems of Google and Microsoft". Efforts to develop an in-house OS at Huawei date back as far as 2012. Huawei filed trademarks for the names "Ark", "Ark OS", and "Harmony" in Europe, which were speculated to be connected to this OS.
In June 2019, Huawei communications VP Andrew Williamson told Reuters that the company was testing HongMeng in China, and that it could be ready "in months". However, in July 2019, chairman Liang Hua and senior vice president Catherine Chen stated that Hongmeng OS was not actually intended as a mobile operating system for smartphones, and was actually an embedded operating system designed for Internet of things (IoT) hardware.
Huawei classifies itself as a "collective" entity and prior to 2019 did not refer to itself as a private company. Richard McGregor, author of The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers, said that this is "a definitional distinction that has been essential to the company's receipt of state support at crucial points in its development". McGregor argued that "Huawei's status as a genuine collective is doubtful." Huawei's position has shifted in 2019 when, Dr. Song Liuping, Huawei's chief legal officer, commented on the US government ban, said: "Politicians in the US are using the strength of an entire nation to come after a private company." (emphasis added).
Board of DirectorsEdit
Huawei disclosed its list of board of directors for the first time in 2010. Liang Hua is the current chair of the board. As of 2019[update], the members of the board are Liang Hua, Guo Ping, Xu Zhijun, Hu Houkun, Meng Wanzhou (CFO and deputy chairwoman, currently out on bail in Vancouver, after being arrested there on December 1 2018, after an extradition request of US authorities on suspicion of Iran sanctions evasion), Ding Yun, Yu Chengdong, Wang Tao, Xu Wenwei, Chen Lifang, Peng Zhongyang, He Tingbo, Li Yingtao, Ren Zhengfei, Yao Fuhai, Tao Jingwen, and Yan Lida.
Guo Ping is the Chairman of Huawei Device, Huawei's mobile phone division. Huawei’s Chief Ethics & Compliance Officer is Zhou Daiqi who is also Huawei’s communist party committee secretary. Their Chief legal officer is Song Liuping.
Huawei maintains it is an employee-owned company. Ren Zhengfei retains approximately 1 percent of the shares of Huawei's holding company, Huawei Investment & Holding, with the remainder of the shares held by a trade union committee (not a trade union per se, and the internal governance procedures of this committee, its members, its leaders or how they are selected all remain unknown) that is claimed to be representative of Huawei's employee shareholders. The company's trade union committee is registered with and pay dues to the Shenzhen federation of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions. This is also due to a limitation in Chinese law preventing limited liability companies from having more than 50 shareholders. About half of Huawei staff participate in this scheme (foreign employees are not eligible), and hold what the company calls "virtual restricted shares". These shares are nontradable and are allocated to reward performance. When employees leave Huawei, their shares revert to the company, which compensates them for their holding. Although employee shareholders receive dividends, their shares do not entitle them to any direct influence in management decisions, but enables them to vote for members of the 115-person Representatives’ Commission from a preselected list of candidates. The Representatives’ Commission selects Huawei Holding's Board of Directors and Board of Supervisors. Scholars have found that, after a few stages of historical morphing, employees do not own a part of Huawei through their “shares”. Instead, the “virtual stock is a contract right, not a property right; it gives the holder no voting power in either Huawei Tech or Huawei Holding, cannot be transferred, and is cancelled when the employee leaves the firm, subject to a redemption payment from Huawei Holding TUC at a low fixed price”.
There is a debate about whether or not the trade union committee structure is enabling the government of the People's Republic of China to influence Huawei. Chinese company trade unions report to more senior trade union organizations, and they in turn report to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, which is controlled by the Communist Party of China. Therefore, academics have considered Huawei to be owned and controlled by the Chinese government. It has also been argued that Huawei is not as much a state owned enterprise as a party owned enterprise.
Partners and customersEdit
Prominent partners include:
- Bell Canada
- Cox Communications
- Globe Telecom
- Portugal Telecom
Leica and HuaweiEdit
Since 2016, German camera company Leica has established a partnership with Huawei, and Leica cameras will be co-engineered into Huawei smartphones, including the P and Mate Series. The first smartphone to be co-engineered with a Leica camera was the Huawei P9.
Products and servicesEdit
Huawei is organized around three core business segments:
- Telecom Carrier Networks, building telecommunications networks and services
- Enterprise Business, providing equipment, software and services to enterprise customers, e.g. Government Solutions - see Huawei 4G eLTE
- Devices, manufacturing electronic communications devices
Huawei announced its Enterprise business in January 2011 to provide network infrastructure, fixed and wireless communication, data center, and cloud computing solutions[buzzword] for global telecommunications customers.
Huawei's core network solutions[buzzword] offer mobile and fixed softswitches, plus next-generation home location register and Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystems (IMS). Huawei sells xDSL, passive optical network (PON) and next-generation PON (NG PON) on a single platform. The company also offers mobile infrastructure, broadband access and service provider routers and switches (SPRS). Huawei's software products include service delivery platforms (SDPs), BSSs, Rich Communication Suite and digital home and mobile office solutions[buzzword].
Huawei Global Services provides telecommunications operators with equipment to build and operate networks as well as consulting and engineering services to improve operational efficiencies. These include network integration services such as those for mobile and fixed networks; assurance services such as network safety; and learning services, such as competency consulting.
Huawei's Devices division provides white-label products to content-service providers, including USB modems, wireless modems and wireless routers for mobile Wi-Fi, embedded modules, fixed wireless terminals, wireless gateways, set-top boxes, mobile handsets and video products. Huawei also produces and sells a variety of devices under its own name, such as the IDEOS smartphones, tablet PCs and Huawei Smartwatch.
Huawei Honor 6
History of Huawei phonesEdit
In July 2003, Huawei established their handset department and by 2004, Huawei shipped their first phone, the C300. The U626 was Huawei's first 3G phone in June 2005 and in 2006, Huawei launched the first Vodafone-branded 3G handset, the V710. The U8220 was Huawei's first Android smartphone and was unveiled in MWC 2009. At CES 2012, Huawei introduced the Ascend range starting with the Ascend P1 S. At MWC 2012, Huawei launched the Ascend D1. In September 2012, Huawei launched their first 4G ready phone, the Ascend P1 LTE. At CES 2013, Huawei launched the Ascend D2 and the Ascend Mate. At MWC 2013, the Ascend P2 was launched as the world's first LTE Cat4 smartphone. In June 2013, Huawei launched the Ascend P6 and in December 2013, Huawei introduced Honor as a subsidiary independent brand in China. At CES 2014, Huawei launched the Ascend Mate2 4G in 2014 and at MWC 2014, Huawei launched the MediaPad X1 tablet and Ascend G6 4G smartphone. Other launched in 2014 included the Ascend P7 in May 2014, the Ascend Mate7, the Ascend G7 and the Ascend P7 Sapphire Edition as China's first 4G smartphone with a sapphire screen.
In January 2015, Huawei discontinued the "Ascend" brand for its flagship phones, and launched the new P series with the Huawei P8. Huawei also partnered with Google to build the Nexus 6P in 2015.
EMUI (Emotion User Interface)Edit
Emotion UI (EMUI) is a ROM/OS developed by Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. and based on Google's Android Open Source Project (AOSP). EMUI is pre-installed on most Huawei Smartphone devices and its subsidiaries the Honor series.
Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. is the world's largest telecom equipment maker and China's largest telephone-network equipment maker. With 3,442 patents, Huawei became the world's No. 1 applicant for international patents in 2014.
It has 21 R&D institutes in countries including China, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, Finland, France, Belgium, Germany, Colombia, Sweden, Ireland, India, Russia, Israel, and Turkey.
Huawei is considering opening a new research and development (R&D) center in Russia (2019/2020), which would be the third in the country after the Moscow and St. Petersburg R&D centers. Huawei also announced plans (November 2018) to open an R&D center in the French city of Grenoble, which would be mainly focused on smartphone sensors and parallel computing software development. The new R&D team in Grenoble was expected to grow to 30 researchers by 2020, said the company. The company said that this new addition brought to five the number of its R&D teams in the country: two were located in Sophia Antipolis and Paris, researching image processing and design, while the other two existing teams were based at Huawei's facilities in Boulogne-Billancourt, working on algorithms and mobile and 5G standards. The technology giant also intended to open two new research centers in Zürich and Lausanne, Switzerland. Huawei at the time employed around 350 people in Switzerland.
Huawei has faced criticism for various aspects of its operations, with its most prominent controversies having involved U.S. allegations of its products containing backdoors for Chinese government espionage—consistent with domestic laws requiring Chinese citizens and companies to cooperate with state intelligence when warranted. Huawei executives have consistently denied these allegations, having stated that the company has never received any requests by the Chinese government to introduce backdoors in its equipment, would refuse to do so, and that Chinese law did not compel them to do so.
Huawei has also been accused of various instances of intellectual property theft against parties such as Nortel, Cisco Systems, and T-Mobile US (where a Huawei employee had photographed a robotic arm used to stress-test smartphones and taken a fingertip from the robot).
- Zhong, Raymond (25 April 2019). "Who Owns Huawei? The Company Tried to Explain. It Got Complicated". The New York Times.
- "Huawei 2018 Annual Report" (PDF). huawei. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
- "A rare look insider Huawei, China's tech giant". CNN. 21 May 2019. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Ahrens, Nathaniel (February 2013). "China's Competitiveness Myth, Reality, and Lessons for the United States and Japan. Case Study: Huawei" (PDF). Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- Shukla, Anuradha (18 April 2011). "Huawei maintained steady growth in 2010". Computerworld. IDG Communications. Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- "Huawei 2010 Profit Gains 30% on Higher International Sales". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. 17 April 2011. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "2010 Corporate Social Responsibility Report" (PDF). Huawei.com. Huawei. 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Huawei has opened its R&D center in Istanbul on 27 February 2010". Huawei.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- "Huawei – Invest in Turkey". Invest.gov.tr. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "华为："执牛角"而战". Tencent News. 18 June 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- "Huawei to focus more on smartphone business". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Huawei Dwarfs Ericsson, Nokia on R&D Spend in 2017". Light Reading. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- Vance, Ashlee; Einhorn, Bruce (15 September 2011). "At Huawei, Matt Bross Tries to Ease U.S. Security Fears". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "How to handle Huawei". The Economist. 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 7 March 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Who's afraid of Huawei?". The Economist. 3 August 2012. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
Huawei has just overtaken Sweden's Ericsson to become the world's largest telecoms-equipment-maker.
- Gibbs, Samuel (1 August 2018). "Huawei beats Apple to become second-largest smartphone maker". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- "Huawei Investment & Holding". Fortune. Archived from the original on 12 January 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- Networking, Steve McCaskill 2019-01-03T10:59:00Z. "Huawei expects 'eventful' 2018 to deliver $108.5bn in revenue". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- McCaskill, Steve (28 February 2019). "Huawei: US has no evidence for security claims". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "任正非：华为名源自中华有为 我们要教外国人怎么念_科技频道_凤凰网". tech.ifeng.com. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "华为". MDBG.
- Segers, Rien (29 January 2016). Multinational Management: A Casebook on Asia's Global Market Leaders. Springer. p. 87. ISBN 9783319230122.
- Thomson, Ainsley (4 September 2013). "Huawei Mulled Changing Its Name as Foreigners Found it Too Hard". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- "Wow Way or Huawei? A readable Chinese brand is the first key in unlocking America's market". South China Morning Post. 10 January 2018. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- Miller, Matthew (10 January 2018). "Huawei launches unlocked Mate 10 Pro in US, backed by Wonder Woman". ZD Net. Archived from the original on 5 March 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- Peilei Fan, "Catching Up through Developing Innovation Capacity: Evidence from China's Telecom Equipment Industry," Technovation 26 (2006): 359–368
- "Milestones". Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Archived from the original on 9 July 2016.
- Christine Chang; Amy Cheng; Susan Kim; Johanna Kuhn Osius; Jesus Reyes; Daniel Turgel (2009). "Huawei Technologies: A Chinese Trail Blazer In Africa". Business Today. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- Gilley, Bruce (28 December 2000). "Huawei's Fixed Line to Beijing". Far Eastern Economic Review: 94–98.
- Kehoe, John. "How Chinese hacking felled telecommunication giant Nortel". afr.com. Australian Financial Review. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- Smith, Jim. "Did Outsourcing and Corporate Espionage Kill Nortel?". assemblymag.com. Assembly Magazine. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- Hochmuth, Phil (29 November 2006). "3Com buys out Huawei joint venture for $882 million". Network World. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- "3Com exits enterprise network stage". ITworld. 26 March 2001. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- "Huawei Becomes an Approved Supplier for Vodafone's Global Supply Chain". Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 20 November 2005. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- Perlroth, Nicole; Markoff, John (26 March 2012). "Symantec Dissolves Alliance with Huawei of China". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Marcus Browne (20 May 2008). "Optus opens up mobile research shop with Huawei". ZDNet Australia. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- "Bell teams up with rival Telus on 3G". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- "397. Huawei Technologies". Fortune. 26 July 2010. Archived from the original on 28 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- "Huawei Financial Results". Huawei. 31 December 2014. Archived from the original on 3 August 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Reading move for Chinese communication giant / Reading Chronicle / News / Roundup". Readingchronicle.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Bridgwater, Adrian. "Huawei CEO Ambitions: We Will Be One Of Five Major 'World Clouds'". Forbes. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- "Huawei Creates the 'Nervous System' of Smart Cities and Launches IoT City Demo Based on NB-IoT with Weifang". AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- "YB Dr Ong Kian Ming Deputy Minister of International Trade and Industry visits Huawei Malaysia Global Training Centre". Huawei. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- "Huawei Hits 200 Million Smartphone Sales in 2018". AnandTech. 25 December 2018. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "China's Huawei eyes smartphone supremacy this year after record 2018 sales". Reuters. 25 January 2018. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- "Financial Highlights - About Huawei". huawei. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- Cherrayil, Naushad K.; phones, Mike Moore 2019-04-23T09:50:43Z Mobile. "Huawei revenue soars despite US allegations and restrictions". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
- "Senate rejects Trump's plan to lift ZTE export ban". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- "China Contributing $500 Million to Trump-Linked Project in Indonesia". National Review. 14 May 2018. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- "New law bans US gov't from buying tech from Chinese giants ZTE and Huawei". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- Zhong, Raymond (7 December 2018). "Meng Wanzhou Was Huawei's Professional Face, Until Her Arrest". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Rappeport, Alan (5 December 2018). "A Top Huawei Executive Is Arrested in Canada for Extradition to the U.S." The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- "US case against Huawei CFO revealed in Canadian court". CNN. 7 December 2018. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "US case against Huawei CFO revealed in Canadian court". CBC News. 7 December 2018. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Chinese state media says U.S. trying to 'stifle' Huawei with arrest". Bloomberg News. 7 December 2018. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- Horowitz, Julia; Moya, Alberto; McLean, Scott (12 December 2018). "Facing extradition to the US, Huawei's CFO is released on bail in Canada". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
- "US files charges against China's Huawei and CFO Meng Wanzhou". BBC News. 28 January 2019. Archived from the original on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Lee, Timothy B. (29 January 2019). "US indicts Huawei for stealing T-Mobile robot arm, selling US tech to Iran". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- Maresca, Thomas (29 January 2019). "China calls on US to end 'unreasonable crackdown' on Huawei, other Chinese firms". USA Today. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- Kastrenakes, Jacob (13 August 2018). "Trump signs bill banning government use of Huawei and ZTE tech". The Verge. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- Mozur, Paul; Ramzy, Austin (6 March 2019). "Huawei Sues U.S. Government Over What It Calls an Unfair Ban". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- Lecher, Colin (29 May 2019). "Huawei is challenging its US contracting ban as unconstitutional". The Verge. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- "Addition of Entities to the Entity List". Federal Register. 21 May 2019. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- Webster, Graham (18 May 2019). "It's not just Huawei. Trump's new tech sector order could ripple through global supply chains". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
- "Tech stocks slide on US decision to blacklist Huawei and 70 affiliates". TechCrunch. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- Kuo, Lily; Siddiqui, Sabrina (16 May 2019). "Huawei hits back over Trump's national emergency on telecoms 'threat'". The Guardian. Washington. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- "US places China's Huawei and 70 affiliates on trade blacklist". South China Morning Post. 16 May 2019. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Satariano, Adam; Zhong, Raymond; Wakabayashi, Daisuke (20 May 2019). "U.S. Tech Suppliers, Including Google, Restrict Dealings With Huawei After Trump Order". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- Amadeo, Ron (20 May 2019). "Google reportedly ends business with Huawei, will cut it off from Play Store [Updated]". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- Sottek, T. C. (19 May 2019). "Google pulls Huawei's Android license, forcing it to use open source version". The Verge. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
- "Top U.S. Tech Companies Begin to Cut Off Vital Huawei Supplies". Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2019 – via www.bloomberg.com.
- "Exclusive: Google suspends some business with Huawei after Trump..." Reuters. 19 May 2019. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
- Savov, Vlad (19 May 2019). "Intel, Qualcomm, and other chipmakers reportedly join Google in Huawei ban". The Verge. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
- "Huawei's day of reckoning arrives – will its preparations pay off?". South China Morning Post. 16 May 2019. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- "Huawei's voice in future tech standards restricted". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- "'There will be conflict': Huawei founder says US underestimates company's strength". The Guardian. 21 May 2019. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- "US 'underestimates' Huawei, founder says". BBC News. 21 May 2019. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Warren, Tom (21 May 2019). "Microsoft removes Huawei laptop from store, remains silent on potential Windows ban". The Verge. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Amadeo, Ron (10 June 2019). "Huawei's export ban is wider in scope than most people imagine". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 12 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- Byford, Sam (17 October 2018). "How China rips off the iPhone and reinvents Android". The Verge. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- "Huawei makes its own app store global". GSMArena.com. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- Savov, Vlad (20 May 2019). "Huawei's phone business would be decimated without Google's Android". The Verge. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- Badshah, Nadeem; Kuo, Lily (20 May 2019). "Google blocks Huawei access to Android updates after blacklisting". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
- "Huawei responds to Android ban with service and security guarantees, but its future is unclear". TechCrunch. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
- "U.S. eases curbs on Huawei; founder says clampdown underestimates Chinese firm". Reuters. 22 May 2019. Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- Nieva, Richard. "Google revives Huawei work temporarily after US eases restrictions". CNET. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Finley, Klint (21 May 2019). "How Huawei Might Handle the Latest US Sanctions". Wired. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Amadeo, Ron (21 May 2019). "The US DOC gives Huawei a 90-day window to support existing devices". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Warren, Tom (22 May 2019). "ARM cuts ties with Huawei, threatening future chip designs". The Verge. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Yu, Eileen. "Japan telcos pull back sale of new Huawei smartphones". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- Gartenberg, Chaim (24 May 2019). "Huawei can't officially use microSD cards in its phones going forward". The Verge. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- "Toshiba resumes shipments to Huawei after brief suspension". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- "Panasonic examines Huawei relationship". BBC News. 23 May 2019. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- Gonzalez, Oscar. "Huawei gets double bad news from SD Association and Wi-Fi Alliance". CNET. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- "Exclusive: Huawei reviewing FedEx relationship, says packages..." Reuters. 28 May 2019. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- "FedEx apologises to Huawei for re-routing packages to the US". South China Morning Post. 28 May 2019. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- 央视 (28 May 2019). "华为：已向中国邮政监管部门正式投诉". tech.sina.com.cn. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- "[Update: Huawei's back in] Huawei ejected from Wi-Fi Alliance, SD Association, and other standards groups". Android Police. 29 May 2019. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- Keane, Sean. "Huawei ban revoked by science publisher IEEE". CNET. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- Miller, Matthew. "President Trump lifts US ban on Huawei at G20 summit". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
- "US and China agree to restart trade talks". 29 June 2019. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
- "Trump appears to soften his tone on Huawei". CNN Politics. 29 June 2019. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
- "Huawei confirms it has its own OS on back shelf as a plan B". South China Morning Post. 14 March 2019. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- Faulkner, Cameron (14 March 2019). "Huawei developed its own operating systems in case it's banned from using Android and Windows". The Verge. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Kharpal, Arjun (15 March 2019). "Huawei built software for smartphones and laptops in case it can't use Microsoft or Google". CNBC. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- phones, John McCann 2019-05-28T09:07:56Z Mobile. "Huawei may be building an Ark (OS) as it prepares for life after Android". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- Lakshmanan, Ravie (15 July 2019). "Huawei wants to name its Android OS replacement 'Harmony' in Europe". The Next Web. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
- "Android remains our 'first choice': Huawei chairman". TechNode. 12 July 2019. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
- Keane, Sean. "Huawei says Hongmeng OS isn't designed as an Android replacement". CNET. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
- Byford, Sam (19 July 2019). "Huawei says its Hongmeng OS isn't an Android replacement after all". The Verge. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
- McGregor, Richard (2012). The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-84614-173-7.
- Bisset, Jennifer. "Huawei asks court to rule US ban unconstitutional". CNET. Archived from the original on 12 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- Balding, Christopher; Clarke, Donald C. (17 April 2019). "Who Owns Huawei?". SSRN: 4. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3372669. SSRN 3372669.
- "Who is the man behind Huawei and why is the U.S. intelligence community so afraid of his company?". www.latimes.com. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- Fletcher, Owen (18 April 2011). "Huawei Discloses Directors". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 18 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Huawei chief's extradition process begins". 2 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- Business, Julia Horowitz, CNN. "What is Huawei, and why the arrest of its CFO matters". CNN. Archived from the original on 31 January 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- "Board of Directors - About Huawei". huawei. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- "Mr. Guo Ping - Huawei Executives". huawei. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- "Mr.Zhou Daiqi". www.huawei.com. Huawei. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- Mo Han Aw, Florence. "Huawei — private or state-owned?". www.taipeitimes.com. Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- Zhong, Raymond (25 April 2019). "Who Owns Huawei? The Company Tried to Explain. It Got Complicated". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- "Huawei says employees control company through virtual shares". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 19 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Tao, Li (29 April 2019). "Huawei: Four key questions on ownership structure answered". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 10 June 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "Company Law of the People's Republic of China (Revised in 2013)". fdi.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019.
- Mackie. "Innovation in China".
- Saarinen, Juha (28 May 2010). "Analysis: Who Really Owns Huawei?". IT News. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- Shi, Wei (16 April 2019). "New research claims employees do not own Huawei". Telecoms.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Huawei: Four key questions on ownership structure answered". South China Morning Post. 29 April 2019. Archived from the original on 10 June 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- Mucci, Jeff (5 February 2010). "Huawei Q&A: 95,000 employees and growing". RCR Wireless. Retrieved 21 June 2011.[dead link]
- "Bell teams up with Huawei to successfully test 5G in Ontario". IT World Canada. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
- Huawei Picked for BT's 21CN Archived 5 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Light Reading. 28 April 2005.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 21 June 2019.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Motorola exec's domain is profitable, if not sexy[permanent dead link]. Chicago Tribune. 12 November 2006.
- Huawei wins first major German deal Archived 14 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. China Daily. 16 November 2006.
- France Telecom adds China's Huawei to pool of UMTS equipment suppliers – report. AFX News Limited. 1 February 2007. Archived 4 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "PLDT's Smart partners with Huawei to transform mobile services delivery". telecompaper.com. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- Vodafone, Huawei sign deal for 3G handsets. ZDNet News. 15 February 2006. Archived 16 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Huawei Meets Vodafone's Needs Archived 11 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Light Reading. 22 November 2005.
- "Huawei and Leica Camera announce long-term technology partnership for the reinvention of smartphone photography". Leica Camera (Press release). Archived from the original on 26 April 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Huawei Enterprise ICT Solutions, A Better Way". enterprise.huawei.com. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- "Huawei Reports FY10 Revenues of CNY185.2 Billion, Up 24.2%; Net Profit of CNY23.8 Billion, Up 30.0%". Huawei. 18 April 2011. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "Information on the Company". Huawei. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- Millet, Carol (9 May 2011). "Huawei clinches Everything Everywhere network upgrade deal". Mobile Magazine. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "Vodafone Mobile Wi-Fi R205 review". Wired UK. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "China R206 Huawei Wireless Router – China 4g Router, Huawei Router". Made-in-China.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Vendor Rating: Huawei. Gartner. 24 September 2010.
- "Huawei watch smartwatch classy smartwatch android wear android smartwatch". 2 April 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
- Chyen Yee, Lee; Yuntao, Huang (19 April 2011). "INTERVIEW – Huawei makes aggressive push in consumer devices". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "About Us Huawei | Our History, Heritage & Who We Are | | HUAWEI Malaysia". consumer.huawei.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- "Huawei to drop 'Ascend' smartphone branding | Trusted Reviews". Trusted Reviews. 19 January 2015. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- "Huawei is retiring the Ascend brand for future devices". GSMArena.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- "Huawei Mate 20 Pro Review". Techradar. 25 October 2018. Archived from the original on 31 October 2018. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
- Savov, Vlad (26 March 2019). "Huawei's P30 Pro is a photographic powerhouse with a tiny notch". The Verge. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- "Chinese telecom firms fight for rights". China Daily USA. 11 May 2011. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- "Huawei Climbs 'Food Chain' in Cisco Enterprise Challenge". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. 9 May 2011. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- "China's Huawei leads international patent filings: WIPO". Reuters. 19 March 2015. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "Telecom giants in China lead int'l patent filings in 2014: WIPO". Want China Times. 20 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- Some of Huawei's US operations include FutureWei Technologies Inc. (in at least Santa Clara CA, Plano TX, and Bridgetwater NJ), which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Huawei North America.
- "Huawei Canada – Corporate Information". Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Huawei and Imperial College Open Data Science Innovation Lab". Datacenter Dynamics. Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "CES 2016: Huawei unveils Mate 8 with Kirin 950 chipset". Tech Desk. 8 January 2016. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- "Huawei to open R&D centres in Switzerland". S-GE.
- "Huawei achieves 27Gbps 5G speeds with Polar Code". www.telecomasia.net. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Kharpal, Arjun (5 March 2019). "Huawei says it would never hand data to China's government. Experts say it wouldn't have a choice". CNBC. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Sanger, David E.; Perlroth, Nicole (22 March 2014). "N.S.A. Breached Chinese Servers Seen as Security Threat". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Byford, Sam (27 February 2019). "Huawei chairman accuses American critics of hypocrisy over NSA hacks". The Verge. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- "Huawei leader calls out U.S. for privacy contradictions". FierceWireless. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- Chaffin, Larry (8 October 2012). "60 Minutes torpedoes Huawei in less than 15 minutes". networkworld.com. Network World. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- Lerman, Rachel (18 May 2017). "Jury awards T-Mobile $4.8M in trade-secrets case against Huawei". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 25 July 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
- Flynn, Laurie J. (29 July 2004). "Technology briefing: Cisco drops Huawei suit". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Markoff, John; Barboza, David (25 October 2010). "Huawei Technologies of China's Bold Push Into U.S." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2019.