Secret Intelligence Service
The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security. SIS is a member of the country's intelligence community and its Chief is directly accountable to the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs.
|Type||Foreign intelligence service|
|Jurisdiction||Her Majesty's Government|
|Motto||Semper Occultus (Always Secret)|
|Employees||2,594 (31 March 2016)|
|Annual budget||Single Intelligence Account (£3.02 billion in 2017–2018 financial year)[a]|
Formed in 1909 as a section of the Secret Service Bureau specialising in foreign intelligence, the section experienced dramatic growth during World War I and officially adopted its current name around 1920. The name "MI6" (meaning Military Intelligence, Section 6) originated as a flag of convenience during World War II, when SIS was known by many names. It is still commonly used today. The existence of SIS was not officially acknowledged until 1994. That year the Intelligence Services Act 1994 (ISA) was introduced to Parliament, to place the organisation on a statutory footing for the first time. It provides the legal basis for its operations. Today, SIS is subject to public oversight by the Investigatory Powers Tribunal and the Parliamentary Intelligence and Security Committee.
The stated priority roles of SIS are counter-terrorism, counter-proliferation, providing intelligence in support of cyber security, and supporting stability overseas to disrupt terrorism and other criminal activities. Unlike its main sister agencies, the Security Service (MI5) and Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), SIS works exclusively in foreign intelligence gathering; the ISA allows it to carry out operations only against persons outside the British Islands. Some of SIS's actions since the 2000s have attracted significant controversy, such as its alleged complicity in acts of torture and extraordinary rendition.
History and developmentEdit
The service derived from the Secret Service Bureau, which was founded on 1 October 1909. The Bureau was a joint initiative of the Admiralty and the War Office to control secret intelligence operations in the UK and overseas, particularly concentrating on the activities of the Imperial German government. The bureau was split into naval and army sections which, over time, specialised in foreign espionage and internal counter-espionage activities, respectively. This specialisation was because the Admiralty wanted to know the maritime strength of the Imperial German Navy. This specialisation was formalised before 1914. During the First World War in 1916, the two sections underwent administrative changes so that the foreign section became the section MI1(c) of the Directorate of Military Intelligence.
Its first director was Captain Sir Mansfield George Smith-Cumming, who often dropped the Smith in routine communication. He typically signed correspondence with his initial C in green ink. This usage evolved as a code name, and has been adhered to by all subsequent directors of SIS when signing documents to retain anonymity.
First World WarEdit
The service's performance during the First World War was mixed, because it was unable to establish a network in Germany itself. Most of its results came from military and commercial intelligence collected through networks in neutral countries, occupied territories, and Russia.
After the war, resources were significantly reduced but during the 1920s, SIS established a close operational relationship with the diplomatic service. In August 1919, Cumming created the new passport control department, providing diplomatic cover for agents abroad. The post of Passport Control Officer provided operatives with diplomatic immunity.
The debate over the future structure of British Intelligence continued at length after the end of hostilities but Cumming managed to engineer the return of the Service to Foreign Office control. At this time, the organisation was known in Whitehall by a variety of titles including the Foreign Intelligence Service, the Secret Service, MI1(c), the Special Intelligence Service and even C's organisation. Around 1920, it began increasingly to be referred to as the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), a title that it has continued to use to the present day and which was enshrined in statute in the Intelligence Services Act 1994. During the Second World War, the name MI6 was used as a flag of convenience, the name by which it is frequently known in popular culture since.
In the immediate post-war years under Sir Mansfield George Smith-Cumming and throughout most of the 1920s, SIS was focused on Communism, in particular, Russian Bolshevism. Examples include a thwarted operation to overthrow the Bolshevik government in 1918 by SIS agents Sidney George Reilly and Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, as well as more orthodox espionage efforts within early Soviet Russia headed by Captain George Hill.
Smith-Cumming died suddenly at his home on 14 June 1923, shortly before he was due to retire, and was replaced as C by Admiral Sir Hugh "Quex" Sinclair. Sinclair created the following sections:
- A central foreign counter-espionage Circulating Section, Section V, to liaise with the Security Service to collate counter-espionage reports from overseas stations.
- An economic intelligence section, Section VII, to deal with trade, industry and contraband.
- A clandestine radio communications organisation, Section VIII, to communicate with operatives and agents overseas.
- Section N to exploit the contents of foreign diplomatic bags
- Section D to conduct political covert actions and paramilitary operations in time of war. Section D would organise the Home Defence Scheme resistance organisation in the UK and come to be the foundation of the Special Operations Executive (SOE) during the Second World War.
MI6 assisted the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police, with "the exchange of information about communism" as late as October 1937, well into the Nazi era; the head of the British agency's Berlin station, Frank Foley, was still able to describe his relationship with the Gestapo's so-called communism expert as "cordial".
On 26 and 27 July 1939, in Pyry near Warsaw, British military intelligence representatives including Dilly Knox, Alastair Denniston and Humphrey Sandwith were introduced by their allied Polish counterparts into their Enigma-decryption techniques and equipment, including Zygalski sheets and the cryptologic "Bomba", and were promised future delivery of a reverse-engineered, Polish-built duplicate Enigma machine. The demonstration represented a vital basis for the later British continuation and effort. During the war, British cryptologists decrypted a vast number of messages enciphered on Enigma. The intelligence gleaned from this source, codenamed "Ultra" by the British, was a substantial aid to the Allied war effort.
Second World WarEdit
- The cryptanalytic effort undertaken by the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS), the bureau responsible for interception and decryption of foreign communications at Bletchley Park. (See above.)
- The extensive 'double-cross' system run by MI5 to feed misleading intelligence to the Germans.
- Imagery intelligence activities conducted by the RAF Photographic Reconnaissance Unit (now JARIC, The National Imagery Exploitation Centre).
The chief of SIS, Stewart Menzies, insisted on wartime control of codebreaking, and this gave him immense power and influence, which he used judiciously. By distributing the Ultra material collected by the Government Code & Cypher School, MI6 became, for the first time, an important branch of the government. Extensive breaches of Nazi Enigma signals gave Menzies and his team enormous insight into Adolf Hitler's strategy, and this was kept a closely held secret.
The British intelligence services signed a special agreement with their allied Polish counterparts 1940. In July 2005, the British and Polish governments jointly produced a two-volume study of bilateral intelligence cooperation in the War, which revealed information that had until then been officially secret. The Report of the Anglo-Polish Historical Committee was written by leading historians and experts who had been granted unprecedented access to British intelligence archives, and concluded that 48 percent of all reports received by British secret services from continental Europe in 1939–45 had come from Polish sources. This was facilitated by the fact that occupied Poland had a tradition of insurgency organisations passed down through generations, with networks in emigre Polish communities in Germany and France. A major part of Polish resistance activity was clandestine and involved cellular intelligence networks; while Nazi Germany used Poles as forced labourers across the continent, putting them in a unique position to spy on the enemy. Liaison was undertaken by SIS officer Wilfred Dunderdale, and reports included advanced warning of the Afrikakorps' departure for Libya, awareness of the readiness of Vichy French units to fight against the Allies or switch sides in Operation Torch, and advance warning both of Operation Barbarossa and Operation Edelweiss, the German Caucasus campaign. Polish-sourced reporting on German secret weapons began in 1941, and Operation Wildhorn enabled a British special operations flight to airlift a V-2 Rocket that had been captured by the Polish resistance. Polish secret agent Jan Karski delivered the British the first Allied intelligence on the Holocaust. Via a female Polish agent, the British also had a channel to the anti-Nazi chief of the Abwehr, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris.
1939 saw the most significant failure of the service during the war, known as the Venlo incident for the Dutch town where much of the operation took place. Agents of the German army secret service, the Abwehr, and the counter-espionage section of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD), posed as high-ranking officers involved in a plot to depose Hitler. In a series of meetings between SIS agents and the 'conspirators', SS plans to abduct the SIS team were shelved due to the presence of Dutch police. On the night of 8–9 November, a meeting took place without police presence. There, the two SIS agents were duly abducted by the SS.
In 1940, journalist and Soviet agent Kim Philby applied for a vacancy in Section D of SIS, and was vetted by his friend and fellow Soviet agent Guy Burgess. When Section D was absorbed by Special Operations Executive (SOE) in summer of 1940, Philby was appointed as an instructor in black propaganda at the SOE's training establishment in Beaulieu, Hampshire.
In May 1940, MI6 set up British Security Co-ordination (BSC), on the authorisation of Prime Minister Winston Churchill over the objections of Stewart Menzies. This was a covert organisation based in New York City, headed by William Stephenson intended to investigate enemy activities, prevent sabotage against British interests in the Americas, and mobilise pro-British opinion in the Americas. BSC also founded Camp X in Canada to train clandestine operators and to establish (in 1942) a telecommunications relay station, code name Hydra, operated by engineer Benjamin deForest Bayly.
In early 1944 MI6 re-established Section IX, its prewar anti-Soviet section, and Philby took a position there. He was able to alert the NKVD about all British intelligence on the Soviets—including what the American OSS had shared with the British about the Soviets.
Despite these difficulties the service nevertheless conducted substantial and successful operations in both occupied Europe and in the Middle East and Far East where it operated under the cover name Inter-Services Liaison Department (ISLD).
In August 1945 Soviet intelligence officer Konstantin Volkov tried to defect to the UK, offering the names of all Soviet agents working inside British intelligence. Philby received the memo on Volkov's offer and alerted the Soviets, so they could arrest him. In 1946, SIS absorbed the "rump" remnant of the Special Operations Executive (SOE), dispersing the latter's personnel and equipment between its operational divisions or "controllerates" and new Directorates for Training and Development and for War Planning. The 1921 arrangement was streamlined with the geographical, operational units redesignated "Production Sections", sorted regionally under Controllers, all under a Director of Production. The Circulating Sections were renamed "Requirements Sections" and placed under a Directorate of Requirements.
SIS operations against the USSR were extensively compromised by the presence of an agent working for the Soviet Union, Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby, in the post-war Counter-Espionage Section, R5. SIS suffered further embarrassment when it turned out that an officer involved in both the Vienna and Berlin tunnel operations had been turned as a Soviet agent during internment by the Chinese during the Korean War. This agent, George Blake, returned from his internment to be treated as something of a hero by his contemporaries in "the office". His security authorisation was restored, and in 1953 he was posted to the Vienna Station where the original Vienna tunnels had been running for years. After compromising these to his Soviet controllers, he was subsequently assigned to the British team involved on Operation Gold, the Berlin tunnel, and which was, consequently, blown from the outset. In 1956, SIS Director John Alexander Sinclair had to resign after the botched affair of the death of Lionel Crabb.
SIS activities included a range of covert political actions, including the overthrow of Mohammed Mossadeq in Iran in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état (in collaboration with the US Central Intelligence Agency).
Despite earlier Soviet penetration, SIS began to recover as a result of improved vetting and security, and a series of successful penetrations. From 1958, SIS had three moles in the Polish UB, the most successful of which was codenamed NODDY. The CIA described the information SIS received from these Poles as "some of the most valuable intelligence ever collected", and rewarded SIS with $20 million to expand their Polish operation. In 1961 Polish defector Michael Goleniewski exposed George Blake as a Soviet agent. Blake was identified, arrested, tried for espionage and sent to prison. He escaped and was exfiltrated to the USSR in 1966.
Also, in the GRU, they recruited Colonel Oleg Penkovsky. Penkovsky ran for two years as a considerable success, providing several thousand photographed documents, including Red Army rocketry manuals that allowed US National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC) analysts to recognise the deployment pattern of Soviet SS4 MRBMs and SS5 IRBMs in Cuba in October 1962. SIS operations against the USSR continued to gain pace through the remainder of the Cold War, arguably peaking with the recruitment in the 1970s of Oleg Gordievsky whom SIS ran for the better part of a decade, then successfully exfiltrated from the USSR across the Finnish border in 1985.
SIS were heavily involved in the Soviet–Afghan War – which turned out to be most extensive covert operation since the Second World War. SIS supported the Islamic resistance group commanded by Ahmad Shah Massoud and he became a key ally in the fight against the Soviets. An annual mission of two SIS officers as well as military instructors were sent to Massoud and his fighters. Through them weapons and supplies, radios and vital intelligence on Soviet battle plans were all sent to the Afghan resistance. SIS also helped to retrieve crashed Soviet helicopters from Afghanistan.
The real scale and impact of SIS activities during the second half of the Cold War remains unknown, however, because the bulk of their most successful targeting operations against Soviet officials were the result of "Third Country" operations recruiting Soviet sources travelling abroad in Asia and Africa. These included the defection to the SIS Tehran station in 1982 of KGB officer Vladimir Kuzichkin, the son of a senior Politburo member and a member of the KGB's internal Second Chief Directorate who provided SIS and the British government with warning of the mobilisation of the KGB's Alpha Force during the 1991 August Coup which briefly toppled Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
After the Cold WarEdit
The end of the Cold War led to a reshuffle of existing priorities. The Soviet Bloc ceased to swallow the lion's share of operational priorities, although the stability and intentions of a weakened but still nuclear-capable Federal Russia constituted a significant concern. Instead, functional rather than geographical intelligence requirements came to the fore such as counter-proliferation (via the agency's Production and Targeting, Counter-Proliferation Section) which had been a sphere of activity since the discovery of Pakistani physics students studying nuclear-weapons related subjects in 1974; counter-terrorism (via two joint sections run in collaboration with the Security Service, one for Irish republicanism and one for international terrorism); counter-narcotics and serious crime (originally set up under the Western Hemisphere controllerate in 1989); and a 'global issues' section looking at matters such as the environment and other public welfare issues. In the mid-1990s these were consolidated into a new post of Controller, Global and Functional.
During the transition, then-C Sir Colin McColl embraced a new, albeit limited, policy of openness towards the press and public, with 'public affairs' falling into the brief of Director, Counter-Intelligence and Security (renamed Director, Security and Public Affairs). McColl's policies were part and parcel with a wider 'open government initiative' developed from 1993 by the government of John Major. As part of this, SIS operations, and those of the national signals intelligence agency, GCHQ, were placed on a statutory footing through the 1994 Intelligence Services Act. Although the Act provided procedures for authorisations and warrants, this essentially enshrined mechanisms that had been in place at least since 1953 (for authorisations) and 1985 (under the Interception of Communications Act, for warrants). Under this Act, since 1994, SIS and GCHQ activities have been subject to scrutiny by Parliament's Intelligence and Security Committee.
During the mid-1990s the British intelligence community was subjected to a comprehensive costing review by the government. As part of broader defence cut-backs SIS had its resources cut back twenty-five percent across the board and senior management was reduced by forty percent. As a consequence of these cuts, the Requirements division (formerly the Circulating Sections of the 1921 Arrangement) were deprived of any representation on the board of directors. At the same time, the Middle East and Africa controllerates were pared back and amalgamated. According to the findings of Lord Butler of Brockwell's Review of Weapons of Mass Destruction, the reduction of operational capabilities in the Middle East and of the Requirements division's ability to challenge the quality of the information the Middle East Controllerate was providing weakened the Joint Intelligence Committee's estimates of Iraq's non-conventional weapons programmes. These weaknesses were major contributors to the UK's erroneous assessments of Iraq's 'weapons of mass destruction' prior to the 2003 invasion of that country.
On one occasion in 1998, MI6 believed it might be able to obtain 'actionable intelligence' which could help the CIA capture Osama Bin Laden, the leader of Al Qaeda. But given that this might result in his being transferred or rendered to the United States, MI6 decided it had to ask for ministerial approval before passing the intelligence on (in case he faced the death penalty or mistreatment). This was approved by a minister 'provided the CIA gave assurances regarding humane treatment'. In the end, not enough intelligence came through to make it worthwhile going ahead.
In 2001, it became clear that working with Ahmad Shah Massoud and his forces was the best option for going after Bin Laden; the priority for MI6 was developing intelligence coverage. The first real sources were being established, although no one penetrated the upper tier of the Al Qaeda leadership itself. As the year progressed, plans were drawn up and slowly worked their way up to the White House on 4 September 2001-which involved increasing dramatically support for Massoud. MI6 were involved in these plans.
War on TerrorEdit
During the Global War on Terror, SIS accepted information from the CIA that was obtained through torture, including the extraordinary rendition programme. Craig Murray, a UK ambassador to Uzbekistan, had written several memos critical of the UK's acceptance of this information; he was then sacked from his job.
Following the September 11 attacks, on 28 September the British Foreign Secretary approved the deployment of MI6 officers to Afghanistan and the wider region, utilising people involved with the mujahadeen in the 1980s and who had language skills and regional expertise. At the end of the month, a handful of MI6 officers with a budget of $7 million landed in northeast Afghanistan, where they met with General Mohammed Fahim of the Northern Alliance and began working with other contacts in the north and south to build alliances, secure support, and to bribe as many Taliban commanders as they could to change sides or leave the fight.
During the United States invasion of Afghanistan, the SIS established a presence in Kabul following its fall to the coalition. MI6 members and the British Special Boat Service took part in the Battle of Tora Bora. After members of the 22nd Special Air Service (SAS) Regiment returned to the UK in mid-December 2001, members of both territorial SAS regiments remained in the country to provide close protection to SIS members.
In mid-December, MI6 officers who had been deployed to the region began to interview prisoners held by the Northern Alliance. In January 2002, they began interviewing prisoners held by the Americans. On 10 January 2002, an MI6 officer conducted his first interview of a detainee held by the Americans. He reported back to London that there were aspects of how the detainee had been handled by the US military before the interview that did not seem consistent with the Geneva Conventions. Two days after the interview, he was sent instructions, copied to all MI5 and MI6 officers in Afghanistan, about how to solve concerns over mistreatment, referring to signs of abuse: "Given that they are not within our custody or control, the law does not require you to intervene to protect this." It went on to say that the Americans had to understand that the UK did not condone such mistreatment and that a complaint should be made to a senior US official if there was any coercion by the US in conjunction with an MI6 interview.
In the run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, it is alleged, although not confirmed, that some SIS members conducted Operation Mass Appeal, which was a campaign to plant stories about Iraq's WMDs in the media. The operation was exposed in The Sunday Times in December 2003. Claims by former weapons inspector Scott Ritter suggest that similar propaganda campaigns against Iraq date back well into the 1990s. Ritter says that SIS recruited him in 1997 to help with the propaganda effort, saying "the aim was to convince the public that Iraq was a far greater threat than it actually was." Towards the end of the invasion, SIS agents operating out of Baghdad International Airport with Special Air Service (SAS) protection, began to re-establish a station in Baghdad and began gathering intelligence, in particular on WMDs. After it became clear that Iraq did not possess any WMDs, MI6 officially withdrew pre-invasion intelligence about them. In the months after the invasion, they also began gathering political intelligence; predicting what would happen in post-Baathist Iraq. MI6 personnel in the country never exceeded 50; in early 2004, apart from supporting Task Force Black in hunting down former senior Ba'athist party members, MI6 also made an effort to target "transnational terrorism"/jihadist networks that led to the SAS carrying out Operation Aston in February 2004: They conducted a raid on a house in Baghdad that was part of a "jihadist pipeline" that ran from Iran to Iraq that US and UK intelligence agencies were tracking suspects on – the raid captured members of Pakistan based terrorist group.
Shortly before the Second Battle of Fallujah, MI6 personnel visited JSOCs TSF (Temporary Screening Facility) at Balad Air Base to question a suspected insurgent. Afterwards they raised concerns about the poor detention conditions there. As a result, the British government informed JSOC in Iraq that prisoners captured by British special forces would only be turned over to JSOC if there was an undertaking not to send them to Balad. In Spring 2005, the SAS detachment operating in Basra and southern Iraq, known as Operation Hathor, escorted MI6 case officers into Basra so they could meet their sources and handlers. MI6 provided information that enabled the detachment to carry out surveillance operations. MI6 were also involved in resolving the Basra prison incident; the SIS played a central role in the British withdrawal from Basra in 2007.
In Afghanistan, MI6 worked closely with the military, delivering tactical information and working in small cells alongside Special Forces, surveillance teams, and GCHQ to track individuals from the Taliban and Al Qaeda.
The first MI6 knew of the US carrying out the mission that killed Osama Bin Laden on 2 May 2011 was after it happened, when its chief called his American counterpart for an explanation. In July 2011 it was reported that SIS had closed several of its stations, particularly in Iraq, where it had several outposts in the south of the country in the region of Basra. The closures have allowed the service to focus its attention on Pakistan and Afghanistan, which are its principal stations. On 12 July 2011, MI6 intelligence officers, along with other intelligence agencies, tracked two British-Afghans to a hotel in Herat, Afghanistan, who were discovered to be trying to establish contact with the Taliban or al-Qaeda to learn bomb-making skills; operators from the SAS captured them and they are believed to be the first Britons to be captured alive in Afghanistan since 2001.
By 2012, MI6 had reorganised after 9/11 and reshuffled its staff, opening new stations overseas, with Islamabad becoming the largest station. MI6's uptick in funding was not as large as that for MI5, but it still struggled to recruit fast enough; former members were rehired to help out. MI6 maintained intelligence coverage of suspects as they moved from the UK overseas, particularity to Pakistan.
In October 2013, SIS appealed for reinforcements and extra staff from other intelligence agencies amid growing concern about a terrorist threat from Afghanistan and that the country would become an "intelligence vacuum" after British troops withdraw at the end of 2014.
In March 2016, it was reported that MI6 had been involved in the Libyan Civil War since January of that year, having been escorted by the SAS to meet with Libyan officials to discuss the supplying of weapons and training for the Syrian Army and the militias fighting against ISIS. In April 2016, it was revealed that MI6 teams with members of the Special Reconnaissance Regiment seconded to them had been deployed to Yemen to train Yemeni forces fighting AQAP, as well as identifying targets for drone strikes. In November 2016, The Independent reported that MI6, MI5 and GCHQ supplied the SAS and other British special forces a list of 200 British jihadists to kill or capture before they attempt to return to the UK. The jihadists are senior members of ISIS who pose a direct threat to the UK. Sources said SAS soldiers have been told that the mission could be the most important in the regiment's 75-year history.
On 6 May 2004 it was announced that Sir Richard Dearlove was to be replaced as head of SIS by John Scarlett, former chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee. Scarlett was an unusually high-profile appointment to the job, and gave evidence at the Hutton Inquiry.
SIS has been active in the Balkans, playing a vital role in hunting down people wanted by the International War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague. British intelligence operations in the Balkans are thought to have played a vital role in the handover of the former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milošević to The Hague; SIS was also heavily involved in the hunt for Radovan Karadžić and General Ratko Mladic, who are linked to a vast range of war crimes including the murder of Srebrenica's surrendering male population and organising the Siege of Sarajevo.
On 27 September 2004, it was reported that British spies across the Balkans, including a SIS was chief officer in Belgrade and another spy in Sarajevo, were moved or forced to withdraw after they were publicly identified in a number of media reports planted by disgruntled local intelligence services – particularly in Croatia and Serbia. A third individual was branded a British spy in the Balkans and left the office of the High Representative in Bosnia, whilst a further two British intelligence officers working in Zagreb, remained in place despite their cover being blown in the local press. The exposure of the agents across the three capitals has markedly undermined the British intelligence operations in the area, including SIS efforts to capture The Hague's most wanted men, which riled many local intelligence agencies in the Balkans, some of which are suspected of continuing ties to alleged war criminals. They were riled due to MI6 operating "not so much a spy network as a network of influence within Balkan security services and the media," said the director of the International Crisis Group in Serbia and Bosnia, which caused some of them to be "upset". In Serbia, the SIS station chief was forced to leave his post in August 2004 after a campaign against him led by country's DB intelligence agency, where his work investigating the 2003 assassination of the reformist prime minister Zoran Djindjic won him few friends.
On 15 November 2006, SIS allowed an interview with current operations officers for the first time. The interview was on the Colin Murray Show on BBC Radio 1. The two officers (one male and one female) had their voices disguised for security reasons. The officers compared their real experience with the fictional portrayal of SIS in the James Bond films. While denying that there ever existed a "licence to kill" and reiterating that SIS operated under British law, the officers confirmed that there is a 'Q'-like figure who is head of the technology department, and that their director is referred to as 'C'. The officers described the lifestyle as quite glamorous and very varied, with plenty of overseas travel and adventure, and described their role primarily as intelligence gatherers, developing relationships with potential sources.
Sir John Sawers became head of the SIS in November 2009, the first outsider to head SIS in more than 40 years. Sawers came from the Diplomatic Service, previously having been the British Permanent Representative to the United Nations.
Five years before the Libyan Civil War, a UK Special Forces unit was formed called E Squadron which was composed of selected members of the 22nd SAS Regiment, the SBS and the SRR. It was tasked by the Director Special Forces to support MI6's operations (akin to the CIA's SAC – a covert paramilitary unit for SIS). It was not a formal squadron within the establishment of any individual UK Special Forces unit, but at the disposal of both the Director Special Forces and the SIS; previously, SIS relied primarily on contractor personnel. The Squadron carried out missions that required 'maximum discretion' in places that were 'off the radar or considered dangerous'; the Squadron's members often operated in plain clothes, with the full range of national support, such as false identities at its disposal. In early March 2011, during the Libyan Civil War, a covert operation in Libya involving E Squadron went wrong: The aim of the mission was to cement SIS's contacts with the rebels by flying in two SIS agents in a Chinook helicopter to meet a Libyan Intermediary in a town near Benghazi, who had promised to fix them up a meeting with the NTC. A team consisting of six E Squadron members (all from the SAS) and two SIS officers were flown into Libya by an RAF Special Forces Flight Chinook; the Squadron's members were carrying bags containing arms, ammunition, explosives, computers, maps and passports from at least four nationalities. Despite technical backup, the team landed in Libya without any prior agreement with the rebel leadership, and the plan failed as soon as the team landed. The locals became suspicious they were foreign mercenaries or spies and the team was detained by rebel forces and taken to a military base in Benghazi. They were then hauled before a senior rebel leader; the team told him that they were in the country to determine the rebels' needs and to offer assistance, but the discovery of British troops on the ground enraged the rebels who were fearful that Gaddafi would use such evidence to destroy the credibility of the NTC. Negotiations between senior rebel leaders and British officials in London finally led to their release and they were allowed to board HMS Cumberland.
On 16 November 2011 SIS warned the national transitional council in Benghazi after discovering details of planned strikes, said foreign secretary William Hague. 'The agencies obtained firm intelligence, were able to warn the NTC of the threat, and the attacks were prevented,' he said. In a rare speech on the intelligence agencies, he praised the key role played by SIS and GCHQ in bringing Gaddafi's 42-year dictatorship to an end, describing them as 'vital assets' with a 'fundamental and indispensable role' in keeping the nation safe. 'They worked to identify key political figures, develop contacts with the emerging opposition and provide political and military intelligence. 'Most importantly, they saved lives,' he said. The speech follows criticism that SIS had been too close to the Libyan regime and was involved in the extraordinary rendition of anti-Gaddafi activists. Mr Hague also defended controversial proposals for secrecy in civil courts in cases involving intelligence material.
In February 2013 Channel Four News reported on evidence of SIS spying on opponents of the Gaddafi regime and handing the information to the regime in Libya. The files looked at contained "a memorandum of understanding, dating from October 2002, detailing a two-day meeting in Libya between Gaddafi's external intelligence agency and two senior heads of SIS and one from MI5 outlining joint plans for "intelligence exchange, counter-terrorism and mutual co-operation".
In February 2015, The Daily Telegraph reported that MI6 contacted their counterparts in the South African intelligence services to seek assistance in an effort to recruit a North Korean "asset" to spy on North Korea's nuclear programme. MI6 had contacted the man who had inside information on North Korea's nuclear programme, he considered the offer and wanted to arrange another meeting, but a year passed without MI6 hearing from him, which prompted them to request South African assistance when they learnt he would be travelling through South Africa. It is not known whether the North Korean man ever agreed to work for MI6.
In July 2020, it was revealed that intelligence officials from a number of repressive regimes received training from senior officials of MI6 and MI5 in last two days. In 2019, an 11-day International Intelligence Directors Course was attended by top intelligence officers from 26 countries, including Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Nigeria, Cameroon, Algeria, Afghanistan and others. A British academic, Matthew Hedges questioned the UK’s training program for allowing officials of the UAE, where he was detained on false charges and faced psychological torture.
SIS centenary and centenary art exhibition, 'A year with MI6'Edit
The year 2009 was the centenary of the Secret Intelligence Service. An official history of the first forty years was commissioned to mark the occasion and was published in 2010. To further mark the centenary, the Secret Intelligence Service invited artist James Hart Dyke to become artist in residence.
A year with MI6Edit
A year with MI6 was a public art exhibition, featuring a collection of paintings and drawings by artist Hart Dyke to mark the centenary of the British Secret Intelligence Service. The project saw Hart Dyke working closely with the Secret Intelligence Service for a year, both in the United Kingdom and abroad. The Secret Intelligence Service allowed Hart Dyke access to enable him to undertake the project, sending him on hostile environment courses to allow him to work in dangerous parts of the world, and admitting him into their Vauxhall Cross headquarters. The sensitivity of the work of the Secret Intelligence Service required Hart Dyke to observe the need for secrecy and his access to Secret Intelligence Service was carefully controlled.
The subsequent public exhibition displayed the resulting works and the exhibition was part of the Secret Intelligence Service's effort to increase public understanding of the work of the Secret Intelligence Service and why their operations must remain secret. The exhibition ran from 15–26 February 2011 at the Mount Street Galleries, Mayfair, London. The commercial exhibition consisted of over 40 original oil paintings and many sketches and studies. None of the material in the exhibition revealed any sensitive information about the Secret Intelligence Service or its work. All artworks produced by Hart Dyke went through a series of security screens, and the content and meaning of some of the paintings was intentionally left ambiguous.
- Cambridge Five, a Cold War Soviet spy ring
- Anthony Blunt (cryptonym: Johnson), MI5 officer and Soviet agent
- Guy Burgess (cryptonym: Hicks), SIS officer and Soviet agent
- John Cairncross (cryptonym: Liszt), SIS officer and Soviet agent
- Donald Maclean (cryptonym: Homer), SIS officer and Soviet agent
- Kim Philby (cryptonym: Stanley), SIS officer and Soviet agent
- David Cornwell (known as John le Carré), author, former SIS officer
- Andrew Fulton, chairman of the Scottish Conservative Party
- Charles Cumming, author
- Paul Dukes, SIS officer and author
- Frederick Forsyth, author, journalist, and alleged MI6 agent
- Ian Fleming, author of James Bond novels, former NID officer
- Graham Greene, author, former SIS officer
- Bill Hudson, SIS Agent; supposedly one of the figures on which James Bond was based.
- Ralph Izzard, journalist, author, former NID officer
- Horst Kopkow, SS officer who worked for SIS after the Second World War
- William Stephenson, head of the British Security Co-ordination during WWII
- Richard Tomlinson, author, former SIS officer
- Valentine Vivian, Vice-Chief of SIS and head of counter-espionage, Section V
- Gareth Williams, seconded to SIS from GCHQ, died under suspicious circumstances.
- Krystyna Skarbek, agent
- Aggie MacKenzie, TV presenter and journalist who spent two years working for MI6
- Sidney Reilly, Ace of Spies, worked for SIS and others
Since 1995, SIS headquarters has been at 85 Vauxhall Cross, along the Albert Embankment in Vauxhall on the south bank of the River Thames by Vauxhall Bridge, London. Previous headquarters have been Century House, 100 Westminster Bridge Road, Lambeth (1966–1995), 54 Broadway, off Victoria Street, London (1924–1966) and 2 Whitehall Court (1911–1922). Although SIS operated from Broadway, it made considerable use of the adjoining St. Ermin's Hotel.
The building was designed by Sir Terry Farrell and built by John Laing. The developer Regalian Properties approached the government in 1987 to see if they had any interest in the proposed building. At the same time, MI5 was seeking alternative accommodation and co-location of the two services was studied. In the end this proposal was abandoned due to the lack of buildings of adequate size (existing or proposed) and the security considerations of providing a single target for attacks. In December 1987, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's government approved the purchase of the new building for SIS.
The building design was reviewed to incorporate the necessary protection for the UK's foreign intelligence gathering agency. This includes overall increased security, extensive computer suites, technical areas, bomb blast protection, emergency back-up systems and protection against electronic eavesdropping. While the details and cost of construction have been released, about ten years after the original National Audit Office (NAO) report was written, some of the service's special requirements remain classified. The NAO report Thames House and Vauxhall Cross has certain details omitted, describing in detail the cost and problems of certain modifications, but not what these are. Rob Humphrey's London: The Rough Guide suggests one of these omitted modifications is a tunnel beneath the Thames to Whitehall. The NAO put the final cost at £135.05 million for site purchase and the basic building, or £152.6 million including the service's special requirements.
The setting of the SIS offices was featured in the James Bond films GoldenEye, The World Is Not Enough, Die Another Day, Skyfall, and Spectre. SIS allowed filming of the building itself for the first time in The World is Not Enough for the pre-credits sequence, where a bomb hidden in a briefcase full of money is detonated inside the building. A Daily Telegraph article said that the British government opposed the filming, but this was denied by a Foreign Office spokesperson. In Skyfall the building is once again attacked by an explosion, this time by a cyber attack turning on a gas line and igniting the fumes, after which SIS operations are moved to a secret underground facility. In Spectre, the evil head of crime organisation SPECTRE, Ernst Stavro Blofeld, traps Agent 007 James Bond alongside the film's Bond girl Madeleine Swann inside the remains of the building. Blofeld then detonated bombs planted in the building, demolishing what was left of the building fully, though Bond managed to save Swann and escape before the building exploded.
On the evening of 20 September 2000, the building was attacked using a Russian-built RPG-22 anti-tank rocket launcher. Striking the eighth floor, the missile caused only superficial damage. The Metropolitan Police Anti-Terrorist Branch attributed responsibility to the Real IRA.
Most other buildings are held or nominally occupied by the Foreign & Commonwealth Office. They include:
- Hanslope Park: on the outskirts of Milton Keynes housing Her Majesty's Government Communications Centre, which supports the Foreign & Commonwealth Office and the British intelligence community.
- Fort Monckton: a former fort dating from the 1780s, rebuilt in the 1880s, is now the field operations training centre for SIS.
- Special Forces Club: a private club in Knightsbridge catering exclusively to members, both current and retired, of the intelligence services in Britain and abroad, along with the Special Air Service.
MI6 is nicknamed The Circus. Some say this was coined by John le Carré (former SIS officer David Cornwell) in his espionage novels and named after a fictional building on Cambridge Circus. Leo Marks explains in his World War II memoir Between Silk and Cyanide that the name arose because a section of the Special Operations Executive was housed in a building at 1 Dorset Square, London, which had formerly belonged to the directors of Bertram Mills circus.
- 1909–1923: Sir Mansfield Smith-Cumming,
- 1923–1939: Admiral Sir Hugh Sinclair,
- 1939–1952: Major General Sir Stewart Menzies,
- 1953–1956: Sir John Alexander Sinclair,
- 1956–1968: Sir Richard White,
- 1968–1973: Sir John Rennie,
- 1973–1978: Sir Maurice Oldfield,
- 1979–1982: Sir Dick Franks,
- 1982–1985: Sir Colin Figures,
- 1985–1989: Sir Christopher Curwen,
- 1989–1994: Sir Colin McColl,
- 1994–1999: Sir David Spedding,
- 1999–2004: Sir Richard Dearlove,
- 2004–2009: Sir John Scarlett,
- 2009–2014: Sir John Sawers,
- 2014–2020: Sir Alex Younger,
- 2020–Present: Richard Moore,
- List of intelligence agencies
- History of espionage
- Camp X, training facility in Canada for clandestine operators during WWII
- Alec Leamas, fictional SIS (or "the Circus" in the novels) operative in John Le Carré's Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1963) and portrayed by Richard Burton in the 1965 film
- Alfred Pennyworth (comic character) a fictional character from the Batman comic books, TV, video games and movies franchise, who was an agent from MI6
- Alex Rider, fictional agent, unwillingly working for MI6, character in British author Anthony Horowitz's Alex Rider series
- Alan Blunt, fictional head of Special Operations Division, MI6, character in British author Anthony Horowitz's Alex Rider series
- Mrs. Jones, fictional deputy head of Special Operations Division, MI6, immediate superior is Alan Blunt
- Ian Rider, fictional agent, uncle of Alex Rider and brother of John Rider
- John Rider, fictional agent, father of Alex Rider and brother of Ian Rider
- George Smiley, a fictional character from the popular books of John Le Carré and movie franchise, who works for MI6
- James Bond, 007, a fictional character from the popular book, movie and video game franchise, who is an agent working for MI6
- Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament "Annual Report 2016–2017", page 77. House of Commons (20 December 2017). Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "Financial Statement 2017–18" (PDF). Security and Intelligence Agencies. p. 13. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "The Chief". SIS – MI6. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
- Whitehead, Jennifer (15 July 2016). "Our Chief". SIS. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- "1920: What's in a Name". SIS website. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Whitehead, Jennifer (13 October 2005). "MI6 to boost recruitment prospects with launch of first website". Brand Republic. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- "The Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament". Isc.independent.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "Our Mission". SIS website. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- "Intelligence Services Act 1994: Section 1", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 1994 c. 13 (s. 1)
- Foster, Peter (5 April 2014). "Tony Blair 'knew all about CIA secret kidnap programme'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- Norton-Taylor, Richard (1 June 2016). "Public need answers in 'shocking' MI6 rendition scandal, says senior Tory". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- "Queen visits Mi6.", The Times, London, 15 July 1994, pg 2
- "SIS Records — War Office Military Intelligence (MI) Sections in the First World War". Sis.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 20 August 2006.
- MI6 boss Sir John Scarlett still signs letters in green ink, Matthew Moore, The Daily Telegraph, 27 July 2009
- The usage inspired Ian Fleming in his James Bond novels to use the denominator M for the head of service.
- MI6 (British Secret Intelligence Service), K. Lee Lerner and Hudson Knight in Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. Accessed:2007-09-02.
- "C": The Secret Life of Sir Stewart Graham Menzies, Spymaster to Winston Churchill, Anthony Cave Brown, Collier, 1989
- Davies (2004), p. 182
- Richard B. Spence, Trust No One: The Secret World Of Sidney Reilly; 2002, Feral House, ISBN 0-922915-79-2.
- Andrew Cook, Ace of Spies: The True Story of Sidney Reilly; 2004, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2959-0.
- Robert Bruce Lockhart, Memoirs of a British Agent (reprint); 2003, Folio Society, ASIN B000E4QXIK.
- Kitchen, Martin. "Hill, George Alexander". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/67487. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Atkin, Malcolm (2015). Fighting Nazi Occupation: British Resistance 1939 – 1945. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. pp. Chapter 4. ISBN 978-1-47383-377-7.
- Jeffery 2010, p. 302
- Follett, Ken; Money, Paper (27 December 1987). "The Oldest Boy of British Intelligence". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Ralph Erskine: The Poles Reveal their Secrets – Alastair Dennistons's Account of the July 1939 Meeting at Pyry. Cryptologia. Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia PA 30.2006,4, p. 294.
- Gordon Welchman, who became head of Hut 6 at Bletchley Park, has written: "Hut 6 Ultra would never have gotten off the ground if we had not learned from the Poles, in the nick of time, the details both of the German military version of the commercial Enigma machine, and of the operating procedures that were in use." Gordon Welchman, The Hut Six Story, 1982, p. 289.
- Much of the German cipher traffic was encrypted on the Enigma machine, and the term "Ultra" has often been used almost synonymously with "Enigma decrypts". Ultra also encompassed decrypts of the German Lorenz SZ 40 and 42 machines that were used by the German High Command, and decrypts of Hagelin ciphers and other Italian ciphers and codes, as well as of Japanese ciphers and codes such as Purple and JN-25.
- "GCHQ releases Alan Turing's secret wartime papers". 20 April 2012. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Winterbotham 1974, pp. 154, 191.
- Kochanski, Halik (2014). The Eagle Unbowed: Poland and the Poles in the Second World War. Harvard University Press. pp. 234–235. ISBN 978-0674068148.
- "Affidavit of Walter Schellenburg". Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VII. USGPO, Washington, 1946/pp.622–629. Document UK-81. Washington. 1946. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- "Beaulieu". Pen & Sword Books. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Cynewulf Robbins, Ron (1990). "Great Contemporaries: Sir William Stephenson, "Intrepid"". Sir Winston Churchill. The International Churchill Society. Archived from the original on 25 June 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
Churchill launched Stephenson on his spymaster career by appointing him to head the British Security Co-ordination Service in New York before the United States had entered the Second World War.
- "The Intrepid Life of Sir William Stephenson". CIA News & Information. Central Intelligence Agency. 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- William Boyd (19 August 2006), "The Secret Persuaders", The Guardian, retrieved 30 November 2013
- "Secret Intelligence Activities at Camp X". Canada. Government of Canada. 1 May 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- Walters, Eric (2002). Camp X. Toronto: Puffin Canada. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-14-131328-3.
- "Kim Philby – new Russian god?". International News Analysis Today. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- World War II: The Underground War. Library of Congress. 2 October 2007. p. 711. ISBN 9781416553069. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Berg, Sanchia (13 December 2008). "Churchill's secret army lived on". BBC – Today. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- Davies (2004), p. 17
- "Mystery of missing frogman deepens". BBC News. 9 May 1956. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- "Licence to kill: When governments choose to assassinate". BBC. 17 March 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Shaun McCormack (2003). Inside Britain's MI6: Military Intelligence 6. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-8239-3812-4.
- "George Blake". History Learning. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- "The spy who loved us – Oleg Penkovsky". Washington Monthly. May 1992. Archived from the original on 28 February 2006. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- "What every good spy should know". The Guardian. London. 28 April 2000. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Curtis, Mark. "Training in Terrorism: Britain's Afghan Jihad". MARK CURTIS – British foreign policy declassified. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- Dorril, Stephen (2002). MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service. Simon and Schuster. p. 752. ISBN 9780743217781.
- "The Soviets: Coups and Killings in Kabul". Time. 22 November 1982. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Davies (2004), p. 354
- "Intelligence Services Act 1994" (PDF). UK Parliament. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- "Review of Intelligence on weapons of mass destruction" (PDF). London: Committee led by Lord Butler. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Corera, Gordon, MI6: Life and Death in the British Secret Service, W&N , 2012, ISBN 0753828332, 978-0753828335, p.313
- Corera, Gordon, MI6: Life and Death in the British Secret Service, W&N , 2012, ISBN 0753828332, 978-0753828335, p.313-314
- Dirty Diplomacy, 2007, Craig Murray, Scribner.
- Corera, Gordon, MI6: Life and Death in the British Secret Service, W&N , 2012, ISBN 0753828332, 978-0753828335, p.335
- Farrell, Theo, Unwinnable: Britain's War in Afghanistan, 2001–2014, Bodley Head, 2017 ISBN 1847923461, 978-1847923462, P.82
- Corera, Gordon, MI6: Life and Death in the British Secret Service, W&N , 2012, ISBN 0753828332, 978-0753828335, p.338
- Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1-4728-0790-8, p.75
- Corera, Gordon, MI6: Life and Death in the British Secret Service, W&N , 2012, ISBN 0753828332, 978-0753828335, p.339
- Rufford, Nicholas (28 December 2003). "Revealed: how SIS sold the Iraq war". The Sunday Times.
- "MI6 ran 'dubious' Iraq campaign". BBC News. 21 November 2003.
- Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin, 2012 ISBN 1250006961 ISBN 978-1250006967, pp.10–11, p.13, p.15, p.18–19, p.50-55, p.56-57, p.67-68, p.95-96, p.101, p.249
- Corera, Gordon, MI6: Life and Death in the British Secret Service, W&N , 2012, ISBN 0753828332, 978-0753828335, p.399-400
- Corera, Gordon, MI6: Life and Death in the British Secret Service, W&N , 2012, ISBN 0753828332, 978-0753828335, p.351
- Radnedge, Aidan. "MI6 thwarted attacks on Libya rebel forces by Gaddafi regime". Metro. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- "'British Taliban' arrested in Afghanistan". The Guardian. 21 July 2011.
- "British couple captured in Afghanistan 'were planning attacks in UK'". The Daily Telegraph. 21 July 2011.
- Corera, Gordon, MI6: Life and Death in the British Secret Service, W&N , 2012, ISBN 0753828332, 978-0753828335, p.351-352
- "MI6 demands more spies in Afghanistan to fight terrorism". The Daily Telegraph. 20 October 2013.
- "SAS deployed in Libya since start of year, says leaked memo". The Guardian. 25 March 2016.
- "UK special forces and MI6 involved in Yemen bombing, report reveals". The Guardian. 11 April 2016.
- "SAS in Iraq given 'kill list' of 200 British jihadis to take out". The Independent. 6 November 2016.
- "Hutton Inquiry: Day 9: John Scarlett gives evidence". NFO. Retrieved 1 July 2012.[permanent dead link]
- "MI6 spies exposed by Balkan rivals". The Telegraph. 27 September 2004.
- Johnston, Philip (16 November 2006). "MI6 licensed to thrill listeners to Radio 1". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Michael Evans (16 June 2009). "Outsider Sir John Sawers appointed new head of MI6". The Times. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- "Romanian president meet with British MI6 head in London". BBC Monitoring International Reports. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Stuart, Mark Muller, Storm in the Desert: Britain's Intervention in Libya and the Arab Spring, Birlinn Ltd, 2017, ISBN 1780274521, ISBN 978-1780274522
- Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908, p.296, p.314
- "SAS on ground during Libya crisis". BBC News. 19 January 2012.
- New evidence of UK complicity in Libya torture Channel Four News, 8 February 2013
- Alexander, Harriet (23 February 2015). "MI6 tried to recruit North Korean man to spy on nuclear programme". The Daily Telegraph.
- "Revealed: MI5 and MI6 are training senior spies from Saudi Arabia, UAE and Egypt". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- "A year with MI6". GOV.UK. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- Cafe, Rebecca (4 August 2011). "What do artists-in-residence do?". BBC News. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- "A brush with the secret world of MI6 spies". BBC News. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- Alan Judd (24 September 2000). "One in the eye for the Vauxhall Trollop". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- Norton-Taylor, Richard (31 March 2015). "Sir Mansfield Cumming, first MI6 chief, commemorated with blue plaque". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "This Luxury Hotel in London Was Once a Secret Spy Base". Smithsonian. 18 April 2017. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
- "www.lindner-schmidlin.com". Archived from the original on 8 October 2007.
- Thames House and Vauxhall Cross Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, 18 February 2000.
- "Bond is backed... by the government". The Guardian. London. 27 April 1999. Retrieved 29 December 2007.
- "Spectre". Movie locations. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "'Rocket' theory over MI6 blast". BBC. 21 September 2000. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Ian Cobain and Richard Norton-Taylor (18 April 2012). "Sins of colonialists lay concealed for decades in secret archive". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Richard Tomlinson (2001). The Big Breach: From Top Secret to Maximum Security. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-903813-01-0.
- Brian Lett (30 September 2016). "28 – Did the SOE refuse to die?". SOE's Mastermind: The Authorised Biography of Major General Sir Colin Gubbins KCMG, DSO, MC. Pen and Sword Military. pp. 256–257. ISBN 9781473863835. OCLC 953834421. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
- Marks, Leo (2007). Between Silk and Cyanide. The History Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0750948357.
- Aldrich, Richard J. (2006), The Hidden Hand: Britain, America and Cold War Secret Intelligence, London, John Murray ISBN 1-58567-274-2
- Aldrich, Richard J. and Rory Cormac (2016), The Black Door: Spies, Secret Intelligence and British Prime Ministers, London, Collins ISBN 978-0007555444
- Atkin, Malcolm (2015). Fighting Nazi Occupation: British Resistance 1939 – 1945. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-47383-377-7.
- Bethell, N., (1984) The Great Betrayal: the Untold Story of Kim Philby's Biggest Coup, London, Hodder & Stoughton ISBN 978-0340357019
- Borovik, G., (1994) The Philby Files, London, Little and Brown ISBN 978-0316102841
- Bower, Tom., (1995) The Perfect English Spy: Sir Dick White and the Secret War, 1939–90, London, Heinemann ISBN 978-0749323325
- Bristow, Desmond with Bill Bristow, (1993) A Game of Moles: the Deceptions of an MI6 Officer, London, Little, Brown ISBN 978-0316903356
- Cave Brown, A., (1987) "C": The Secret Life of Sir Stewart Graham Menzies, Spymaster to Winston Churchill, Macmillan ISBN 978-0020491316
- Cavendish, A., (1990) Inside Intelligence, HarperCollins ISBN 978-0002157421
- Corera, G., (2013) The Art of Betrayal: The Secret History of MI6, Pegasus Books ISBN 978-1453271599
- Cormac, Rory (2018) Disrupt and Deny: Spies, Special Forces and the Secret Pursuit of British Foreign Policy, Oxford University Press.
- Davies, Philip H.J. (2004). MI6 and the Machinery of Spying London: Frank Cass, ISBN 0-7146-8363-9 (h/b)
- Davies, Philip H.J. (2005) 'The Machinery of Spying Breaks Down' in Studies in Intelligence Summer 2005 Declassified Edition.
- Deacon, Richard (1985) "C": A Biography of Sir Maurice Oldfield, Macdonald ISBN 978-0356104003
- Dorril, Stephen (2001) MI6: Fifty Years of Special Operations London: Fourth Estate, ISBN 1-85702-701-9
- Hastings, Max (2015). The Secret War: Spies, Codes and Guerrillas 1939 -1945. London: William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-750374-2.
- Hayes, P., (2015) Queen of Spies: Daphne Park, Britain's Cold War Spy Master, Duckworth ISBN 978-0715650431
- Hermiston, R., (2014) The Greatest Traitor: the Secret Lives of Agent George Blake, London, Aurum ISBN 978-1781310465
- Humphreys, Rob (1999) London: The Rough Guide, Rough Guides, ISBN 1-85828-404-X
- Jeffery, Keith (2010). MI6: The History of the Secret Intelligence Service, 1909–1949. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-9183-2.
- Judd, Alan (1999) The quest for C : Sir Mansfield Cumming and the founding of the British Secret Service, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-255901-3
- Quinlan, Kevin (2014). The Secret War Between the Wars: MI5 in the 1920s and the 1930s. Bowyer. ISBN 978-1-84383-938-5.
- Read, Anthony, and David Fisher. (1984) Colonel Z: The Life and Times of a Master of Spies (London: Hodder and Stoughton 1984).
- Seeger, Kirsten Olstrup (2008) 'Friendly Fire' (DK) ISBN 978-87-7799-193-6. A biography of the author's father who was a member of the Danish resistance during the Second World War.
- Smith, Michael (2010) SIX: A History of Britain's Secret Intelligence Service Pt 1 Murder and Mayhem 1909–1939, London: Dialogue, ISBN 978-1-906447-00-7
- Smiley, Colonel David (1994). Irregular Regular. Norwich: Editions Michael Russell. ISBN 0-85955-202-0. An autobiography of a British officer, honorary colonel of the Royal Horse Guards, David de Crespigny Smiley LVO, OBE, MC, who served in the Special Operations Executive during World War II (Albania, Thailand) and was a MI6 officer after war (Poland, Malta, Oman, Yemen).
- Tomlinson, Richard; Nick Fielding (2001). The Big Breach: From Top Secret to Maximum Security. Mainstream Publishing ISBN 1-903813-01-8
- Vilasi, Colonna A. (2013) The History of MI-6, Penguin Group Publishing, UK/USA Release
- Walton, Calder (2012). Empire of Secrets. London: Harperpress. ISBN 978-0007457960
- West, Nigel. (1988) The Friends: Britain's Post-war Secret Intelligence Operations, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 978-0297794301
- West, Nigel. (2006) At Her Majesty's Secret Service: The Chiefs of Britain's Intelligence Agency, MI6, London, Greenhill ISBN 978-1853677021
- Winterbotham, F. W. (1974), The Ultra Secret, New York: Harper & Row, ISBN 978-0-06-014678-8
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Secret Intelligence Service of the United Kingdom.|