Order of St Michael and St George

The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV,[1][2] while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III.

Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George grand cross collar badge (United Kingdom 1870-1900) - Tallinn Museum of Orders.jpg
Collar and Badge of the Grand Cross
Awarded by
TypeOrder of chivalry
Established28 April 1818
MottoAuspicium Melioris Ævi
Token of a Better Age
EligibilityTypically British or Commonwealth realm citizens
Awarded forAt the monarch's pleasure, though typically awarded for extraordinary non-military service in a foreign country and for services to foreign and commonwealth affairs.
StatusCurrently constituted
FounderPrince George, Prince Regent
SovereignQueen Elizabeth II
Grand MasterPrince Edward, Duke of Kent
Grades
  • Knight/Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)
  • Knight/Dame Commander (KCMG/DCMG)
  • Companion (CMG)
Precedence
Next (higher)Order of the Star of India
Next (lower)Order of the Indian Empire
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon.svg
Ribbon bar of the Order of St Michael and St George
Star of a Knight or Dame Commander

It is named in honour of two military saints, St Michael and St George.

The Order of St Michael and St George was originally awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, and was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire.[2] It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, and can also be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs.[2]

DescriptionEdit

The Order includes three classes.

Classes of the Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George[1][2]
Grade Knight Grand Cross Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander Dame Commander Companion
Prefix Sir Dame Sir Dame
Post-nominals GCMG KCMG DCMG CMG
Insignia  
 
Coat of arms of the British monarch as sovereign of the Order of St Michael and St George

It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations. People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are regularly appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), and then after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander (KCMG). It is the traditional award for members of the FCO.

The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi (Latin for "Token of a better age"). Its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, and St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael trampling over and subduing Satan in battle.

The Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer fully a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse; no appointments have been made to it since 1936. The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has also been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947.

HistoryEdit

 
The Order's insignia often depict St Michael subduing Satan

The Prince Regent founded the Order to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted their own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817. It was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, and for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean".[3]

In 1864, however, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became part of Greece. A revision of the basis of the Order in 1868, saw membership granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, and in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, nowdays, almost all Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order, typically as Knights or Dames Grand Cross.

In 1965 the order was opened to women,[4] with Evelyn Bark becoming the first female CMG in 1967.[5]

CompositionEdit

The British Sovereign is the Sovereign of the Order and appoints all other members of the Order (by convention, on the advice of the Government). The next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was formerly filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands; now, however, Grand Masters are chosen by the Sovereign. Grand Masters include:

The Order originally included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, and 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, and 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor do foreign members appointed as "honorary members".

OfficersEdit

The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers. The Usher of the Order is known as the Gentleman or Lady Usher of the Blue Rod. Blue Rod does not, unlike the usher of the Order of the Garter, perform any duties related to the House of Lords.

Habit and insigniaEdit

 
Mantle of the Order.
 
Representation of the star of a Knight or Dame Grand Cross
 
Star and badge of a Knight or Dame Commander
 
Collar worn by a Knight or Dame Grand Cross

Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions (such as coronations), which vary by rank:

  • The mantle, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of Saxon blue satin lined with crimson silk. On the left side is a representation of the star (see below). The mantle is bound with two large tassels.
  • The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold. It consists of depictions of crowned English lions, Maltese Crosses, and the cyphers "SM" and "SG", all alternately. In the centre are two winged lions of St. Mark, each holding a bible and seven arrows—the emblem of the seven united Ionian Islands.

At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used:

  • The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders. It is worn pinned to the left breast. The Knight and Dame Grand Cross' star includes seven-armed, silver-rayed 'Maltese Asterisk' (for want of a better description—see image of badge), with a gold ray in between each pair of arms. The Knight and Dame Commander's star is a slightly smaller eight-pointed silver figure formed by two Maltese Crosses; it does not include any gold rays. In each case, the star bears a red cross of St George. In the centre of the star is a dark blue ring bearing the motto of the Order. Within the ring is a representation of St Michael trampling on Satan.
  • The badge is the only insignia used by all members of the Order; it is suspended on a blue-crimson-blue ribbon. Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear it on a riband or sash, passing from the right shoulder to the left hip. Knights Commanders and male Companions wear the badge from a ribbon around the neck; Dames Commanders and female Companions wear it from a bow on the left shoulder. The badge is a seven-armed, white-enamelled 'Maltese Asterisk' (see Maltese Cross); the obverse shows St Michael trampling on Satan, while the reverse shows St George on horseback killing a dragon, both within a dark blue ring bearing the motto of the Order. Prior to 2011, the devil was portrayed with black skin while St Michael was shown as being white; this was changed that year to show both with same skin color, although St Michael's wings were changed from being multi-color to being pure white. The alleged racism of this imagery has resulted in the government of Jamaica suspending the use of the badge entirely.[6][7][8] In June 2020, calls were made for a complete redesign of the insignia,[9] including from Sir Michael Palin of Monty Python fame, a Knight Commander of the Order[10]

On certain "collar days" designated by the Sovereign, members attending formal events may wear the Order's collar over their military uniform or morning wear. When collars are worn (either on collar days or on formal occasions such as coronations), the badge is suspended from the collar. All collars which have been awarded since 1948 must be returned to the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood. The other insignia may be retained.

ChapelEdit

 
The chapel of the Order of St Michael and St George in St Paul's Cathedral, London.

The original home of the Order was the Palace of St. Michael and St. George in Corfu, the residence of the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands and the seat of the Ionian Senate. Since 1906, the Order's chapel has been in St Paul's Cathedral in London. (The cathedral also serves as home to the chapels of The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire and the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor.) Religious services for the whole Order are held quadrennially; new Knights and Dames Grand Cross are installed at these services.

The Sovereign and the Knights and Dames Grand Cross are allotted stalls in the choir of the chapel, above which their heraldic devices are displayed. Perched on the pinnacle of a knight's stall is his helm, decorated with a mantling and topped by his crest. Under English heraldic law, women other than monarchs do not bear helms or crests; instead, the coronet appropriate to the dame's rank, if there is one, is used. Above the crest or coronet, the stall's occupant's heraldic banner is hung, emblazoned with his or her coat of arms. At a considerably smaller scale, to the back of the stall is affixed a piece of brass (a "stall plate") displaying its occupant's name, arms and date of admission into the Order. Upon the death of a Knight, the banner, helm, mantling and crest are taken down. The stall plates, however, are not removed; rather, they remain permanently affixed somewhere about the stall, so that the stalls of the chapel are festooned with a colourful record of the Order's Knights and Dames Grand Cross since 1906.

The reredos within the chapel was commissioned from Henry Poole in 1927.[11]

Precedence and privilegesEdit

Members of the Order of St Michael are assigned positions in the order of precedence in England and Wales. Wives of male members also feature on the order of precedence, as do sons, daughters and daughters-in-law of Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders; relatives of female members, however, are not assigned any special precedence. (Individuals can derive precedence from their fathers or husbands, but not from their mothers or wives. This follows the general rule of honors, that a husband never derives any style or title from his wife.)

Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders prefix "Sir", and Dames Grand Cross and Dames Commanders prefix "Dame", to their forenames. Wives of Knights may prefix "Lady" to their surnames, but husbands of Dames derive no title from their wives. Such forms are not used by peers and princes, except when the names of the former are written out in their fullest forms. Furthermore, honorary (foreign) members and clergymen do not receive the accolade and thus are not entitled to use the prefix "Sir" or "Dame". Knights and Dames Grand Cross use the post-nominal "GCMG"; Knights Commanders and Dames Commanders use "KCMG" and "DCMG" respectively; Companions use "CMG".

Knights and Dames Grand Cross are also entitled to receive heraldic supporters. They may, furthermore, encircle their arms with a depiction of the circlet (a circle bearing the motto) and the collar; the former is shown either outside or on top of the latter. Knights and Dames Commanders and Companions may display the circlet, but not the collar, surrounding their arms. The badge is depicted suspended from the collar or circlet.

Popular referencesEdit

In the satirical British television programme Yes Minister, Jim Hacker MP is told an old joke[12] by his Private Secretary Bernard Woolley about what the various post-nominals stand for. From Season 2, Episode 2 "Doing the Honours":

Woolley: In the [civil] service, CMG stands for "Call Me God". And KCMG for "Kindly Call Me God".
Hacker: What does GCMG stand for?
Woolley (deadpan): "God Calls Me God".

Both sexes use the same post-nominal initials, except that there is a distinctly female form of Knight Commander of St Michael and St George. This is Dame Commander of St. Michael and St George (DCMG). In the above joke, DCMG could be said to stand for “Do Call Me God”.

Ian Fleming's spy, James Bond, a commander in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (RNVR) was fictionally decorated with the CMG in 1953. (This is mentioned in the novels From Russia, with Love and On Her Majesty's Secret Service, and on-screen in his obituary in Skyfall.) He was offered the KCMG (which would have elevated him from Companion to Knight Commander in the Order) in The Man with the Golden Gun, but he rejected the offer as he did not wish to become a public figure. Dame Judi Dench's character "M" is "offered" early retirement and a GCMG in Skyfall after a series of events resulting in the loss of a list that named every NATO espionage operative.

Long-time Doctor Who companion Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart wore the ribbon of the order as the highest of his decorations in the series' classic era.

Current Knights and Dames Grand CrossEdit

Knights and Dames Grand CrossEdit

Number Name Post-nominals Known for Year
appointed
1   Sayyid Sir Jamshid bin Abdullah of Zanzibar GCMG Sultan of Zanzibar 1963
2   The Duke of Kent KG GCMG GCVO Royal family 1967
3   Sir Crispin Tickell GCMG KCVO British diplomat 1989
4   Sir Shridath Ramphal GCMG AC ONZ OE OM OCC QC Commonwealth Secretary-General 1990
5   Dame Catherine Tizard ONZ GCMG GCVO DBE QSO Governor-General of New Zealand 1990
6   The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn KT GCMG Governor of Hong Kong 1991
7   Sir Wiwa Korowi GCMG Governor-General of Papua New Guinea 1992
8   Sir James Carlisle GCMG Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda 1993
9   Sir Rodric Braithwaite GCMG British diplomat 1994
10   Sir Julius Chan GCL GCMG KBE Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea 1994
11   Sir Colville Young GCMG MBE Governor-General of Belize 1994
12   The Lord Hannay of Chiswick GCMG CH British diplomat 1995
13   Sir Orville Turnquest GCMG QC Governor-General of the Bahamas 1995
14   Sir Michael Hardie Boys GNZM GCMG QSO Governor-General of New Zealand 1996
15   Sir Christopher Mallaby GCMG GCVO British diplomat 1996
16   Sir Tulaga Manuella GCMG Governor-General of Tuvalu 1996
17   Sir Daniel Williams GCMG Governor-General of Grenada 1996
18   Sir John Coles GCMG British diplomat 1997
19   Sir John Lapli GCMG Governor-General of the Solomon Islands 1999
20   Dame Pearlette Louisy GCMG Governor-General of Saint Lucia 1999
21   Sir Andrew Wood GCMG British diplomat 2001
22   Sir John Goulden GCMG British diplomat 2001
23   The Lord Kerr of Kinlochard GCMG British diplomat 2001
24   Sir Tomasi Puapua GCMG KBE PC Governor-General of Tuvalu 2002
25   Sir David Wright GCMG LVO British diplomat 2002
26   Sir Jeremy Greenstock GCMG British diplomat 2003
27   Sir Rob Young GCMG British diplomat 2003
28   The Lord Robertson of Port Ellen KT GCMG PC Secretary General of NATO 2004
29   Sir Stephen Wall GCMG LVO British diplomat 2004
30   Sir Paulias Matane GCL GCMG OBE Governor-General of Papua New Guinea 2005
31   Sir Nathaniel Waena GCMG CSI KStJ Governor-General of Solomon Islands 2005
32   The Lord Jay of Ewelme GCMG British diplomat 2006
33   Sir Emyr Jones Parry GCMG British diplomat 2007
34   Sir Kenneth O. Hall GCMG OJ Governor-General of Jamaica 2007
35   Dame Louise Lake-Tack GCMG Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda 2007
36   Sir David Manning GCMG KCVO British diplomat 2008
37   Sir Carlyle Glean GCMG Governor-General of Grenada 2008
38   Sir Patrick Allen ON GCMG CD Governor-General of Jamaica 2009
39   Sir Frank Kabui GCMG OBE CSI Governor-General of Solomon Islands 2009
40   Sir Arthur Foulkes GCMG Governor-General of the Bahamas 2010
41   Sir Iakoba Italeli GCMG Governor-General of Tuvalu 2010
42   The Lord Ricketts GCMG GCVO British diplomat 2011
43   Sir Nigel Sheinwald GCMG British diplomat 2011
44   Sir Elliott Belgrave GCMG QC Governor-General of Barbados 2012
45   Dame Cécile La Grenade GCMG OBE Governor-General of Grenada 2013
46   Sir Edmund Lawrence GCMG OBE Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis 2013
47   Dame Marguerite Pindling GCMG Governor-General of the Bahamas 2014
48   Sir Rodney Williams GCMG Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda 2014
49   The Baroness Ashton of Upholland GCMG PC British diplomat 2015
50   Sir John Sawers GCMG British diplomat 2015
51   Sir Tapley Seaton GCMG CVO QC JP Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis 2015
52   Sir Simon Fraser GCMG British diplomat 2016
53   Sir Peter Westmacott GCMG LVO British diplomat 2016
54   Sir Robert Dadae GCMG Governor-General of Papua New Guinea 2017
55   Dame Sandra Mason GCMG DA QC Governor-General of Barbados 2017
56   Sir Mark Lyall Grant GCMG British diplomat & National Security Adviser 2018
57   Sir Neville Cenac GCMG Governor-General of Saint Lucia 2018
58   Sir Cornelius A. Smith GCMG Governor-General of the Bahamas 2019
59   Sir David Vunagi GCMG Governor-General of Solomon Islands 2019
60   Dame Susan Dougan GCMG OBE Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2020
61   Sir David Attenborough OM GCMG CH CVO CBE Television broadcaster and conservationist 2020
62   Sir Tim Barrow GCMG LVO MBE British diplomat 2020
63   Sir Julian King GCMG KCVO British diplomat 2020
64   The Lord McDonald of Salford GCMG KCVO British diplomat 2021

HonoraryEdit

See List of current honorary Knights and Dames of the Order of St Michael and St George.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Duckers, Peter (2009) [2004]. British Orders and Decorations. Oxford: Shire Publications. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-7478-0580-9. OCLC 55587484.
  2. ^ a b c d The Royal Household (2009). "Order of St. Michael and St. George". The Official Website of the British Monarchy. London: Crown Copyright. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  3. ^ Townsend, Francis (1828). Calendar of Knights. William Pickering. p. 206.
  4. ^ "Knights/Knighthoods genealogy project". geni_family_tree. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  5. ^ Evelyn Bark, article in The Independent
  6. ^ Desmond Allen. "GG rejects racist emblem". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  7. ^ Joseph Netto; Leah Asmelash. "Jamaica's governor-general suspends personal use of royal insignia over 'offending image'". CNN. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  8. ^ Kate Chappel (30 June 2020). "Jamaica suspends use of British royal insignia after anti-racism protests". Reuters. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  9. ^ Joseph Netto; Leah Asmelash. "Jamaica's governor-general suspends personal use of royal insignia over 'offending image'". CNN. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  10. ^ Tom Ball. "Michael Palin calls for redesign of 'offensive' knighthood medal". The Times. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  11. ^ Henry POOLE 1873–1928 (Tate Britain); retrieved 1 October 2009.
  12. ^ Cross, Colin (1968). The Fall of the British Empire. London: Book Club Associates.

External linksEdit